Black Saga - Quiz Show Balto. County (09/10)


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  • 1: #1 – 702: #71 – 1403: #141 – 2104: #211 – 2805: #281 - end
  • 09-10
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  • Black Saga - Quiz Show Balto. County (09/10)

    1. 1. Question and Answer Black Saga
    2. 2. Words of Wisdom In his response to no mention of African enslavement in the Phillis Wheatley Declaration of Independence, who wrote: "I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever"? Maya Angelou "No more American in mournful strain/Of wrongs, and grievance unredress‟d complain,/No longer shall thou dread the iron chain,/Which wanton Tyranny with lawless John Adams hand/Has made, and which it meant t‟enslave the land" Many poems written by this poet described the continent of Africa and slavery. This 18th-century British religious leader founded Thomas Jefferson the Methodist church. In 1774, he published a book called Thoughts Upon Slavery, … “Here are several mistakes. For 1. Wealth is not necessary to the Glory of any Nation; but Wisdom, Virtue, Justice, Mercy, Generosity, Public Spirit ... the tears, and sweat, and blood of our fellow- John Wesley creatures.”
    3. 3. "There is nothing which contributes King George more to the development of the colonies and the cultivation of their soil than the laborious toil of the Negroes." Benjamin Rush A Quaker minister became a major abolitionist before the American Revolution with his publication, Some Consideration on the Keeping of Negroes…. The author noted, "Where slavekeeping prevails, pure religion and sobriety King Louis XIV of France declines, as it evidently tends to harden the heart and render the soul less susceptible of that holy spirit of life..." A distinguished Philadelphia physician and John Woolman chemistry professor published An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, Upon Slavekeeping. He charged that any "vices which are charged upon the Negroes in the southern colonies and West Indies. . .are the genuine offspring of slavery." Thomas Jefferson
    4. 4. By a ruling in this case, the Massachusetts Supreme Court abolished slavery in 1783…the court‟s Commonwealth vs. Jennison opinion stated "the idea of slavery is inconsistent with our own conduct and Constitution, and there can be no such thing as perpetual servitude of a rational creature, unless his liberty is forfeited…” Name the case Marquis de Lafayette In 1786, in a letter to John Adams, what hero of the American Revolution said, "I would never have drawn my sword in this cause of America, could Dred Scott vs. Sanford I have conceived that thereby I was founding a land of Slavery." At the Constitutional Convention in George Mason Philadelphia in 1787, in response to the adoption of Article 10, Section 9, which extended the slave trade for twenty years, this person argued, “As much as I value a union of all the States, I would not admit the Southern States into the Union, unless they agree to the discontinuance of this disgraceful trade, because William Lloyd Garrison it brings weakness, and not strength, to the Union.”
    5. 5. “I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a saluation in my Mary Prince nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that with the loathsomeness of the stench and crying together, I became so sick and low … I now wished for the last friend, death, to relieve me. . .” Olaudah Equiano “All slaves want to be free--to be free is very sweet... I have been a slave myself - I know what slaves feel... The man that says slaves be quite happy about slavery - The North Star that they don‟t want to be free - that man is either ignorant or a lying person...” "I am earnest--I will not The Liberator Ed: William Lloyd Garrison equivocate--I will not excuse--I will not retreat an inch--AND I WILL BE HEARD.“ Name the Newspaper. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper
    6. 6. Name the abolitionist who said, "Men do not go into slavery naturally--they don‟t go Sojourner Truth into slavery at the bidding of their fellowmen--they don‟t bow down their necks to the yoke merely by being entreated to do so...NO! Something else is necessary...” Frederick Douglass "Right is of no Sex--Truth is of no Color--God is the Father of us Ida B. Wells-Barnett all, and we are all Brethren." Name the newspaper. "Look at me! Look at my arms!" and Freedom’s Journal she held up her muscular right arm. "I could work as much and eat as much as a man--when I could get it-- and bear the lash as well! And ain‟t I The North Star a woman?"
    7. 7. "The sale began--young girls were there, Defenseless in their wretchedness, Roger Taney Whole stifled sobs of deep despair Revealed their anguish and distress…” Who wrote these words in The Slave Auction? Phillis Wheatley In the famous Dred Scott v. Sanford case, … "slaveholders had the right to 10th Amendment of the United take human merchandise to any part of the union, and that this Black man had States Constitution no right to even bring suit." "Neither slavery nor involuntary Francis Ellen Watkins Harper servitude, except as a punishment for crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject 13th Amendment of the United to their jurisdiction.” States Constitution
    8. 8. "In every state many thousands [ex- slaves] were found without employment, Oliver O. Howard without homes, without means of subsistence, crowding into towns and about military posts, where they hoped to find protection and supplies. …” George Moses Horton "This place is nothing but a strife, Distressing all the peace of life, We nothing have to show; Let others scorn me or degrade John Mercer Langston I’ll take my hatchet and my spade Come, all, and let us go!" Frederick Douglass "If there is no struggle there is no progress ... This struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, and it may be both moral and physical, but it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without demand. It never did and it never will." Booker T. Washington
    9. 9. “The American people and the Government 14th Amendment Amendment of at Washington may refuse to recognize it the United States Constitution for a time, but the „inexorable logic of events‟ will force it upon them in the end; that the war now being waged in this land is a war for and against slavery…” Frederick Douglass "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, ... are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. 13th Amendment of the United No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or States Constitution immunities of citizens of the United States; …" “Why, sir, though we are not white, we have Henry McNeal Turner accomplished much. We have pioneered civilization here; we have built up your country; we have worked in your fields, … And what do we ask of you in return? ... We are willing to let the dead past bury its dead; John Mercer Langston but we ask you now for our RIGHTS…”
    10. 10. “All over the South and among the coloured people of the North, workmen in Henry McNeal Turner gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, brick, mortar, and the arts, are found doing skillfully and at usual wages the most difficult tasks... perhaps the most accomplished gunsmith among the Americans is a black man, an ex-slave... P.B.S. Pinchback “This is not time to fight only with your white hand, and allow your black hand to remain tied; Men in earnest don‟t fight with one hand, when they might fight with two, John Mercer Langston and a man drowning would not refuse to be saved even by a colored man.” “… we have rights as well as privileges Frederick Douglas to maintain and we must assert our manhood in their vindication... With this force as a political element, as laborers, producers and consumers, we are an Booker T. Washington element of strength and wealth…
    11. 11. "We wear the mask /that grins and lies It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes. Paul Lawrence Dunbar This debt we pay / to human guile with torn and bleeding hearts, / we smile, and mouths with myriad subtleties." Booker T. Washington "The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremist folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all privileges that will come to John Mercer Langston us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing." "The difference between us is very Frederick Douglas marked. Most that I have done and Said to Harriet Tubman suffered in the service of our cause has been in public, … You, on the other hand, have labored in a private way. I have Henry McNeal Turner wrought in the day--you in the night. ... "
    12. 12. "I can‟t offer you money, position or fame. The first two you have; the last, from the place Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. you now occupy, you will not doubt achieve. These things I now ask you to give up, I offer you in their place work-- hard, hard work--the task of bringing a people from degradation, poverty, and waste to full manhood." Booker T. Washington Said to George Washington Carver "Industrial education for the Negro is Booker T. Washington‟s hobby. The Negro knows that now, as then, the Frederick Douglas South is strongly opposed to his learning anything else but how to work." George Moses Horton “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flame of withering injustice...." Ida B. Wells-Barnett
    13. 13. What is the word used to describe the "great scattering" of African people from their communities in Africa to other parts of the world?  #1
    14. 14. The continent of Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Indian Ocean & Red Sea to the east. A narrow strip of land in its northeast corner connects it to the Arabian Peninsula & beyond that to Asia & Europe. How does Africa rank in relation to other Continents in size? First Second Third Fourth  #2
    15. 15. There is evidence that Africans came to the Americas as early as the 8th century. Sculptures reflecting African influence are found in several towns in Mexico. Name the civilization or culture in Mexico that reflects African influence.  #3
    16. 16. In West Africa three great empires emerged between A.D. 500 and 1600. Each had a powerful army and controlled great wealth. Name these powerful African empires.  #4
    17. 17. Name the religion practiced by most residents of Songhai during the period between A.D. 500 and 1600.  #5
