Physics 3 Sound & Light ppt. by Robin D. Seamon
Sound
Sound wave-   longitudinal wave made by vibrating material, carried through the medium, transferring the Energy Sound need...
LAB:  Tuning Fork p. 469
The Human Ear Outer ear :  funnel Middle ear :  hammer, anvil, stirrip (levers that increase the size of vibrations Inner ...
Sound is: 1.  Collected (by outer ear) 2.  Amplified (by middle ear:  hammer, anvil, stirrup) 3.  Converted to Electrical ...
<ul><li>Sound waves vibrate the ear drum (lightly stretched membrane in middle ear) </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration of ear dru...
LAB:  EAR DIAGRAM Directions:  1.Label the parts of the Human Ear. 2.  Put numbers to show the order in which the sound re...
The  speed  of sound depends on the  1.  medium 2.  temperature Tap on desk. AIR LIQUID SOLID Faster Slower Cool Warm
Pitch -  how high or low a sound seems Frequency -  (number of waves in a given amount of time) Frequencies Heard by Diffe...
Doppler effect :  apparent change in frequency of sound caused by motion of observer or source. Sound waves are moving for...
Loudness-   how well a sound can be heard decibel  (loudness unit) 0 dB:  softest humans can hear   120 dB:  hurts   LOUDE...
Echo strength-   depends on reflecting surface soft pads & irregular shapes diffuse sound Echolocation -  use of reflected...
Ultrasonography - use echoes to ‘see inside’ http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/healthinvestigations.asp?sid=8&title=Ultr...
Sonic boom-   explosive sound  when shock wave reaches  your ear Noise makes sound waves, pushing air out, as plane moves ...
Sound quality-   the result of the blending of several pitches through interference Noise-   any sound; random mix of freq...
TEXTBOOK:  Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
String instrument   played with vibration of string/metal Wind instrument   played with the vibration of air through tube/...
BACK  TEXTBOOK:  Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
BACK  TEXTBOOK:  Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
BACK  TEXTBOOK:  Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
SOUND LAB <ul><li>Perform each mini-test.  </li></ul><ul><li>Complete each column with each min-test </li></ul>HEADER:    ...
Light
<ul><li>Light is refracted through the  cornea </li></ul><ul><li>Light passes through  pupi l (opening) </li></ul><ul><li>...
___Iris ___Lens ___Optic nerve ___Retina ___Cornea ___Pupil LAB: EYE DIAGRAM Directions:  1.Label the parts of the Human E...
All humans have a blind spot right near the middle of their pupil. To find it, hold your arm out in front of you, but off ...
Near sightedness   person can see something clearly if it is nearby; blurry vision of things far away; eye is too long Far...
Electromagnetic wave-  wave that can travel through empty space & matter; changing of electric and magnetic fields Electri...
Electric field :   surrounds a charged object N-S Magnetic field:   surrounds all magnets; attracts objects to it Electrom...
--Light travels  about 300,000,000 m/s --8.3 min for light to travel from sun to Earth -- Visible light :  electromagnetic...
Law of reflection   incidence equals reflection Regular reflection   light beams reflected at the same angle (shinier) Dif...
We see  objects  because a light is reflecting off of it into our eyes.  (illumination) We see a  light source  even in th...
Absorption :  transfer of light waves to particles of matter  air particles absorb some of the light Energy… ray becomes d...
Refraction :  bending of light Lens:   transparent object that refracts light to form an image Convex lens   center bulges...
Transmission :   passing of light through matter 1 .  transparent   clear 2.  translucent slightly cloudy 3.  opaque  ligh...
LAB:  Translucent, Transparent, Opaque Materials: cardboard wood mottled glass * paper towel felt Styrofoam trays colored ...
Prism:   clear piece of glass or water that refracts white light into the whole color spectrum --refracts light twice, bre...
Long Short
<ul><li>LIGHT IS : </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>...
LIGHT THEORY
PIGMENT… Painting Pigment:   material that gives a substance color by absorbing some & reflecting others (chlorophyl, mela...
Color Prints
LAB:  Prisms
Reflection:   when the wave bounces back towards the source Refraction:   waves are deflected when they go through a sourc...
Diffraction:
Constructive interference   wave crests & troughs line up, making it a stronger wave   IN NATURE:   http://www.microscopyu...
Destructive interference  creates shadow or blurry edges
 
