ppt. by Robin D. Seamon GEOLOGY 3
Organic-  related to living organisms; has Carbon Inorganic-  related to nonliving things Mineral -   naturally formed, in...
BACK
http://mythwiki.pbworks.com/w/page/22002997/Periodic-Table
BACK INTERACTIVE Periodic TABLE
BACK
Lattice Structures: LINK BACK http://www.tuspirits.com/Minerals-and-Gems-Arkansas-Quartz/c1_16/index.html www.paxcam.com/i...
2 Kinds of Minerals: Silicate minerals:  have a  combination of silicon &  oxygen; 90% of Earth’s  crust; crystallize from...
 
http://www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/gs118/minerals.html
Directions:  Use the periodic table to write in the missing elements.  Read the story! An Elemental Tale: The Gold Dust Ki...
BACK
<ul><li>Identifying Minerals: </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster : the way a surface reflects light </li></u...
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/grocha/mineral/images/cleavage.jpg Quartz Fracture BACK
BACK http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/fichter/Minerals/luster.html
BACK geology.csupomona.edu/alert/mineral/streak.htm   : www.championjewelery.us/
Mohs Hardness scale
Other Properties: Magnetism:  magnetite & pyrrhotite attract iron Fluorescence : calcite & flourite glow under UV light Ta...
Chemical reaction : calcite will become bubbly (fizz) when a drop of weak acid is on it (basalt, limestone, marble sandsto...
<ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Fill jar 3/4 full of HOT water. </li></ul><ul><li>Stir Borax into jar with the spoon....
<ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Fill both jars half full of warm water. </li></ul><ul><li>Stir Epson Salts into both ...
CHEMISTRY LAB: Rock/Mineral Identification Materials : rock specimens, streak tile, paperclip, penny, magnifying glass, vi...
HEADER: Mineral Identification LAB Mineral:_________________  picture: Color Luster Hardness   paperclip?  Penny?  Fingern...
HSW VIDEO: Basics of Geology:  Classifying Minerals  (3 min) HSW VIDEO:  Earth Science/Rocks & Minerals  (17 min)
ROCKS: Mineral Mixtures ROCKS-  a natural solid that has more than one mineral & organic matter Composition : what it’s ma...
1 .  Igneous Rocks  rocks that form from  melted rock HEAT a. granite b. gabbro c. obsidian d. basalt
2.  Sedimentary Rocks  rocks that form  from layers of sediment that harden TIME + PRESSURE + SEDIMENT a. clay > shale b. ...
3.  Metamorphic Rocks  rocks that change  from  one kind to another TIME + HEAT + PRESSURE + ROCK a. coal > diamond b. lim...
  d. shale > slate   e. sandstone > quartzite   f. slate > schist 4.  COAL & Natural Gas
COAL & OIL FORMATION
 
Others: Flint & iron = fire www.turnstone.ca/flintch.htm  http://i.ehow.com/images/a07/2g/9s/chip-flint-200X200.jpg
<ul><li>ROCK CYCLE : </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion & sediment   Grains of sand & sediment are eroded from hills & mtns & wash ...
ROCK CYCLE www.geolsoc.org.uk/rockcycle
Textbook: Holt Science & Technology 6 th  Grade ROCK CYCLE
<ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Mix sand, gravel, clay, & soil in a bowl.  Fill into soda bottle. </li></ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD SCIENCE:  Locate a specimen of granite in the school yard.  Mark where the spec...
Rock stacking!  LINK http://www.teamsandtastic.com/RockStacking/ Rock stacking picture slide 1 source: http://www.teamsand...