    18. 18. What major river valley contributed to the growth of three ancient African empires – Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?  #6
    19. 19. What great city in Songhai had a population of more than 100,000 residents and grew as a business, religious, and intellectual center?  #7
    20. 20. In 1502, what was country was the first to bring a cargo of enslaved Africans into the Western Hemisphere? England Italy Mexico Portugal Spain  #8
    21. 21. Estevanico, a famous black explorer and guide, explored territory that became these two states. Name them.  #9
    22. 22. The history of African Americans, in what was to become the United States, began when a Dutch Ship anchored off of what settlement in 1619? Captain Jope is believed to have exchanged his cargo of Africans for food. How many Africans were exchanged?  #10
    23. 23. In 1634, farmers in the Chesapeake Bay region imported white and black indentured servants and later, enslaved Africans to profitably grow this crop. Name this crop. Indigo Cotton Tobacco  #11
    24. 24. In 1638, the first enslaved Africa ns arrived in New England along with a cargo of salt, cotton, and tobacco, aboard a ship called what?  #12
    25. 25. In 1641, what colony became the first to recognize slavery as a legal institution? North Carolina Massachusetts New Netherlands Maryland Virginia  #13
    26. 26. In 1642, Virginia passed a law to stop people from helping runaway enslaved Africans. Individuals could be fined for each night he or she sheltered a runaway. What fine was imposed?  #14
    27. 27. In 1644, eleven blacks who were among the founders of this settlement in the Hudson River valley, asked for their freedom because they had served their years of servitude. This probably was the first organized protest by blacks in America. Each received land in what is now Greenwich Village in New York City. In what colony did these events occur?  #15
    28. 28. Enslaved Africans delivered to the West Indies were likely to work on a plantation that grew what? Sugar Tobacco Rice Cotton  #16
    29. 29. During the early years of the slave trade, most slaves who survived the voyage from Africa to the West Indies were trained there to work and obey masters. This process could last 3-4 years. It ended when the southern colonies needed so many workers that planters imported enslaved Africans directly. What was the training period called?  #17
    30. 30. In what year did Maryland pass a law that recognized slavery as legal? 1674 1668 1664 1660  #18
    31. 31. To maintain a slave trading monopoly and a constant supply of enslaved African labor, the British government gave a charter to what company?  #19
    32. 32. On February 18, 1688, what group adopted the first formal anti-slavery resolution in American history? What did the call slavery?  #20
    33. 33. One of the earliest "triangular trade routes" brought enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies. What product was frequently shipped from the West Indies to the North American mainland?  #21
    34. 34. In the 1700s, plantation owners believed slaves were necessary to produce successfully many different crops. Which crops were most dependent on enslaved African labor?  #22
    35. 35. In the 1700s, this city in England was called ―Queen of English slave trading‖ because it supplied almost half of the ships used in the Atlantic slave trade. Name the city.  #23
    36. 36. What is the name of the two month-journey for enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies? During this journey, they were brutally treated.  #24
    37. 37. In the 1700s, rice agriculture in the colonies was found in the ―low country‖ where enslaved Africans were heavily concentrated. Rice accounted for 60 percent of all exports of this region. Just before the American Revolution, two colonies exported more than 69 million pounds of rice each year. Name the colonies.  #25
    38. 38. In the 1700s, another important crop grown in South Carolina was used as a blue dye for cloth. This crop grew best on high ground and required about 25 slaves for a 50-acre plot. Fifty pounds per acre was considered a good crop, with 70 pounds per acre possible in better soils. Name this crop.  #26
    39. 39. In the period from 1680 to 1750, about how many enslaved Africans coming directly from Africa to the American mainland were carried on each English ship? About 75 About 200 About 500  #27
    40. 40. Although only a few black people lived in New England in 1700, this large city became important for slave trading. Ships with food and other products sailed to the West Indies where the goods were traded for rum. The rum then was transported to Africa to buy enslaved Africans who were brought back to the West Indies. The ships then returned home with sugar and molasses. Name the city that was called the ―hub of America slave trading.‖  #28
    41. 41. Early schools for African Americans were founded and staffed by white abolitionists. In 1704 the first school for enslaved Africans in British North America was founded by a white abolitionist in New York at Trinity Church. Name him.  #29
    42. 42. This important port city was founded by the French in 1718 and later was transferred to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. By 1820, blacks (both free and enslaved) were about half of its population, and its exports were the second largest in the country. In the late 1830s and early 1840s, the city's exports were greater than those of New York. What was this important city and what was the major product exported through its port?  #30
    43. 43. In 1720, molasses from the West Indies was transported to colonial ports where it was made into rum and shipped to Africa in exchange for enslaved Africans. What city in Rhode Island had more than 22 factories making rum to be shipped to Africa?  #31
    44. 44. This colony was established as a barrier between the British in the Carolinas and the Spanish in Florida. This colony’s proprietors initially believed slavery was unsound & unprofitable, and they restricted the importation of enslaved Africans. Name it.  #32
    45. 45. Benjamin Banneker was known as a scientist, astronomer, and surveyor, but he, too, was an inventor. What was his major invention that was probably the first of its kind to be built in the United States?  #33
    46. 46. In 1773, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, a black man from Haiti, was the first merchant and the first settler in this area. He set up permanent residence and a fur trading business along a river near Lake Michigan. Name the city founded at this site. Chicago, Illinois Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lansing, Michigan Boston, Massachusetts  #34
    47. 47. This black woman from Senegal was sold to a tailor in Boston, Massachusetts. She learned to read and write, and before she was 20 years old, she had achieved some fame as a poet. She gained her freedom in 1772, made a trip to London to read her poems, and in 1773, became the first African American to publish a book of poetry. Her book was entitled Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. Who was she?  #35
    48. 48. Between 1770 and 1775, 4,000 enslaved Africans per year arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. All were held for several weeks on Sullivan’s Island, a quarantine station designed to prevent the spread of epidemics from overseas. So many enslaved people arrived here that Sullivan Island became known as what?  #36
    49. 49. The first abolitionist society was founded in this American city in 1775. It worked to abolish slavery in the colony and to protect free Blacks from being sold into slavery. Name the city where the society was formed.  #37
    50. 50. By the time of the American Revolution, what colony had more black slaves than white people? Georgia Virginia Massachusetts South Carolina  #38
    51. 51. This African American patriot fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775. He petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to help him and others return to Africa. This is considered the first recorded attempt by blacks to return home. He was also the first African American to join a Masonic order. He later established his own order that has a membership of over 250,000 today. Name him.  #39
    52. 52. What important document originally had a section that denounced slavery, but was deleted before the document was adopted in 1776?  #40
    53. 53. Several colonies took steps to abolish slavery between 1777 and 1784. This colony prohibited slavery in the constitution it adopted in 1777. Name it.  #41
    54. 54. In 1781, this Black soldier in the Continental Army became one of the most notable spies of the American Revolution. He gathered information that helped Marquis de Lafayette defeat the British at Yorktown, Virginia on October 19, 1781. Name the Black spy.  #42
    55. 55. In 1783 this wealthy free Black merchant and other free Blacks of Dartmouth, Massachusetts protested to the state legislature that they were being taxed without representation. The courts decided that Black men who paid taxes in Massachusetts could vote there. Name this merchant and leader.  #43
    56. 56. This former enslaved black person from Delaware was a wagon driver in the American Revolution and began preaching in the Methodist Church in 1786. He served St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church (a white church) in Philadelphia as an occasional minister to blacks. Once while praying he was pulled from his knees by a white usher for being in an area of the church reserved for whites. He and other blacks left the church and in 1794 established the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia – the first church organized and directed by blacks in the United States. Name him.  #44
    57. 57. In 1787, this act passed by Congress determined the number of representatives from I each state. Enslaved blacks had no voice in government but their numbers counted for each state's seats in the House of Representatives. What act made this possible?  #45
    58. 58. Congress passed the Ordinance of 1787 that barred slavery in the Northwest Territory. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude was permitted in the region northwest of the Ohio River except as punishment for a crime. Name the states that were eventually formed out of this territory.  #46