Optical Illusions
 
 
 
Optical Illusions
Optical Illusions
 
 
 
 
http:// www.colorbasics.com /Optical-Illusions/
 
 
 
 
 
LINK :  They disappear!
x
HUMAN EAR HUMAN EYE
Human Ear
 
<ul><li>Optical Illusions: </li></ul><ul><li>LINK to Optical Illusions </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.colorbasics.com/Optica...
<ul><li>HSW:  Exploring Sound (23 min)   not saved </li></ul><ul><li>HSW:  Exploring Light ( 3 min)  not saved </li></ul><...
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Physics 3 notes: light and sound mechanics including eyes, ears, longitudinal waves & electromagnetic waves, optical illusions, & color theory with video links

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Notes on Light and Sound waves including the mechanics of how we see and hear to the different pitches, frequencies, and sound quality explaining longitudinal & electromagnetic waves as they relate; optical illusions & color theory included as well as video links

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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. However, Einstein himself writes: "It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty." A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy.More information on https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM
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Physics 3 notes: light and sound mechanics including eyes, ears, longitudinal waves & electromagnetic waves, optical illusions, & color theory with video links

  1. 1. Physics 3 Sound & Light ppt. by Robin D. Seamon
  2. 2. Sound
  3. 3. Sound wave- longitudinal wave made by vibrating material, carried through the medium, transferring the Energy Sound needs a medium, no sound in a vacuum/space
  4. 4. LAB: Tuning Fork p. 469
  5. 5. The Human Ear Outer ear : funnel Middle ear : hammer, anvil, stirrip (levers that increase the size of vibrations Inner ear: vibrations to electrical signal to brain
  6. 6. Sound is: 1. Collected (by outer ear) 2. Amplified (by middle ear: hammer, anvil, stirrup) 3. Converted to Electrical signals for the brain (by inner ear)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Sound waves vibrate the ear drum (lightly stretched membrane in middle ear) </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration of ear drum vibrates hammer-anvil-stirrup </li></ul><ul><li>Oval window vibrations create waves in liquid in cochlea </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of liquid causes tiny hair cells to bend </li></ul><ul><li>Bending of hair cells stimulates nerves, sends electrical signals to brain </li></ul>HSW Sound/How we hear VIDEO (not saved) HSW New Hearing Implant VIDEO
  8. 8. LAB: EAR DIAGRAM Directions: 1.Label the parts of the Human Ear. 2. Put numbers to show the order in which the sound reaches our brains. 3. Circle the area that collects YELLOW; Circle the area that amplifies BLUE; Circle the area that converts to electrical signals GREEN. ___ Inner ear ___ Auditory nerve ___ Middle ear ___ Hammer ___ Cochlea ___ Ear drum ___ Anvil ___ Stirrup _1_ Outer ear Human Ear
  9. 9. The speed of sound depends on the 1. medium 2. temperature Tap on desk. AIR LIQUID SOLID Faster Slower Cool Warm
  10. 10. Pitch - how high or low a sound seems Frequency - (number of waves in a given amount of time) Frequencies Heard by Different Animals 45,000 hz 67- dog 20,000 hz 20- Human 12,000 hz 16- Elephant 123,000 hz 1,000- Beluga 64,000 hz 45- Cat 150,000 hz 75- porpoise 110,000 hz 2,000- bat
  11. 11. Doppler effect : apparent change in frequency of sound caused by motion of observer or source. Sound waves are moving forward/same direction of the train: Constructive interference makes it sound louder. http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/images/doppler_effect_jpg_image.html&edu=high
  12. 12. Loudness- how well a sound can be heard decibel (loudness unit) 0 dB: softest humans can hear 120 dB: hurts LOUDER oscilloscope graphs representations of sound waves to ‘see’ them on computer
