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  • From the news… MTV Twitter Jockey, Gabbi Gregg, 23-year-old fashion blogger. Gregg created Young, Fat & Fabulous after graduating from college in 2008. David Gueta ‘CD On Demand’, Radioheads ‘In Rainbows’ - Client Perception side, Eco System side, New Business Model for the Arts In the 1980s, the "Big 6" — EMI, CBS, BMG, PolyGram, WEA and MCA — dominated the industry. Sony bought CBS Records in 1987 and changed its name to Sony Music in 1991. In mid-1998, PolyGram merged into Universal Music Group (formerly MCA), dropping the leaders down to a "Big 5". (They became the "Big 4" in 2004 when BMG merged into Sony.) EMI, Sony, Universal, Warner Film: Warner, Fox, Paramaount, Sony/Columbia pictures, Disney, NBC/Universal
  • A new market place for the arts - social interaction and media contents. Cover all three aspects - tools are last… this is where we might need a lot of Crowdsourcing
  • The General Layer contains catalog information, such as genre classification, and other ancillary documents. The Logic Layer is the core of the format that provides mandatory symbolic description with information about timing and synchronization of music events. The Structural Layer deals with identifying music objects and their relationships such as musicological analyses through manual of automated analyses, chord progressions and musical algorithms using a formalism called Petri Nets. The Notational, Performance and Audio Layers contain pre-recorded multimedia aspects of music using existing encoding formats, as DARMS, NIFF, MusicXML, MIDI, SAOL/SASL, AAC, MP3, MPEG
  • IF TIME: talk about resynthesis... concatenation using simple overlap add of original frames
  • Justice, or Evidence, based on the changes of Just You, Just Me
  • Anticipatory systems - “ a system containing a predictive model of itself and/or of its environment which allows it to change state at an instant in accord with the model ’s prediction pertaining to a later instant.” ( Rosen85 )
  • Ism2011

    1. 1. Changes in Musical Culture and Practices as a result of new Multimedia Technologies [email_address] ISM 2011, Dec. 6 Shlomo Dubnov
    2. 2. Technology in Music Industry <ul><li>Delivery Channels: CD and Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Production: DAW </li></ul><ul><li>Content Access: Music Discovery Sites </li></ul><ul><li>What next ? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Market Research <ul><li>&quot;Seeing that music industry is more diverse and fragmented, monetising the new music experience has become increasingly complex” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominique Leguern, Director of MIDEM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Almost one in five music fans 'will do anything' to meet their idols, and many are happy to view ads and even share their personal information for access to free music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovate, Music Matters, MIDEM 2010 </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Music Consumption Patterns <ul><li>Cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>63% consider themselves passionate about music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'I couldn't care less' (1) to 'I'd listen every minute of the day if I could' (10). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rank 6 and above: top Brazil (80%), Spain and the UK (79% each), lowest in Australia (27%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Celebrity culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'give anything' to meet their favorite music artists US (33%), UK (32%) and Spain (30%), China, Hong Kong, and Hungary (7%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brands sponsorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47% of people globally don't think this is a good idea, with Hungarians the most opposed, at 63% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of people globally look out for competitions or promotions that feature their favourite artists and bands, topped by China at 49% </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Changes in Music Industry <ul><li>1980s, the &quot;Big 6&quot; — EMI, CBS, BMG, PolyGram, WEA and MCA </li></ul><ul><li>1998, the &quot;Big 5” - Sony bought CBS Records in 1987, PolyGram merged into Universal Music Group </li></ul><ul><li>2004, the “Big 4” - Sony acquired BMG </li></ul><ul><li>2011, the “Big 3” - Universal acquired EMI </li></ul>Sony CD 1976 MP3 1991
    6. 6. 1000 True Fans Tribe / Herd Music as a social product True fan is a person who spends $100 on his favorite artist per year
    7. 7. Integrated Music Experience <ul><li>New Composition Models </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Database Search </li></ul><ul><li>Content Matching </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Generative Music </li></ul><ul><li>Group Intent and Coordination </li></ul>
    8. 8. Multi-Layer Representation Layers Layer synchronization XML Symbols for Synchronization
    9. 9. Semantic Web Music
    10. 10. New Content Models <ul><li>Remixes </li></ul><ul><li>Mashups </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Clips </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks </li></ul><ul><li>DJ Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Controllerism </li></ul><ul><li>Live Improvisation </li></ul>Ophir Kutiel “Kutiman” - ThruYou
    11. 11. <ul><li>Represents and audio as a finite state automaton with similarity transitions </li></ul>Audio Oracle
    12. 12. <ul><li>Provides much “cleaner” structure discovery then Similarity Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for improvisation, style imitation, composition </li></ul>Structure Discovery
    13. 13. Video Remix Original video is continuous shot so every jump is a recombination
    14. 14. Machine Improvisation Memex: Piano Violin Composer Duets:
    15. 15. Research Topics <ul><li>Representation of musical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction Rules, Predictive Models </li></ul><ul><li>Interface and Group Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic structure discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonality, Chord detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beat detection, Tempo, Rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characterization of Aesthetics and Emotions </li></ul>
    16. 16. Group Interaction with Music <ul><li>Distributed DJ </li></ul><ul><li>Live improvisation set </li></ul><ul><li>GUI is part of the composition </li></ul>
    17. 17. Musical Information Dynamics <ul><li>Aesthetic perception as a communication process </li></ul><ul><li>Music triggers cognitive processes in the listener </li></ul><ul><li>Structure can be measured as mutual information from past to present </li></ul><ul><li>The information paradox: Discover more by listening more… (you gain by learning, not get bored!) </li></ul><ul><li>Related to Birkhoff Aesthetic Measure </li></ul>Slow brain appraisal Fast brain processing Self-supervision (emotions, etc.,…) Receiver y Channel. Source x
    18. 18. Birkhoff’s Aesthetic Measure M = O/C O - Perceived Order C - Complexity O=V+E+R+HV-F V - vertical E - equilibrium R - rotation HV - network F - form
    19. 19. Audio Analysis <ul><li>OMRAS2 </li></ul><ul><li>Vamp Plugins </li></ul><ul><li>Matlab tools </li></ul>
    20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Integrated music experience </li></ul><ul><li>More Granularity </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper understanding of musical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Easier Access to Music Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and Group Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>More Creativity </li></ul>