    59. 59. In 1790, the legislatures of North Carolina and Virginia approved digging a canal from Albermarle Sound to ports in Virginia. Digging the canal began in 1793 with hired slave labor. The canal helped to open the vast timber resources of the region. It was an important transportation route until the railroads were built in 1840. Name the canal.  #47
    60. 60. This Black American played a major role in surveying the land for the design of the District of Columbia after the original planner grew tired of criticism of his plan and returned to France. This surveyor, appointed to the commission on the recommendation of Thomas Jefferson, reconstructed the entire plan from memory. Name the surveyor.  #48
    61. 61. In 1791, this Black person led a successful revolt of enslaved Africans against the French in Haiti. The overthrow of this French colony produced fear in the U.S. Congress that a revolt was about to occur in the United States. The legislators passed stronger laws to control enslaved Black people. Haiti would become the first independent country in the Americas ruled by Blacks. Name the leader of this revolt in Haiti.  #49
    62. 62. The first Black Catholic sisterhood was founded in 1792 in Baltimore, Maryland. Name the founder.  #50
    63. 63. With the cotton gin, invented in 1793, a man could deseed and clean cotton more efficiently. Using a horse to turn this machine, it could clean about fifty times as much cotton as before. It quickly made cotton the leading crop in the South and the chief export for the region. Who invented the Cotton gin? Benjamin Banneker Elias Neau Eli Whitney George Washington Carver  #51
    64. 64. In 1793, Congress passed an act making it a crime to harbor an escaped enslaved African or to interfere with his capture or arrest. Name this act.  #52
    65. 65. What African American is believed to be the first of his race to be recognized as a professional portrait painter? He advertised in the Intelligencer, calling himself a "self taught genius." He painted portraits of some of the most influential white families in Maryland and Virginia.  #53
    66. 66. In 1800, what percent of the U.S. population was made up of black people? Roughly 5 percent Roughly 12 percent Roughly 19 percent  #54
    67. 67. In the 19th century, the Dismal Swamp, on the border between Virginia and North Carolina, offered a safe place for enslaved African runaways. Here they built homes, grew crops, raised animals and sold wood shingles and logs to free blacks. Visitors said it was one of the most difficult places where people could live. The swamp provided the runaways with almost everything they needed, but when they needed other essentials, some raided nearby towns or stole from boats anchored along the canal. What were these colonies of runaways called?  #55
    68. 68. This enslaved African served as major scout, interpreter, and emissary with Lewis and Clark’s expedition throughout the West because he was familiar with Native Americans. Name him. [In 1805, Lewis and Clark see the Pacific Ocean for the first time standing at the mouth of the Columbia River in the "Oregon Country," thus proving that America is a vast country stretched between two oceans. The expedition was authorized by President Thomas Jefferson as a fact-finding mission about the land purchased from France in 1803, the "Louisiana Purchase". The expedition set out from St. Louis, Missouri on May 13, 1804. An enslaved African provided important services during the mission, serving as major scout, interpreter, and emissary with Native Americans. Name him.]  #56
    69. 69. January 1, 1808 is an important date in the African American experience. What legal action took place?  #57
    70. 70. Most Africans who were enslaved and taken to the Western Hemisphere came from the coast of West Africa. What places on this coast were the largest suppliers of enslaved African people?  #58
    71. 71. During Colonial times and several decades afterwards, many enslaved Africans fled to places where they often lived with Native Americans, such as with the Seminole. In what state did escaped Africans and Seminoles live together? Georgia Florida Ohio  #59
    72. 72. Although the Secretary of War had stated "No Negro, mulatto or Indian is to be enlisted," when war started again in 1812, Blacks did serve in one military branch. Name it.  #60
    73. 73. Commodore Oliver H. Perry of the U.S. Navy, who had earlier criticized the effectiveness of black sailors, changed his view when he won a decisive victory using black sailors on September 12, 1813 in this important battle in the War of 1812. Name the battle.  #61
    74. 74. This Black American invented a device for handling sails and later owned a sailmaking factory in Philadelphia. As one of the richest men in the city, he supported many abolitionist causes. Name him.  #62
    75. 75. Today, this seaport is one of the largest in the South. Prior to the Civil War it was known for its auctions of enslaved Africans. Enslaved Black people sold here were often used on the cotton plantations along the Mississippi River. What is this seaport?  #63
    76. 76. In 1816, Robert Finley, a Presbyterian clergyman, founded a society in Washington DC to resettle free American blacks on the west coast of Africa. Many prominent Americans were sponsors, including John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Name the Society.  #64
    77. 77. Born in 1817 as a slave in Tuckahoe, Maryland, this African American worked on the docks of Baltimore and escaped from slavery by disguising himself as a sailor. He fled to freedom and lived in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Name him.  #65
    78. 78. In 1820, the largest number of enslaved black people (425,153) lived in this state. It had more than one-and-a-half times as many enslaved black people as the second largest concentration (258,475). Name the state. Which state ranked second?  #66
    79. 79. In 1821, Thomas Jennings became the first known black person to receive a patent for an invention. Money from his patent and business in New York City was used to support the abolitionist movement. What was his invention?  #67
    80. 80. This Quaker merchant moved to Wilmington, Delaware in 1822. He was a ―conductor‖ who helped more than 2,700 runaway slaves escape on the Underground Railroad. He gave them a pair of shoes for their journey. He was convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court for hiding runaways. Name him. [He strongly opposed a slavery and joined the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. Delaware was a slave state, bordering Pennsylvania and New Jersey on one side and Maryland (a slave state) on the other. This abolitionist became a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad by turning his home in Wilmington into the last station on the Underground Railroad before enslaved runaways reached freedom in Pennsylvania. It is estimated that he helped between 2,000 and 2,700 runaway enslaved blacks escape to freedom. In an effort to stop his successful station, Maryland authorities set a reward of $10,000 for his arrest. In 1848, however, he was convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court for hiding runaways. His iron business suffered and forced him into bankruptcy, but with the help of anti- slavery friends, he re-established his business.]  #68
    81. 81. This African American carpenter purchased his freedom in 1800 with the winnings from a lottery ticket. He urged other blacks to demand equality. In 1822, he plotted to free enslaved black people in Charleston, S.C. but was betrayed by a co- conspirator. He was hanged along with many of his followers. Name the leader of this rebellion.  #69
    82. 82. On March 16, 1827, two African American leaders, Samuel Cornish & John Russwurm, published the first black newspaper in this country. What was the name of this newspaper? Freedom‟s Journal Freedom News Freeman‟s Journal Freeman‟s News  #70
    83. 83. This Quaker abolitionist was one of the most active conductors of the Underground Railroad. In the small town of Newport (now called Fountain City), Indiana, he organized escapes for fleeing enslaved Black people. He later moved to Cincinnati where he used his store to help as many as 1,000 enslaved Black people escape to freedom. Name him.  #71
    84. 84. In Boston in 1829, this free black abolitionist published a radical antislavery pamphlet, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. He called for the use of violence to overthrow slavery. The language of the pamphlet was so strong that the governor of Georgia ordered the ship that brought the pamphlets to the state held in quarantine. The legislature made it a capital offense to circulate the pamphlets and offered a $10,000 reward for this person's capture. Name this abolitionist.  #72
    85. 85. In 1790, less than 700,000 enslaved Black people lived in the South. Forty years later in 1830, how many Black people lived in this region? Just over 900,000 Just over 1 million Just over 2 million Just over 4 million  #73
    86. 86. In 1831, this African American woman along with 16 black and white women founded the Philadelphia Female Anti- Slavery Society. She was a leading abolitionist, community activist, and generous giver to her causes. She encouraged her children to devote time to social causes. Name her.  #74
    87. 87. On January 1, 1831, this abolitionist published the first issue of his antislavery newspaper, The Liberator, in Boston. It quickly became a leading newspaper for African Americans in Boston and throughout the East. He relied heavily on Blacks for support of his paper. Name the publisher.  #75
    88. 88. On February 22, 1832, a group of black women organized the first all-black female antislavery society whose constitution focused on self improvement as well as antislavery activities. Name the city & state where this society was formed.  #76
    89. 89. This university in Pennsylvania is often referred to as the oldest black university in the United States. In 1832, Richard Humphreys, a Philadelphia Quaker, left $10,000 in his will to establish a school for Blacks. It was originally called the Institute for Colored Youth. Today it has an enrollment of about 2,000 and is one of the 14 institutions in the Pennsylvania state system of higher education. Name it.  #77