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Geology 3: Notes on mineral composition, structure of crystals, and identification including basic chemistry, and LABS with video links

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Notes on mineral composition, structure of crystals, and identification including basic chemistry, and LABS with video links

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Geology 3: Notes on mineral composition, structure of crystals, and identification including basic chemistry, and LABS with video links

  1. 1. ppt. by Robin D. Seamon GEOLOGY 3
  2. 2. Organic- related to living organisms; has Carbon Inorganic- related to nonliving things Mineral - naturally formed, inorganic solid with a crystalline structure Element - pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances: 92 Compound - a substance made of two or more elements that are chemically joined (NaCl, H2O, CO2) Crystals - solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by repeating patterns of atoms SOME CHEMISTRY DEFINITIONS: ADVANCE
  3. 3. BACK
  4. 4. http://mythwiki.pbworks.com/w/page/22002997/Periodic-Table
  5. 5. BACK INTERACTIVE Periodic TABLE
  6. 6. BACK
  7. 7. Lattice Structures: LINK BACK http://www.tuspirits.com/Minerals-and-Gems-Arkansas-Quartz/c1_16/index.html www.paxcam.com/images/Crystals_75.htm fatman.cchem.berkeley.edu/xray / www.crystalinks.com/mexicocrystals.html http://images.dailytech.com/nimage/10410_iron_pyrite.png
  8. 8. 2 Kinds of Minerals: Silicate minerals: have a combination of silicon & oxygen; 90% of Earth’s crust; crystallize from molten magma Nonsilicate minerals: do not contain silicon & oxygen; instead have carbon, oxygen, flourine, sulfur, etc. http://belmont.sd62.bc.ca/teacher/geology12/mineral_id_quiz.htm http://belmont.sd62.bc.ca/teacher/geology12/mineral_id_quiz.htm
  9. 10. http://www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/gs118/minerals.html
  10. 11. Directions: Use the periodic table to write in the missing elements. Read the story! An Elemental Tale: The Gold Dust Kid The Kid mounted his trusty steed, old [B] ___________. His shooting [Fe] ____________ strapped to his side, he headed out for the bright [Ne] ____________ lights of Toronto, aiming to rob the mid-day stage. There was sure to be a load of precious [U] ______________ aboard, and probably [K] ____________, too. Inhaling a deep breath of [O] __________ he coughed on the [S] ____________ from the nearby mills.  Since the [Hg] ______________ was climbing, he quenched his thirst with some H2O, tasting the [Cl] ____________ all big cities like Brockville had.  As he headed north his bones ached from [Ca] _____________deposits built up over the years of riding the [Zn] ____________ trail. Overhead a [He] __________-filled balloon floated in the breeze; the sun beat down like burning [P] ____________. Soon he spotted the stage, guarded only by a sheriff with a [Sn] ____________ badge.  &quot;Halt,&quot; he yelled. &quot;or I'll fill you full of [Pb] ____________.&quot; The sheriff drew his gun, but alas, was too slow. The Kid's gun, blazing like flaming  [Mg] ______________ did the [Cu] ____________ in. Anyone who drew on the Kid should know his life wasn't worth a plugged [Ni] ______________. A [Pt] ____________  blonde riding beside the [Al] ___________-framed coach rode for her life when the Kid pulled out some [N] ____________ compounds, preparing to blow the safe to atoms. Suddenly, a shout rang out, &quot;Hi Ho [Ag] ___________ and a masked man on a white horse raced across the [Si] ____________ sands like [Na] ______________ skittering on H2O.  A [H] ___________ bomb would not have stopped the lawman; the Kid had met his doom. The rest of his life was to be spent behind [Co] ___________ steel bars, a warning to all who flirt with danger. Your first detention may be the initial step in a [C] ____________ copy life of the saga of the [Au] ____________ dust Kid.  Author unknown Listen to The Elements SONG Periodic Table LAB FRONT Header:
  11. 12. BACK
  12. 13. <ul><li>Identifying Minerals: </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster : the way a surface reflects light </li></ul><ul><li>Streak : the color of a mineral in powdered form (how it rubs against a streak plate) </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage - the tendency of some minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces / Fracture - tendency of a mineral to break unevenly </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness : how easy/hard it is to scratch; on Mohs scale 1=soft to 10=hard </li></ul><ul><li>Density : how much matter in a given space (cm 3) </li></ul>ADVANCE Mohs hardness Lab LINK
