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Brain Size Series 01 - Are Big Brains Smarter?.pptx

  1. 人腦大小系列 Brain Size Series 01 - Are Big Brains Smarter?
  2. 大腦越大越聰明嗎?
  3. 刊登於 2016年1月4日 livescience.com 的一篇文章 (Are Big Brains Smarter?) 大腦越大越聰明嗎?
  4. Jeanna Bryner Live Science Editor-in-Chief 作者 珍娜·布萊納 擔任 Live Science 的主編。 此前,她是 Scholastic 的《科學世界》雜誌的助理編輯 珍娜擁有索爾茲伯里大學的英語學位、馬里蘭大學的生物地球化學和環境科學碩士 學位以及紐約大學的研究生科學新聞學學位。 她曾在佛羅里達州擔任生物學家, 負責監測濕地並對瀕危物種進行實地調查。 她還獲得了伍茲霍爾海洋研究所頒發的海洋科學新聞獎學金。
  5. 你大腦的大小能說明你的智慧嗎?
  6. 許多聰明的科學家都在思考人或動物的 灰質(Gray Matter)與其認知能力(cognitive skills)之間的聯繫。
  7. 也許適合回答有關人腦的問題—— 根據美國國立衛生研究院的數據,人腦包含超過 1,000 億個神經元—— 但答案卻陷入了複雜性和未知性之中。
  8. 2009年9月發表於《尖端人類神經科學 (Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)》的一篇論文表示: Herculano-Houzel S. The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain. Front Hum Neurosci. 2009 Nov 9;3:31. doi: 10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMID: 19915731; PMCID: PMC2776484. 人類的大腦經常被認為是哺乳動物大腦中的佼佼者: 認知能力最強,與體型比例比預期最大。
  9. 2009年9月發表於《尖端人類神經科學 (Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)》的一篇論文表示: Herculano-Houzel S. The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain. Front Hum Neurosci. 2009 Nov 9;3:31. doi: 10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMID: 19915731; PMCID: PMC2776484. 大腦皮層過度發育,佔大腦質量的 80% 以上, 據稱包含 1,000 億個神經元和 10 倍以上的神經膠質細胞。
  10. 2009年9月發表於《尖端人類神經科學 (Frontiers in Human Neuroscience)》的一篇論文表示: Herculano-Houzel S. The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain. Front Hum Neurosci. 2009 Nov 9;3:31. doi: 10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMID: 19915731; PMCID: PMC2776484. 這種獨特性似乎是證明人類比大象和鯨魚等大腦較大的哺乳動物 具有更高認知能力的必要條件。
  11. 另一方面,科學家們仍在爭論智力的定義。
  12. 對於 智商(intelligence quotient, IQ) 你如何衡量它?
  13. 此外,智商的差異是否體現在日常生活中?
  14. 最後,更多的腦組織或更強大的大腦 是否等同於更高的智商?
  15. 科學家們一致同意的一件事是: 單憑大腦容量大並不等同於聰明。
  16. 如果大腦的大小可以決定聰明, 那麼大象和抹香鯨將贏得所有智力比賽。
  17. 相反,科學家們通過觀察相對於體重的大腦質量 來推測生物的認知能力。
  18. 因此,雖然一頭大象的腦袋重達 10.5 磅(4,780 克) 可以在一場純粹重量比賽中壓垮人類的大腦, 但人類卻在鬪智鬪勇中取得勝利。
  19. 我們的大腦平均重 2.7 磅(1,200 克),約佔體重的 2%, 而大象則不到十分之一。
  20. Nancy Barrickman, graduate student in Duke University’s Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy. 杜克大學 生物人類學與解剖學系 研究生 Nancy Barrickman 的研究表示: 跨物種相對較大的大腦“似乎確實提供了一些複雜的認知技能, 例如生態問題的創新解決方案、更有效的資源映射和食物獲取, 以及更複雜的社會策略(例如欺騙)。
  21. 班森(Sarah Benson-Amram)是 美國 懷俄明大學(University of Wyoming)助理教授。