    90. 90. Prudence Crandall, a White woman, was arrested in 1833 for teaching Black girls at her school. A mob set fire to her school and she was forced to close it. State lawmakers later realized what they had done was wrong and gave her a small yearly income. Where was Prudence Crandall’s school?  #78
    91. 91. This African American was born a free man in Philadelphia, made a fortune repairing ships in his dry dock, and gave generously to antislavery causes. He is credited with influencing William Lloyd Garrison’s views against colonization. In 1833, Garrison and others met in this abolitionist's home to organize the American Anti-Slavery Society. Name him.  #79
    92. 92. Two sisters, daughters of a judge of the South Carolina Supreme Court, were outspoken female abolitionists. One daughter published her Appeal to the Christian Women of the South; the other published Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States. Their antislavery publications brought a storm of criticism and insults. Name the sisters.  #80
    93. 93. Windsor, Sandwich, New Canaan, Colchester, and St. Catharines are settlements in Canada that became home for formerly enslaved black people. More than 40,000 enslaved Africans fled to these communities and others in Canada before the Civil War. It is believed that the majority of slaves who went to Canada crossed this river. Name it.  #81
    94. 94. This African American, born free in Norwich, Connecticut, helped hundreds of enslaved African Americans escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglass was among those he assisted. In 1835, he founded the New York Vigilance Committee, a group of notable African Americans who worked with White lawyers who fought in the courts on behalf of those accused of being fugitive slaves. In 1838 he published the first Black magazine, Mirror of Liberty. Name him.  #82
    95. 95. Mutinies frequently occurred aboard ships transporting enslaved Africans to the Americas. One famous mutiny occurred in 1839 when Cinque and his followers seized a ship and sailed it to New England where they were captured. One of their trials took place in the Old State House in Hartford, Connecticut which then was the state capitol. Later, John Quincy Adams defended them in the U.S. Supreme Court. The enslaved Africans were eventually released. Name this famous mutiny.  #83
    96. 96. In 1839, this political party was organized to become the first anti-slavery political party. Name it. Democratic Party Republican Party Libertarian Party Liberty Party  #84
    97. 97. In 1842, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that slave owners might recover fugitive enslaved blacks from any state, and that the state could neither help nor hinder the enslaved person. On the other hand, some interpreted the decision as a blow to slaveholders on the basis that state officials were not authorized to return fugitive slaves to their owners. Name this case.  #85
    98. 98. This former enslaved person was one of the most influential African Americans between 1840 and 1870. At the National Convention of Colored Men in Buffalo, NY, he delivered ―An Address to Slaves of the United States‖ in which he said: ―Rather die freeman than live to be slaves. Remember that you are FOUR MILLION! … Let your motto be resistance! Resistance! RESISTANCE!‖ Name this abolitionist.  #86
    99. 99. In 1843, the U.S. and British governments agreed in this treaty to patrol Africa’s West Coast to seize ships involved in smuggling enslaved Africans to their territories. Name the treaty.  #87
    100. 100. In 1843, an African American engineer and inventor received a patent for the ―vacuum evaporation process‖ for refining sugar. This and his other related inventions cheaply dehydrated sugar cane into granules, and thus revolutionized the sugar industry. Name this inventor, engineer, and scientist.  #88
    101. 101. By 1843, many of the settlers of the Willamette Valley were southerners. While they could not change the 1843 provisional constitution that prohibited slavery, they did add a provision that expelled all Negroes and mulattoes from the territory. Name the territory.  #89
    102. 102. One of San Francisco’s most famous citizens of the 1840s was an African American from the Virgin Islands. He was the first to launch a steamboat on San Francisco Bay, built the city’s first hotel, was a town council member and treasurer and was an influential citizen in the development of the city. Some believe he was the first African American to become a millionaire in this country, benefiting from land he owned along the American River, one site of the 1849 Gold Rush. Who was he?  #90
    103. 103. Fisk University, Berea College, Atlanta University, Talladega College, Hampton Institute, Tougaloo College, Tillotson College, LeMoyne Institute, and Straight University (now Dillard University) were colleges/universities organized to train and educate African Americans. These colleges and universities were organized by an association formed in 1846. Name it.  #91
    104. 104. On December 3, 1847, the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper, quickly became one of the most widely read antislavery newspapers in the country. The publishers addressed slavery, women’s suffrage, and other subjects. Name the two publishers of this newspaper.  #92
    105. 105. William and Ellen Craft met as enslaved persons in Macon, Georgia. Because they did not want to bring children into the world to be enslaved, they planned to escape and flee to the North. In December 1848, they disguised themselves – he as an enslaved person and she as a gentleman and slaveholder – and boarded a train from Georgia to Philadelphia. Abolitionists in Philadelphia protected them until they sailed for England. Later, they wrote a book about their escape. Name the title of their book.  #93
    106. 106. She made at least 19 trips into the South and helped an estimated 300 enslaved black people escape to freedom – including her parents and several of her brothers and sisters. She, herself, had escaped from slavery in Maryland in 1849. Slaveholders had a $40,000 reward for her capture. She was known ―Moses of her people.‖ She lived for eight years in St. Catherines in Canada and then moved along with her parents to a home in Auburn, NY where she lived until she died at 96 years of age. Name her.  #94
    107. 107. This white lawyer, and later U.S. Senator, was an outspoken opponent of slavery. He argued for desegregated schools, saying that the Massachusetts Constitution declared all men free, equal, and entitled to equal protection of the laws. To deprive blacks of equal education denied them of these rights. Name this person.  #95
    108. 108. A former enslaved African American, he organized the Refugee’s Home Colony in Canada. He bought 1,300 acres of land for the settlement of escaped African Americans. In his 1849 autobiography, he wrote about the brutality of slavery. Name him.  #96
    109. 109. This enslaved African was put in a box made especially for his escape to freedom. It was nailed shut and shipped from Richmond, Virginia to the office of an antislavery committee in Philadelphia. After 30 hours, it arrived and when pried open, this person stepped out and said, ―How do you do, gentlemen?‖ Name the person.  #97
    110. 110. This African American arrived in San Francisco with her husband during the Gold Rush. She opened a boarding house, managed estates and made loans. During the 1850s, she actively helped rescue blacks being illegally held in rural areas. She also worked to pass a state law that gave blacks the right to testify in court and to ride on San Francisco’s streetcars. Name her.  #98
    111. 111. In 1850, this legendary black pioneer, fur trader, army scout, and rancher discovered a pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The pass, later named for the explorer, became the main passageway for migrants moving West. He traveled throughout the West and became a trusted friend of several Native American tribes. The Crow Tribe named him “Bull’s Robe” and made him a chief. Name this famous pioneer.  #99
    112. 112. By 1850, what portion of the world’s cotton crop was produced by slave states in the United States?  #100
    113. 113. The U.S. Congress passed legislation that admitted California as a free state and organized New Mexico and Utah territories with no restrictions on slavery. This legislation also included a harsh new fugitive law that allowed southerners to recapture enslaved runaway blacks even in free states and made it a crime for anyone to aid a runaway. Name the legislation.  #101
    114. 114. Located in Ohio, this was one of the first two historically Black colleges and universities founded in the mid- 1800s. It was founded by Daniel Payne. Name this university. Howard University Lincoln University Ohio State University Wilberforce University  #102
    115. 115. On September 18, 1850, President Millard Fillmore signed a law that many called the ―slaveholder’s dream‖ – a law which required citizens and federal officers to become diligent slave catchers. The law provided the prompt return of enslaved blacks to ―slave owners‖ and denied fugitive enslaved blacks a trial by jury or the right to testify on their own behalf. Also, anyone who knowingly blocked a fugitive’s arrest could be fined as much as $1,000 for each offense. Name the law.  #103
    116. 116. She was born in Delaware, educated in a Quaker school, and was forced to flee to Canada to avoid the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. There, she started the Provincial Freeman – a weekly newspaper with the motto: ―Self-reliance is the true road to independence.‖ She is considered the first African American woman to publish a newspaper in North America. Name her.  #104
    117. 117. In 1852, a best-selling book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, described the horrible conditions of slavery. The book, published in the National Era, an anti-slavery newspaper, helped gain support for the abolitionists. The author moved to Hartford, Connecticut in 1864 where she lived until her death. Today, her home is a museum and has a significant research library. Who wrote the famous antislavery novel?  #105
    118. 118. In 1852, Martin R. Delany, a physician, abolitionist, and co-founder of the North Star, called for the establishment of a ―Negro Promised Land‖ in Central or South America. Later, he tried to set up a Black state in which Central American country?  #106