  13. 14. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/grocha/mineral/images/cleavage.jpg Quartz Fracture BACK
  14. 15. BACK http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/fichter/Minerals/luster.html
  15. 16. BACK geology.csupomona.edu/alert/mineral/streak.htm : www.championjewelery.us/
  16. 17. Mohs Hardness scale
  17. 18. Other Properties: Magnetism: magnetite & pyrrhotite attract iron Fluorescence : calcite & flourite glow under UV light Taste : halite is salty-tasting http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fluorescent_minerals_hg.jpg http://www.msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/rc/minerals/2/rcm2_5a.html http://www.mchenry.edu/depts/EAS/courses/eas170/minerals/pages/Magnetite.htm http://euromin.w3sites.net/mineraux/images/15864.jpg
  18. 19. Chemical reaction : calcite will become bubbly (fizz) when a drop of weak acid is on it (basalt, limestone, marble sandstone) Optical properties : a thin, clear piece of calcite placed over an image will make a double image Radioactivity : minerals containing radium or uranium
  19. 20. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Fill jar 3/4 full of HOT water. </li></ul><ul><li>Stir Borax into jar with the spoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut & bend pipe cleaners into the shape of a snowflake (above). </li></ul><ul><li>Tie one end of the string to the stick, the other end to the snowflake. </li></ul><ul><li>Hang the snowflake into the Borax water with the stick laying across the top of the jar. </li></ul>LINK VOCABULARY: crystal saturation 6. Wait overnight. Draw & label the crystal as it grows. CHEMISTRY LAB: Crystals Lab 1 Materials : Borax, glass jar, string, pipe cleaner pieces, water, spoon, stick GOAL: How to demonstrate & observe the growth of borax crystals.
  20. 21. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Fill both jars half full of warm water. </li></ul><ul><li>Stir Epson Salts into both jars with the spoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tie a washer to both ends of the string. </li></ul><ul><li>Set jars of water 12 inches apart. Drape the string, washer down into both jars of water. </li></ul>LINK VOCABULARY: Crystal Stalagmite Stalactite 5. Draw & label stalagmite & stalactite. CHEMISTRY LAB: Crystals Lab 2 Materials : Epson Salts, two glass jars, string, 2 metal washers, water, spoon GOAL: How to demonstrate & observe the growth of a stalagmite & stalactite.
  21. 22. CHEMISTRY LAB: Rock/Mineral Identification Materials : rock specimens, streak tile, paperclip, penny, magnifying glass, vinegar, dropper GOAL: How to identify rocks/minerals. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Place rock specimens on sheet of mat paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform the following tests for each rock, writing observations & drawing detailed picture of minerals on your lab sheet table: </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage </li></ul>What is the break pattern of the rock? Does it cleave or fracture? Use the dropper to put a few drops of vinegar on the rock. Does it fizz? Scratch the rock on the streak tile. Describe the color of the streak. Use the paperclip, penny, & your fingernail to scratch the surface of the rock. Does it scratch easily or is it difficult? Use Mohs hardness scale. How does it reflect light? (Metallic, nonmetallic, shiny, glassy, earthy) Describe the color. Be specific Description Property
  22. 23. HEADER: Mineral Identification LAB Mineral:_________________ picture: Color Luster Hardness paperclip? Penny? Fingernail? Streak Chemical reaction Cleavage Description Property Mineral:_________________ picture: Color Luster Hardness paperclip? Penny? Fingernail? Streak Chemical reaction Cleavage Description Property Mineral:_________________ picture: Color Luster Hardness paperclip? Penny? Fingernail? Streak Chemical reaction Cleavage Description Property Mineral:_________________ picture: Color Luster Hardness paperclip? Penny? Fingernail? Streak Chemical reaction Cleavage Description Property