  13. 13. Echo strength- depends on reflecting surface soft pads & irregular shapes diffuse sound Echolocation - use of reflected sounds to find food HSW Sound: Infrasound & Echolocation VIDEO (4 min) HSW Elephant Communication (3 min)
  14. 14. Ultrasonography - use echoes to ‘see inside’ http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/healthinvestigations.asp?sid=8&title=Ultrasound-(Ultrasound-Scanning-or-Sonography-and-Doppler) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/1058.jpg
  15. 15. Sonic boom- explosive sound when shock wave reaches your ear Noise makes sound waves, pushing air out, as plane moves forward, it meets up with the sound wave. If faster than the sound wave, plane leaves the sound wave behind, creating a sonic wave (BOOM) HSW Sonic Boom (8 min) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/08/0808_050808_soundbarrier.html
  16. 16. Sound quality- the result of the blending of several pitches through interference Noise- any sound; random mix of frequencies or pitches MUSIC Fundamental : lowest resonant frequency overtone s: higher resonance (2X) second overtone : higher resonance (3X) third overtone : higher resonance (4X)
  17. 17. TEXTBOOK: Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
  18. 18. String instrument played with vibration of string/metal Wind instrument played with the vibration of air through tube/hole Percussion instrument played by pounding rhythm; impact ADVANCE
  19. 19. BACK TEXTBOOK: Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
  20. 20. BACK TEXTBOOK: Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
  21. 21. BACK TEXTBOOK: Holt Science & Technology Grade 6
  22. 22. SOUND LAB <ul><li>Perform each mini-test. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete each column with each min-test </li></ul>HEADER:         hold a balloon against a speaker as music is played         say &quot;hello&quot; to a friend across the room         hold a tuning fork under water         ring a bell under water         tap the desk with a ruler while partner listens         knock on the chalkboard while partner listens Type of Material Observations Feel? Hear? Mini Diagram Did You Hear a Sound? Mini Test
  23. 23. Light
  24. 24. <ul><li>Light is refracted through the cornea </li></ul><ul><li>Light passes through pupi l (opening) </li></ul><ul><li>Iris controls size of pupil (colored part) </li></ul><ul><li>Light goes through lens , refracts light to focus an image on back of eye </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors in retina (back of eye) pick up light with rods & cones </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves attached to rods & cones send info to brain </li></ul>Rods : sense dim light Cones : sense bright light HUMAN EYE
  25. 25. ___Iris ___Lens ___Optic nerve ___Retina ___Cornea ___Pupil LAB: EYE DIAGRAM Directions: 1.Label the parts of the Human EYE. 2. Put numbers to show the order in which the image reaches our brains.
  26. 26. All humans have a blind spot right near the middle of their pupil. To find it, hold your arm out in front of you, but off to the side, with your index finger extended. Cover one of your eyes, stare straight ahead with the other and slowly bring your extended finger closer to the middle of your field of vision. As your finger approaches you should see your fingertip disappear when it reaches the blind spot. Mind = blown.
  27. 27. Near sightedness person can see something clearly if it is nearby; blurry vision of things far away; eye is too long Far sightedness person can see something clearly far away; blurry vision of things up close; eye is too short
  28. 28. Electromagnetic wave- wave that can travel through empty space & matter; changing of electric and magnetic fields Electric field Magnetic field http://www.isvr.soton.ac.uk/spcg/Tutorial/Tutorial/Tutorial_files/light1.gif KEY:
  29. 29. Electric field : surrounds a charged object N-S Magnetic field: surrounds all magnets; attracts objects to it Electromagnetic wave- vibration of electrically charged particle; makes electric field vibrate, making a vibrating magnetic field Radiation: transfer of Energy as electromagnetic waves Radiation LINK HSW VIDEO (2 min)