  22. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 1; 113(9): 2532–2537. Published online 2016 Jan 25. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1505913113 PMCID: PMC4780594 PMID: 26811470 Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores Sarah Benson-Amram,a,b,1 Ben Dantzer,c,d Gregory Stricker,e Eli M. Swanson,f and Kay E. Holekampe,g Sarah Benson-Amram 和她的同事進行的一項研究 揭示了將動物智慧與相對大腦大小聯繫起來的實驗數據。 該研究於 2016 年 1 月 25 日在美國國家科學院院刊上進行了詳細介紹。
  23. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 1; 113(9): 2532–2537. Published online 2016 Jan 25. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1505913113 PMCID: PMC4780594 PMID: 26811470 Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores Sarah Benson-Amram,a,b,1 Ben Dantzer,c,d Gregory Stricker,e Eli M. Swanson,f and Kay E. Holekampe,g 研究表示: 大腦體積相對於身體的比例越大, 動物解決難題的能力越強,代表腦袋相對較大的動物可能更加聰明。
  24. 研究人員測試了美國9個動物園內140隻動物。 其中39種為肉食性動物,包括北極熊、北極狐、水獺、狼及一些稀有物種, 如熊狸(bearcat)、雪豹(snow leopard)與狼獾(wolverine)等。
  25. 實驗利用一個L 形的閂鎖的金屬箱子進行測試, 裡面放著受測動物最喜愛的食物, 每隻給予30分鐘打開箱子,結果發現: 140隻動物中有49隻成功從籠中取出食物, 其中成功率最高的是熊,10次有7次成功; 狐獴與貓鼬最失敗,一次也沒有成功。
  26. 在考慮了其他可能導致成功打開閂鎖的因素 (例如手的靈巧性和社交性)後,研究人員得出結論: 相對大腦大小是任務成功的最重要預測因素。
  27. 同一個物種(例如人類)的大腦大小差異相對較小, 因此很難梳理出大腦大小的影響和其他因素的影響。
  28. 以天才 阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦(Albert Einstein)為例, 他的大腦並不比普通人大多少。
  29. 相反,一些科學家發現, 他掌握令人難以置信的概念並做出看似不可能的思維飛躍的能力 可能歸結於聯繫。 事實證明,他的腦袋很可能是高度整合的, 因此多條路徑可以將遙遠的區域彼此連接起來。
  30. 爭論還在繼續……
  31. 根據一項針對幼兒的腦部掃描研究, 腦部大小似乎與標準化智力測驗的分數無關。
  32. 弗吉尼亞聯邦大學的工業和組織心理學家 邁克爾麥克丹尼爾 聲稱: 更大的大腦確實可以造就更聰明的人。 Michael McDaniel, industrial and organizational psychologist at Virginia Commonwealth University
  33. 然而,許多研究人員不同意麥克丹尼爾的結論。 他的研究於 2005 年發表在《智力》雜誌上, 表明在所有年齡組和性別中,腦容量都與智力有關。 McDaniel, M.A. (2005). Big-brained people are smarter: A meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence, Intelligence, 33, 337-346.
  34. 根據 2006 年發表的研究,男性比女性更聰明,研究人員表示, 這可能是由於男性的大腦相對較大,相差約 0.2 磅(100 克)。
  35. 另一位科學家提出了幾個社會文化因素, 這些因素會使男性更聰明的說法無效。
  36. 最後,讓我們來看一下數據!
  37. 靈長類動物的平均腦重量(與體型無關): 黑猩猩 Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) 0.77 磅(350 克) 山地大猩猩 Mountain gorilla (gorilla beringei) 0.95 磅(430 克) 鼠狐猴 Mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) 0.004 磅(2 克)
  38. 為動物王國的其他部分評估大腦: 抹香鯨 Sperm whale 17 磅(7,800 克) 海象 Walrus 2.4 磅(1,100 克) 家貓 Domestic cat 0.06 磅(30 克)
  39. 如果大腦的大小與創新和創造力有任何關係, 一些科學家希望看到所謂的思維大爆炸(Mind‘s Big Bang) (50,000 至 70,000 年前骨器和洞穴壁畫的出現) 與現代科技的出現之間的聯繫 -人類大腦的大小。 但事實不是這樣的。
  40. 人腦大小系列 待續

Editor's Notes