    119. 119. This black woman was an unwilling migrant to California in 1853. She traveled from Mississippi to California with 300 wagons owned by her slaveholder. She drove the cattle during the long trip. Arriving in California, she successfully petitioned for her freedom and that of other enslaved blacks traveling with her. She eventually became wealthy from land she bought near Los Angeles. Name her.  #107
    120. 120. In 1853, this African American published Clotelle, or The President’s Daughter, the first novel by an African American writer. He was an apprentice printer with Elijah Lovejoy and an agent of the Western Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He was a pioneer in writing about Black history. He later published other works, including The Escape, the first play written by an African American. Name him.  #108
    121. 121. This gifted poet, writer, and orator of the antislavery movement was called the "Bronze Muse." Growing up in Baltimore, Maryland she devoted her life to ending the enslavement and oppression of Africans. Some of her works, especially her only novel, Iola Leroy, have been rediscovered. Name this African American poet.  #109
    122. 122. On January 1, 1854, the first black college in the United States was chartered. It was named Ashmun Institute, after Jehudi Ashmun, a white emigrationist and the first president of Liberia. It was called the ―black Princeton‖ because of its demanding curriculum and the fact that its first instructors came from the faculty of Princeton Theological Seminary. What is the name of this university today?  #110
    123. 123. In 1854, he was ordained a Catholic priest in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, thus becoming the first African American to become a Catholic priest. Name him. Roger Taney James A. Healy Isaac Myers Robert Smalls  #111
    124. 124. In 1855, John Mercer Langston became the first black person to win elective office in a settled community in the United States. To what office was he elected?  #112
    125. 125. In 1856, J.M. Weymout established the first Black daily newspaper. What was it called?  #113
    126. 126. Some scholars believe that the Civil War actually began in 1856 when abolitionists and proslavery forces battled in this state. John Brown, a minister from Connecticut, went to fight with the abolitionists. Governor Daniel Woodson, who favored slavery, declared that his state was in "open insurrection". Name the state.  #114
    127. 127. In 1857 this U.S. Supreme Court decision effectively denied citizenship to African Americans by rejecting this person’s claim to freedom. Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Roger Taney, gave the majority opinion: ―slaveholders had the right to take human merchandise to any part of the union, and that this black man had no right to even bring suit.‖ The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was upheld and all anti-slavery laws were held unconstitutional. This person had sued for his freedom because, although he was born a slave in Virginia, he was later taken to the free state of Illinois and territory that became Minnesota. Name the case.  #115
    128. 128. This person planned to attack the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, take over the town, distribute arms to enslaved African Americans, and spread the revolution throughout the South. His plan failed. His sons were killed and some of his followers were hanged for treason. This famous anti-slavery abolitionist also was hanged. Name him.  #116
    129. 129. What state, which grew large amounts of cotton and rice, was the first to secede from the Union prior to the Civil War, declaring it an "independent commonwealth"?  #117
    130. 130. In 1860, what percentage of the African Americans in the United States lived in the South?  #118
    131. 131. Although the exact number of runaways will never be known, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 enslaved black people escaped to freedom using a network of trails and hiding places stretching from Canada to Mexico between 1825 and 1860. Enslaved black runaways started the network. Just prior to the Civil War, Ohio had the largest number of operators. Name this network.  #119
    132. 132. By 1860, this African American supervised the Chesapeake Marine Railroad and Dry Dock Company, one of the largest shipyards in Baltimore. The shipyard formed after white ship caulkers went on strike to eliminate African American caulkers and other black shipyard workers from working in the industry. This man organized the black caulkers and longshoremen and raised money from the community. Name the man who organized the shipyard.  #120
    133. 133. Between 1820-1860, the largest number of urban slaveholders was found in what city? Charleston, South Carolina Richmond, Virginia Baltimore, Maryland Norfolk, Virginia Mobile, Alabama  #121
    134. 134. The growth of cotton production showed the importance of enslaved Africans in the American economy. In 1790, the United States produced only 3,000 bales of cotton. By 1860, it produced 4.8 million bales, prompting one Southerner to proclaim that ―Cotton was King.‖ The cotton- growing states became known as the ―Cotton Kingdom.‖ About what percentage of the world’s cotton crop was produced in the United States at that time?  #122
    135. 135. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate troops fired on this fort located at a very important location. The Union surrendered two days later. The South then held the fort until February 17, 1865 and endured one of the longest sieges in modern warfare. Almost 46,000 shells, estimated at over 7 million pounds of metal, were fired at the fort during Union attacks. Name this fort and where it was located.  #123
    136. 136. Name and locate the four border states that remained with the Union during the Civil War, but still remained slaveholding states.  #124
    137. 137. This African American was the first and only black to attain the rank of captain in the Union Navy during the Civil War. As a pilot of the armed Confederate ship, Planter, he along with eight black crewmen sailed the ship out of Charleston harbor (with his family and other fugitives on board), and turned it over as a prize of war to the Union Navy on May 13, 1862. Who was this Civil War hero?  #125
    138. 138. This teenager escaped from slavery and joined the First South Carolina Volunteers whose soldiers she taught to read and write. She became an important nurse for this regiment and later wrote a book about her experiences. Name her.  #126
    139. 139. This African American showed his bravery during the Civil War when Union forces attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston, S.C. For his actions, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor--the first African American to win this honor. Name him and the unit with which he served.  #127
    140. 140. What Black regiment was the first recruited during the Civil War? Two sons of Frederick Douglass served with it.  #128
    141. 141. On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued a presidential order that freed enslaved black people in the Confederate states. Some believe he did this to weaken the Confederacy as well as to generate favorable world opinion. Name the presidential order.  #129
    142. 142. Proposed in January of 1865 and ratified in December of that year, the ____ Amendment of the Constitution forbid slavery in the United States saying ―Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.‖  #130
    143. 143. This minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church worked in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. He opened a school for freed Blacks in St. Louis before moving to Natchez, Mississippi, in 1866. He became a state senator and on January 20, 1870 was chosen by a majority of the state legislators to fill the term of former Confederate president Jefferson Davis in the United States Senate. He, thus, became the first Black person ever to be a member of the U.S. Senate. Name him.  #131
    144. 144. He was born into slavery near Farmville, Virginia, but escaped at the beginning of the Civil War. He lived in Hannibal, Missouri where he organized the state's first school for blacks. After moving to Mississippi, he became a wealthy landowner and involved in local politics, including superintendent of education in Bolivar County in 1871. In 1874, he became the second African American senator and the first to serve a full term in the United States Senate. Name him.  #132
    145. 145. She was born into slavery, but once free, went to public schools and attended a teacher's college in Rhode Island. In 1860, she enrolled in Oberlin College where she organized classes for former enslaved African Americans. When she graduated—the second black woman to receive a bachelor's degree, she became the principal of the Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia. As principal, she became the first African American woman to head an institution of higher learning. Name her.  #133
    146. 146. After the Civil War, former enslaved African Americans were eager to make progress by becoming better educated, owning land, and holding political office. During this period, the U.S. Constitution was amended three times to address the rights of African Americans. What was this period of progress called?  #134
    147. 147. This federal organization was given the responsibility of reconstructing the South. It issued more than 20,000,000 food rations, established 50 hospitals, resettled more than 30,000 people, set up 4,330 schools, enrolled more than 247,000 students, and established a number of black colleges. It also represented freedmen in court. Name the organization.  #135
    148. 148. On June 13, 1866, the U.S. Congress proposed the ____ Amendment to the Constitution. This amendment defined citizenship to include all those born or naturalized in the United States. This guaranteed citizenship for Blacks and equal protection under the law. Congress sent the amendment to the states for ratification, but this did not occur until 1868.  #136
    149. 149. In the first Civil Rights Bill, the U.S. Congress was seeking to protect freed slaves from Southern Black Codes. Through the bill, blacks were given privileges of American citizenship: to make contracts, hold property, and testify in court. They were made subject to the laws, punishment, and penalties of the United States. The U.S. President, Andrew Johnson vetoed it. When was the first Civil Rights Bill passed?  #137