  23. 24. HSW VIDEO: Basics of Geology: Classifying Minerals (3 min) HSW VIDEO: Earth Science/Rocks & Minerals (17 min)
  24. 25. ROCKS: Mineral Mixtures ROCKS- a natural solid that has more than one mineral & organic matter Composition : what it’s made of Texture: how it feels, depends on the size, shape & position of the grains in the rock
  25. 26. 1 . Igneous Rocks rocks that form from melted rock HEAT a. granite b. gabbro c. obsidian d. basalt
  26. 27. 2. Sedimentary Rocks rocks that form from layers of sediment that harden TIME + PRESSURE + SEDIMENT a. clay > shale b. sand > sandstone c. gravel > conglomerate Stratification : layering of the sedimentary rock
  27. 28. 3. Metamorphic Rocks rocks that change from one kind to another TIME + HEAT + PRESSURE + ROCK a. coal > diamond b. limestone > marble c. granite > gneiss
  28. 29. d. shale > slate e. sandstone > quartzite f. slate > schist 4. COAL & Natural Gas
  29. 30. COAL & OIL FORMATION
  30. 32. Others: Flint & iron = fire www.turnstone.ca/flintch.htm http://i.ehow.com/images/a07/2g/9s/chip-flint-200X200.jpg
  31. 33. <ul><li>ROCK CYCLE : </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion & sediment Grains of sand & sediment are eroded from hills & mtns & wash down a river to the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition of sediment Over time sediment forms thick layers on ocean floor. Layers become compacted & cemented together to form sedimentary rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Compaction & cementation (sedimentary rocks) Layers become compacted & cemented together to form sedimentary rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphism (metamorphic rocks) Large pieces of crust collide forcing some rock downward. At great depths, heat & pressure squeeze the sedimentary rock to change it into metamorphic rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Melting The hot liquid magma melts the rock </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling The magma is less dense so it rises. Rising cools it. </li></ul><ul><li>Solidification (Igneous rocks) Cooling rock becomes igneous rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Uplift Uplift & erosion expose igneous rock at Earth’s surface. Rock then weathers into sand & clay. The sediment is eroded & deposited elsewhere </li></ul>
  32. 34. ROCK CYCLE www.geolsoc.org.uk/rockcycle
  33. 35. Textbook: Holt Science & Technology 6 th Grade ROCK CYCLE
  34. 36. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Mix sand, gravel, clay, & soil in a bowl. Fill into soda bottle. </li></ul><ul><li>Pour water into the bottle 2/3 full. Shake vigorously to mix sediment. </li></ul><ul><li>Place bottle on tabletop. Cut off top of bottle to allow evaporation. Draw/describe what you see. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to sit overnight. </li></ul>VOCABULARY: Sediment stratification 5. After sediment has dried & hardened, cut away a piece of the bottle. Draw/describe sediment layers. Answer questions page 87. ROCK LAB: Sedimentary Rocks Materials :clay, soil, gravel, sand, mixing bowl, soda bottle with cap, water GOAL: How to demonstrate & observe sedimentary process.
  35. 37. <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD SCIENCE: Locate a specimen of granite in the school yard. Mark where the specimen was obtained in your lab notes. Try not to use granite from the driveways. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the piece of granite on the observation mat. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the minerals that compose granite. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill out the granite worksheet completely. </li></ul>LAB LINK ROCK LAB 2 Igneous Rock: GRANITE LAB Materials : granite specimens GOAL: How to identify the minerals in granite.
  36. 38. Rock stacking! LINK http://www.teamsandtastic.com/RockStacking/ Rock stacking picture slide 1 source: http://www.teamsandtastic.com/RockStacking/ ROCK PICTURES SOURCE: http://www.cerritos.edu/esci/tutor/On-Line_lecture_notes/Volcanoes/Unit_11_Lecture_Magma.htm http://Geology.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shale_8040.jpg itech.dickinson.edu /chemistry/?cat=99 http://www.sierraeye.net/tag/diamonds.html http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/images/slate.jpg http://www.beg.utexas.edu/mainweb/publications/graphics/schist.htm

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