  30. 30. --Light travels about 300,000,000 m/s --8.3 min for light to travel from sun to Earth -- Visible light : electromagnetic waves that humans can see Light wavelength: 100 X thinner than the human hair!
  31. 31. Law of reflection incidence equals reflection Regular reflection light beams reflected at the same angle (shinier) Diffuse reflection light beams reflect at different angles (duller) http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/reflectionlaw/page.html
  32. 32. We see objects because a light is reflecting off of it into our eyes. (illumination) We see a light source even in the dark because it goes directly into your eyes. Room with a lamp on Room with a lamp off
  33. 33. Absorption : transfer of light waves to particles of matter air particles absorb some of the light Energy… ray becomes dimmer farther out Scattering : an interaction of light with matter that causes light to change its Energy, direction of motion, or both
  34. 34. Refraction : bending of light Lens: transparent object that refracts light to form an image Convex lens center bulges out Concave lens center buckles in
  35. 35. Transmission : passing of light through matter 1 . transparent clear 2. translucent slightly cloudy 3. opaque light cannot pass through
  36. 36. LAB: Translucent, Transparent, Opaque Materials: cardboard wood mottled glass * paper towel felt Styrofoam trays colored plastic lids tin foil &quot;almost&quot; clear plastic lids plastic wrap clear glass * &quot;bubble&quot; packing material laminating material tissue paper waxed paper clear plastic lids construction paper cloth DEFINE: Translucent __________________________________ _____________________________________________ Transparent __________________________________ _____________________________________________ Opaque _____________________________________ _____________________________________________ Header:           Opaque Transparent Translucent
  37. 37. Prism: clear piece of glass or water that refracts white light into the whole color spectrum --refracts light twice, breaking up the spectrum HSW Video: Prisms (1:45) HSW Video: A look at Light (1:45) ROY G BIV
  38. 38. Long Short
  39. 39. <ul><li>LIGHT IS : </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>COLOR: the color we see is determined by which wavelength is bounced back to our eye </li></ul><ul><li>Black- all colors are absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>White - all colors are reflected to you </li></ul>
  40. 40. LIGHT THEORY
  41. 41. PIGMENT… Painting Pigment: material that gives a substance color by absorbing some & reflecting others (chlorophyl, melanin, paint)
  42. 42. Color Prints
  43. 43. LAB: Prisms
  44. 44. Reflection: when the wave bounces back towards the source Refraction: waves are deflected when they go through a source & are usually bent Diffraction: when a wave goes through a small hole and has a flared out geometric shadow of the slit or seems to bend around an object; makes shadow blurry
  45. 45. Diffraction:
  46. 46. Constructive interference wave crests & troughs line up, making it a stronger wave IN NATURE: http://www.microscopyu.com/articles/polarized/interferenceintro.html www.sgmt.at/refere/Hologram.htm
  47. 47. Destructive interference creates shadow or blurry edges
  48. 49. Optical Illusions
  49. 53. Optical Illusions
  50. 54. Optical Illusions
  51. 59. http:// www.colorbasics.com /Optical-Illusions/
  52. 65. LINK : They disappear!
  53. 66. x
  54. 67. HUMAN EAR HUMAN EYE
  55. 68. Human Ear
  56. 70. <ul><li>Optical Illusions: </li></ul><ul><li>LINK to Optical Illusions </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.colorbasics.com/Optical-Illusions/ </li></ul><ul><li>Color Blindness Test LINK </li></ul>
  57. 71. <ul><li>HSW: Exploring Sound (23 min) not saved </li></ul><ul><li>HSW: Exploring Light ( 3 min) not saved </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Science: Light ( 20 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Science: Sound ( 20 min) </li></ul><ul><li>HSW How Vision Works Car Chase (4 min) not saved </li></ul><ul><li>HSW </li></ul>

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