    150. 150. This historically black college and university was founded in 1867 in Washington, D.C. It boasts that in its first century it graduated at least one-half of the nation's black physicians, dentists, pharmacists, engineers , and architects. Name this university.  #138
    151. 151. In 1867, this college in Augusta, Georgia was founded by the American Baptist Home Mission Society and called Augusta Institute. The school moved to Atlanta in 1879, and in 1913, was renamed after the secretary of the society. Today, the college has a dedicated alumni, many of whom have earned doctorate degrees. One out of every ten of its male graduates has an academic or professional doctorate. Name the college.  #139
    152. 152. During Reconstruction, this African American was elected to fill two posts in his state: Secretary of State and Secretary of Treasurer. He had attended the University of Glasgow in Scotland and had studied at Presbyterian seminaries in Edinburgh and London. He was an eloquent speaker and brilliant economist. Name the politician and the state where he was elected.  #140
    153. 153. This historically Black college was established in 1868 in Virginia by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, a 27-year old brevet brigadier general who had commanded Black troops in the Civil War. Armstrong, the head of the eastern district of the Freedmen’s Bureau, purchased the site and started the school in an old federal hospital, with two teaching assistants and fifteen students. Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, graduated from this school in 1881. Name the school.  #141
    154. 154. In 1868, this African American was elected Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, the highest elective office held by an African American up to that time. Who was he?  #142
    155. 155. Some Black schools and universities sent singers throughout the United States and Europe to raise money for new buildings. This African American educator and her students in this Florida school baked sweet potato pies and sold them to railroad workers to raise money to buy nearby land. Name the educator and school she founded.  #143
    156. 156. In 1869, the U.S. regular army was reorganized with four black regiments. They were scattered across the West to protect settlers, guard the mail, and protect the railroads. They built their own housing and forts. Commonly referred to as the ―Buffalo Soldiers‖ by Native Americans, what were the four black regiments?  #144
    157. 157. In the 1870s, many African Americans set out for a new life in Kansas. The chief organizer of this movement was a former enslaved black man from Tennessee. Even though he was more than 70 years old at the time, he was still energetic and helped many to resettle in black colonies in Kansas. Name him.  #145
    158. 158. In 1869, the _____ amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This amendment said that the right of citizens to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.  #146
    159. 159. In 1870, this African American was the first of his race to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and take his seat. He was born a slave but became free after his father bought his family’s freedom. He was drafted by his home state to serve in the Civil War, but escaped to Bermuda. In 1866, he returned home and settled in Georgetown. At this time, only ten counties in this state had a majority of white voters, and in his county, only one in six voters were white. He held a number of Republican Party positions, including serving in the State Senate. He eventually served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1871-1879. Name this U.S. Congressman and the state he represented.  #147
    160. 160. This African American was sworn in as the first Black governor of Louisiana after governor Henry C. Warmoth was impeached "for high crimes and misdemeanors" in 1872. He had previously been a delegate to the Republican convention that nominated Ulysses S. Grant for president. Name him.  #148
    161. 161. In 1872, this Black man invented the lubricating cup for the steam engine. Educated in Edinburgh, Scotland before moving to Detroit, he continued his interest in mechanical engineering. When he was unsuccessful in getting a job as fireman for the Michigan Central Railroad, he founded his own manufacturing company. After watching the inefficient machinery of trains and the daily oiling of all working parts, he invented the “lubricator cup” and received a U.S. patent. His invention improved the steam engine and saved operators valuable time and money. He also invented the graphite lubricator that made it possible for engines to be lubricated while moving. Over the years, this inventor had more than 42 inventions that modernized machinery all over the world. His inventions were so perfect that prospective buyers wanted only his products. Name this inventor.  #149
    162. 162. She became the first African-American woman lawyer when she graduated from Howard University Law School in 1872. Barriers to setting up a law practice were too difficult to overcome at the time so she became a teacher in the Brooklyn, New York schools. Name her.  #150
    163. 163. On June 2, 1875, Pope Pius IX named this African American to be bishop of Portland, Maine, making him the first African American Catholic bishop in the United States. Name him.  #151
    164. 164. In 1876, the Freedmen’s Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church established the first all-Black medical school in the United States. Three other African-American medical schools: Howard University Medical School, Shaw Medical School, and the Medical Department of the University of West Tennessee were established later. What is the name of the first all-Black medical school and where it is located?  #152
    165. 165. In June 1877, he became the first Black person to graduate from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. For four years he had been excluded from activities and ignored by white cadets. After joining the Tenth Cavalry in 1878, serving mostly in Oklahoma and Texas, he was the only Black officer in the U.S. Army. Name him.  #153
    166. 166. In 1879, this newspaper, considered the oldest continuously printed Black newspaper in the country, was founded. Name it. Boston Herald San Diego Falcon Los Angeles Eagle Mobile Messenger  #154
    167. 167. Booker T. Washington is one of the most famous African American educators. In 1881, he established a college to train Black teachers. Name the college he established and the state where it is located.  #155
    168. 168. In 1882, this scientist received a patent for his invention of the first incandescent electric light bulb with a carbon filament. It was considered an improvement of Thomas Edison’s electric lamp. This scientist/inventor contributed so many inventions to the field of electricity that many of his fellow scientists called him "the Black Edison." This scientist was a member of the Edison Pioneers, a group of what many called the “greatest” inventors of the time. Name him.  #156
    169. 169. This African American invented the "shoe- lasting machine", a machine that revolutionized the shoe industry and made Lynn, Massachusetts the "shoe capital of the world." His invention cut the price of shoes by more than 50 percent, doubled wages, and improved working conditions for millions of people in the shoe industry. Who was this famous African-American inventor?  #157
    170. 170. On May 1, 1884 this baseball catcher made his professional major league debut with Toledo in an American Association game. As a result, he became the first Black player in organized baseball history. Name him.  #158
    171. 171. In 1887, he obtained Patent No. 315,368 for the "telegraphony," a device that received and transmitted Morse code or voice messages between moving trains and between trains and stations. His invention reduced the number of accidents. Name this inventor.  #159
    172. 172. This African American, a successful Kansas politician, moved to Oklahoma Territory in 1887 and later became the founder of two all-Black towns, Liberty and Langston. He envisioned Oklahoma Territory as an all- Black state. President Benjamin Harrison provided no support for this plan. Name this African American.  #160
    173. 173. This African American is credited with many important inventions (more than sixty patents) related to railway systems and electrical industries. His patents were sold to General Electric, Westinghouse, and American Bell Telephone. Thomas Edison offered him a job but he turned him down. The American Catholic Tribune called him the "greatest electrician in the world" in 1888. Name him.  #161
    174. 174. In 1889, this person, the son of former enslaved African Americans, and graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, became the first African American to attain the rank of colonel in the U.S. Army. He served on the western frontier and in the Philippines, Haiti, and Liberia. He rode his horse from Texas to Washington, D.C. to show that he was in good physical health and that he should not be retired from military service. It did not help his cause and he was forced to retire because of "high blood pressure." Name him.  #162
    175. 175. A famous African American artist was encouraged by Thomas Eakins to paint scenes of Black life. He painted The Banjo Lesson in 1890. Name this artist.  #163
    176. 176. On May 4, 1891, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, a noted African American physician opened the first training school for Black nurses in Chicago. Name the hospital where the training school was located.  #164
    177. 177. In this city and state, one of the oldest Black-owned newspapers, The Afro- American is still published. John Henry Murphy, Sr. established it in 1892. After serving in the Civil War, Murphy worked as a white washer, porter, janitor, postal employee, and printer before he founded the newspaper. In what city and state is this newspaper published?  #165
