What is Cloning?• Cloning refers to the development of offspring that are genetically identical to their parent.• There are two techniques for cloning: – The Roslin Technique – The Honolulu Technique
Background• Founded in 1998 byTeruhiko Wakayama and Ryuzo Yanagimachi of the University of Hawaii• This technique has successfully cloned five generations of mice.
Step 1• Nucleus of a cell is extracted from the organism that is being cloned – Cumulus cells are the most commonly used • Cumulus cells surround an egg cell. Egg Cumulus cell cells
Step 2• Nucleus is removed from an unfertilized egg cell.
Step 3• The nucleus from the first cell is injected into the enucleated egg cell.
Step 4• The new egg cell is placed into a chemical bath to jumpstart cell growth. – Chemical bath is less harmful than electric shock used in the Roslin Technique.
Step 5• The cells develop into embryos and are placed in a surrogate mother and carried to term.
Success Rate• Honolulu technique- 3 clones out of every 100 attempts.• Roslin technique- 1 clone out of every 277 attempts.
Uses• The Honolulu Technique can be used for: – Research of diseases such as AIDS, cancer, or diabetes – Genetically alter animals for the production of human transplant organs – NOT intended for the cloning of humans
Arguments Against Cloning• Scientific: – Low success rate – Clones don’t live as long – Decreases genetic diversity• Practical – Easier to produce natural offspring• Religious – Human life is precious in God’s eyes – People cloned for “spare parts” – Men should not play the role of God