    178. 178. This Black woman, who taught school in Mississippi and Tennessee, published a weekly column for The Living Way, and wrote articles for the New York Age and others, was a founder of many organizations that worked for justice for Black Americans. In 1893, she wrote a pamphlet criticizing the racism at the 1893 World’s Fair. She was a key founder of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896. In 1909, she was one of two Black women who were among the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), In 1910, she helped organize the Negro Fellowship League, and in 1913, helped found the Alpha Suffrage Club, the first Black women’s suffrage organization in Illinois. She became a delegate to the National American Women’s Suffrage Association meeting in Washington, D.C. Name her.  #166
    179. 179. This African American physician performed the first successful open- heart operation. It occurred at Chicago's Provident Hospital in 1893. Name the physician.  #167
    180. 180. In 1893, this author published his first collection of poetry entitled Oak and Ivy. Having worked as an elevator operator for $4 a week, he achieved considerable fame upon publication of his book Lyrics of Lowly Life in 1896. Name him.  #168
    181. 181. In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, Plessy v. Ferguson, was decided on a vote of 8-1. The decision upheld the "separate but equal" doctrine and began the age of Jim Crow. The Court said that the State of Louisiana was within its rights to arrest Homer Plessy, an African American, for violating its "Jim Crow" laws. Specifically, what did Plessy do to break the law?  #169
    182. 182. This woman devoted much of her life to women’s issues and Black causes. A graduate of Oberlin College in 1884, she was the first African American to serve on the Washington, D.C. School Board. Later, she helped form the National Association of Colored Women and became the association's first president in 1896. She was also instrumental in desegregating restaurants in Washington, D.C. Name her.  #170
    183. 183. In 1896, 130,344 African Americans were registered to vote in Louisiana and formed the majority of registered voters in 26 parishes. The next year, a law passed in Louisiana effectively barred Blacks from voting and became a model for other southern states. This law stated “A person might register and vote if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, or if he or an ancestor had served in either the Confederate or Union army.” In 1900, only 5,320 African Americans were registered and no parish had a Black majority. In 1904, only 1,342 blacks voted. What specific clause had been written into the Louisiana Constitution that effectively disenfranchised so many Black voters?  #171
    184. 184. In 1896, this African American was selected director of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute. Here, he began to teach and experiment with agricultural production. He was one of the first soil scientists to encourage crop rotation, and he developed several hundred industrial and household uses for peanuts and sweet potatoes. Name him.  #172
    185. 185. What Black inventor designed a device that allowed railroad cars to be coupled more easily? A New York railroad paid him $50,000 in 1897 for his invention. It became known as the "jenny coupler" and was one of the most important inventions that made the railroads more efficient.  #173
    186. 186. Rosamond Johnson, trained at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, and his brother James Weldon Johnson, wrote a song that is often called the ―Negro National Anthem.‖ Name it.  #174
    187. 187. In 1903, she became the first Black woman to head a bank. She presided over the St. Luke Bank and Trust Company in Richmond, Virginia. She took $9,000 of initial deposits and increased bank holdings to $376,000 in a few years. The Bank helped many Blacks to get an education, housing, and economic independence. Name her.  #175
    188. 188. Twenty-nine Black intellectuals, headed by W.E.B. Du Bois, organized this movement in Fort Erie, Canada in 1905. It demanded the abolition of all forms of racial discrimination and was a direct response to Booker T. Washington's cautious approach to racial justice. The movement lasted only five years. It is frequently referred to as the organization that led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Name the movement or organization.  #176
    189. 189. In 1905, this African American published the first issue of the Chicago Defender. Although he sold only 300 copies of the first issue, by 1929, the Defender was a national newspaper with circulation of 250,000. It was attacked racial injustices in the South, specifically discrimination, segregation, and lynching. It encouraged Blacks to leave the South for work and better opportunities in the North. Who was this important newspaper publisher?  #177
    190. 190. This important civil rights group was organized in New York City on February 12, 1909. Its purpose was to advance the civil rights of African American people and to protect the rights of all people. This organization has become one of the major civil rights organizations today. Name it.  #178
    191. 191. The Crisis is a major magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Who was the first editor of The Crisis? W.E.B. Du Bois Carter G. Woodson James Weldon Johnson Alain Locke Garrett Morgan  #179
    192. 192. In 1910, this woman established a hair- products manufacturing company that eventually employed about 3,000 workers. In her early life, she had worked as a washerwoman and invested her wages to develop a hair conditioner for women. She is the first African American woman to become a millionaire by her own efforts. She gave much of her money to charities that benefited African American communities. Name her.  #180
    193. 193. This major organization was founded in 1911 to help southern Blacks adjust to city life, particularly in the North. Eugene Kinckle Jones was one of the founders and served as its Executive Secretary for more than 20 years. He was also a member of President Franklin Roosevelt’s "Black Cabinet.” Name the organization.  #181
    194. 194. This African American was a member of Admiral Robert E. Peary's expedition to the North Pole. Some records show that he was the first person to reach the Pole and placed the American flag there. In 1912, he wrote of his experiences in A Negro Explorer at the North Pole. In 1945, the U.S. Congress awarded him a medal for "outstanding service to the Government of the United States in the field of science." Name this explorer.  #182
    195. 195. W. C. Handy, founder of one of the first Black-owned music publishing company, is often called the "father of the blues" because he wrote some of the most notable and lasting blues songs. Two songs have city names in their title. Name the titles of these songs and the states where the cities are located.  #183
    196. 196. This African American founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and Culture in 1915, and one year later, he began publishing the Journal of Negro History. He also organized the first Negro History Week. He is often called “Father of Negro history.” Name this educator.  #184
    197. 197. Marcus Garvey founded this organization that grew to more than six million members in the U.S. and other countries. The organization worked to increase Black pride and to develop economic and educational self-help programs. Over time, it had a church, a newspaper, and 30 chapters around the world. Name the organization.  #185
    198. 198. This African American scientist and inventor presented his invention at the Second International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety. His breathing helmet and smoke protector (later called a gas mask) won First Grand Prize. It proved successful in 1916 when the inventor rescued a number of men trapped in a tunnel filled with poison gases. In 1923 he sold his patent for the automatic traffic signal for $40,000 to General Electric. Name this inventor.  #186
    199. 199. The U.S. Supreme Court declared in this case that Louisiana and Kentucky ordinances requiring Blacks to live in certain sections of the city were unconstitutional. Name the case.  #187
    200. 200. In the 1920s, what place was sometimes called the "capital of the African American world"?  #188
    201. 201. Andrew "Rube" Foster founded what professional sports league?  #189
    202. 202. Between 1915 and 1920, nearly one million African Americans had moved from the agricultural South to the crowded urban cores of the North. What is the name given to this mass movement of people from the South to the North?  #190
    203. 203. In 1920, this African American intellectual, educator, poet, and civil rights activist became the first Black executive secretary of the NAACP. He became an effective organizer for the NAACP, increasing its membership and the number of chapters. His silent march in New York City was an effective protest against lynching in this country. Name him.  #191
    204. 204. One of the most popular Black musicals to open on Broadway was produced by Eubie Blake, a ragtime pianist and composer, and Noble Sissle. It was the first Broadway show to be written, produced and performed by Blacks, and was the first to include jazz compositions. The show was so popular that crowds waiting to get tickets caused the traffic department to change traffic routes near the theater. The show ran a record 504 performances. Name the musical.  #192
    205. 205. A number of race riots occurred after World War I. On May 30, 1921, an incident in this town sparked widespread anger between whites and Blacks. As many as 200 African Americans and 50 whites were killed. One account noted that the riot was unequal in American history in terms of destruction. One of America’s most thriving African American business districts called "Wall Street of the South" was destroyed. Where did this race riot take place?  #193
    206. 206. In 1923, this African American female was called the "Queen of the Blues" after she recorded "Down Hearted Blues," a song written by Alberta Hunter and Lovie Austin. The song sold 800,000 copies almost immediately--the first major hit for Columbia Records. It eventually sold more than a million copies. One of her most famous recordings was “Nobody Knows You When You’re Down and Out.” Name this major blues performer.  #194
    207. 207. This track and field athlete of the University of Michigan won the broad jump at the Olympic Games in Paris. He became the first Black athlete to win an Olympic gold medal. Name him.  #195
    208. 208. In 1925, this African American philosopher, writer, and professor at Howard University and the first African American Rhodes scholar (1907), created the term "New Negro". The term taken from his book, The New Negro, conveyed a renewed confidence and pride among African Americans. He is sometimes called the "official father of the Harlem Renaissance.” Name the author.  #196
    209. 209. During most of American history, labor unions prohibited Blacks from becoming members. A. Philip Randolph organized a labor union in 1925 for a group of Black workers to help them get higher wages and better working conditions. He is considered the "father of African American unionism"? What group of workers did he organize?  #197
    210. 210. In 1926, this African American was considered one of the country's leading poets when he published The Weary Blues. He later published several novels: Not Without Laughter, One Way Ticket, and Mulatto. Name him.  #198
    211. 211. When Chicago's Black residents elected him to the U.S. Congress in 1928, he was the first African American Congressman since 1901 and the first elected from the North. Name him.  #199
    212. 212. She was called the "First Lady of Jazz". Her first big break came in the 1930s when she began singing with Chick Webb and his band at the Harlem Opera House. She would become the top female jazz singers -- a title she held until her death. Who was she?  #200
    213. 213. This famous jazz singer’s sad life is described in her autobiography, Lady Sings The Blues. She appeared with Count Basie’s orchestra and had many hit records including "God Bless the Child." She was called “Lady Day.” Who was she?  #201
    214. 214. In 1931, this African American became the leader of the NAACP. As executive secretary during World War II, he traveled to the South to investigate the lynching of Blacks. Name this leader.  #202
    215. 215. This choreographer was a pioneer in restoring the African and Caribbean heritage to dance in America. Although she benefited from WPA support, it was her featured role as Georgia Brown in Cabin in the Sky that allowed others to see her as a great artist. Because of her choreographic creativity and her obvious inclusion of primitive and folk dances that reflected an authentic base for black people, she was dubbed the "Mother of African American dance." Name her. Hattie McDaniel Katherine Dunham Mary McLeod Bethune Mahalia Jackson  #203
    216. 216. This African American received as many as 61 patents. In 1935, he developed the first automatic refrigeration system for trucks--an invention that changed the eating habits of the entire nation. He later developed an air conditioning unit for military field hospitals, and military field kitchens. He received little credit for his accomplishments during his life. In 1991, the National Medal of Technology was awarded to him–30 years after his death. Name this inventor.  #204
    217. 217. Funds from what federal project help support African American artists including Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Aaron Douglas, and Katherine Dunham?  #205
    218. 218. In 1935, this African American educator and political advisor to President Franklin Roosevelt established the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) to fight racial and gender discrimination. The organization grew rapidly, and in the 1970s, it was one of the largest organizations of African American women in the country--more than 3 million members. Name this female leader.  #206
    219. 219. This African American athlete, born on an Alabama sharecropping farm, won three individual and one team gold medal in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany. He became the first Olympian ever to win four gold medals. Adolf Hitler left the stadium to avoid congratulating him. He had, for the moment, triumph over racism. Because of his speed, he was called the "Ebony Antelope." Name him. DeHart Hubbard Mohammad Ali Arthur Ashe Eddie Robinson Jesse Owens  #207
    220. 220. This U.S. Supreme Court case set the basis for equalizing the salaries of Black and White school teachers in 1936. Name this case.  #208
    221. 221. In 1937, Joe Louis, the son of Alabama sharecroppers, earned the title of heavyweight boxing champion of the world by defeating Jim J. Braddock. He became the first Black heavyweight champion in 22 years. Known internationally as the “Brown Bomber”, how long did he retain the world heavyweight boxing championship before he retired?  #209
    222. 222. He became the first African American to serve as a U.S. federal judge. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him to the federal district court in the Virgin Islands in 1937. Name him.  #210
    223. 223. This African American woman became the first Black woman lawmaker when she was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1938. Name her.  #211
    224. 224. She became the first African American female judge when, in 1939, she was appointed to the New York City Court of Domestic Relations. She was a graduate of the Yale Law School in 1931. Name her.  #212
    225. 225. In 1939, this actress won the first Academy Award (the Oscar) ever given to a Black performer. She earned the Oscar as best supporting actress for her role in Gone with the Wind. Name her. Hattie McDaniel Mahalia Jackson Sarah Vaughan Marian Anderson  #213
    226. 226. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) denied an African American singer permission to perform in Washington, D.C.'s Constitution Hall. The Secretary of Interior and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for her to sing before a large audience at the Lincoln Memorial. Name this famous opera singer.  #214
    227. 227. He was the first African American military General in the regular U. S. Army. Name him. Robert C. Weaver Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. A. Philip Randolph Hugh Mulzac  #215
    228. 228. In 1940, the U.S. Army announced the formation of a training school for Black pilots. Called the "Home of Black Aviation," the school was located in the same community as a famous Black college founded by Booker T. Washington. What is the name of this town?  #216
    229. 229. On April 7, 1940, the U.S. Postal Service issued a stamp to honor this African American for his contribution to the overall well being of Black Americans and the country, in general. This was the first stamp issued to honor an African American. Name the person honored.  #217
    230. 230. This African American is cited as the most widely praised of the 20th century. His paintings of the lives, dreams, and struggles of African Americans are among the most respected of any artist. His paintings show his deep understanding of African American history, particularly in his series paintings of ―The Life of Frederick Douglass‖ (1938), and ―The Migration of the Negro‖ (1940-41). One of these paintings is on the cover of a well- documented African American reference book, Black Saga: The African American Experience. Name him.  #218
    231. 231. In 1941, this President issued Executive Order 8802 that prohibited employers from discriminating against African Americans in the war industries and in government services because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The Order came in response to the threat of a large protest march on Washington, D.C. by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin. This executive order, the first major presidential action since Reconstruction, did little to change racial discrimination in these jobs because industries found ways around them. Name the President who issued the order.  #219
    232. 232. In 1941, this African American, an economist, was appointed director of the government office in charge of integrating Blacks into the national defense program. He later became the first African American to be a Presidential cabinet member. Name him. Paul Robeson Colin Powell A. Philip Randolph Robert C. Weaver  #220
    233. 233. This African American was the commander of the Booker T. Washington, the first Liberty ship named after an African American. In his autobiography, he stated the following: ―If there was ever a moment when the real meaning of democracy could and had to be demonstrated to the peoples of the world, the moment was now! And what was America’s answer in this hour of need? A Jim Crow ship! Named for a Negro, christened by a Negro, captained by a Negro, and no doubted manned by Negroes.‖ Name the captain of the Booker T. Washington.  #221
    234. 234. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), an action-oriented civil rights group, was founded by James Farmer in Chicago, Illinois in 1941. What tactic did it use successfully in breaking down the color line during the civil rights movement?  #222
    235. 235. The first class of pilots trained at the U.S. Army’s training school for Black pilots at Tuskegee, Alabama included Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., a West Point graduate, and Lts. George Roberts, Mac Ross, Charles DeBow, and Rodney Curtis. What was the name of this all-Black flight squadron?  #223
    236. 236. He planned the first march on Washington to protest discrimination against Black workers in the defense industry. It was canceled when President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25, 1941. Name the person who proposed this march.  #224
    237. 237. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii. This African American, assigned to the U.S. Navy as a cook and not trained to use the big guns due to widespread racial discrimination, took over after the white gunner had been killed and shot down four Japanese planes. Name this hero and the ship on which he served.  #225
    238. 238. This African American was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for heroic action aboard the USS San Francisco in the Solomon Islands. He died in the Battle of Guadacanal. In 1942 the first U.S. naval vessel commissioned and named for a Black person was named for this WW II naval hero. Name him.  #226
    239. 239. John H. Johnson published the first copy of Negro Digest on November 1, 1942. It became the first Black-owned successful general magazine. Out of this venture came the Johnson Publishing Company, now one of the largest Black-owned businesses in the country. Name two magazines that the company publishes today.  #227