  1. Brain Size Series 01 - Are Big Brains Smarter? 人腦大小系列 01 - 大腦越大越聰明嗎?
  2. Are Big Brains Smarter? 大腦越大越聰明嗎?
  3. February 04, 2016 https://www.livescience.com/32142-are-big-brains-smarter.html
  4. Jeanna served as editor-in-chief of Live Science. Previously, she was an assistant editor at Scholastic's Science World magazine. Jeanna has an English degree from Salisbury University, a master's degree in biogeochemistry and environmental sciences from the University of Maryland, and a graduate science journalism degree from New York University. She has worked as a biologist in Florida, where she monitored wetlands and did field surveys for endangered species. She also received an ocean sciences journalism fellowship from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 珍娜布萊納 Live Science 主編 珍娜擔任 Live Science 的主編。 此前,她是 Scholastic 的《科學世界》雜誌的助理編輯。 珍娜擁有索爾茲伯里大學的英語學位、馬里蘭大學的生物地球化學和環境科學碩士學位以及紐約大學的研究生科學新聞學學位。 她曾在佛羅里達州擔任生物學家,負責監測濕地並對瀕危物種進行實地調查。 她還獲得了伍茲霍爾海洋研究所頒發的海洋科學新聞獎學金。
  5. Does the size of your brain say anything about your smarts? Plenty of brainy scientists have pondered the link between a person or animal's grey matter and their cognitive skills. 你大腦的大小能說明你的智慧嗎? 許多聰明的科學家都在思考人或動物的灰質與其認知能力之間的聯繫。
  6. 也許適合回答有關人腦的問題——根據美國國立衛生研究院的數據,人腦包含超過 1000 億個神經元——但答案卻陷入了複雜性和未知性之中。 Perhaps fitting for a question about the human brain — which packs in more than 100 billion neurons, according to the National Institutes of Health — but the answer is mired in complexities and unknowns.
  7. 也許適合回答有關人腦的問題——根據美國國立衛生研究院的數據,人腦包含超過 1000 億個神經元——但答案卻陷入了複雜性和未知性之中。 Perhaps fitting for a question about the human brain — which packs in more than 100 billion neurons, according to the National Institutes of Health — but the answer is mired in complexities and unknowns. ======================== The human brain has often been viewed as outstanding among mammalian brains: the most cognitively able, the largest-than-expected from body size, endowed with an overdeveloped cerebral cortex that represents over 80% of brain mass, and purportedly containing 100 billion neurons and 10× more glial cells.
  8. 也許適合回答有關人腦的問題——根據美國國立衛生研究院的數據,人腦包含超過 1000 億個神經元——但答案卻陷入了複雜性和未知性之中。 Perhaps fitting for a question about the human brain — which packs in more than 100 billion neurons, according to the National Institutes of Health — but the answer is mired in complexities and unknowns. ======================== The human brain has often been viewed as outstanding among mammalian brains: the most cognitively able, the largest-than-expected from body size, endowed with an overdeveloped cerebral cortex that represents over 80% of brain mass, and purportedly containing 100 billion neurons and 10× more glial cells.
  9. Such uniqueness was seemingly necessary to justify the superior cognitive abilities of humans over larger-brained mammals such as elephants and whales.
  10. For one, scientists still debate over the definition of intelligence. For any IQ definition, how do you measure it? Further, do differences in IQ show up in daily life? And finally, does more brain tissue or a heftier brain equate with higher IQ? 另一方面,科學家們仍在爭論智力的定義。 對於任何 IQ 定義,您如何衡量它? 此外,智商的差異是否體現在日常生活中? 最後,更多的腦組織或更強大的大腦是否等同於更高的智商?
  11. One thing scientists do agree on: A big brain alone doesn't equate with smarts. 科學家們一致同意的一件事是:單憑大腦容量大並不等同於聰明。
  12. If it did, elephants and sperm whales would win all the spelling bees. 如果是這樣,大象和抹香鯨將贏得所有拼字比賽。
  13. Rather, scientists look at brain mass relative to body mass in order to make any speculation about a creature's cognitive abilities. 相反,科學家們通過觀察相對於體重的大腦質量來推測生物的認知能力。
  14. So while an elephant noggin, at 10.5 pounds (4,780 grams), could squash a human think box in a purely physical battle of brains, you and I take the cake in a war of wits. Our brains, which weigh an average of 2.7 pounds (1,200 grams), account for about 2 percent of body weight, compared with an elephant's under one-tenth of a percent. 因此,雖然一頭重達 10.5 磅(4,780 克)的大象腦袋可以在一場純粹的腦力肉搏戰中壓垮人類的思維盒,但你我卻在斗智斗勇中分得了蛋糕。 我們的大腦平均重 2.7 磅(1,200 克),約佔體重的 2%,而大象則不到十分之一。
  15. So while an elephant noggin, at 10.5 pounds (4,780 grams), could squash a human think box in a purely physical battle of brains, you and I take the cake in a war of wits. Our brains, which weigh an average of 2.7 pounds (1,200 grams), account for about 2 percent of body weight, compared with an elephant's under one-tenth of a percent. 因此,雖然一頭重達 10.5 磅(4,780 克)的大象腦袋可以在一場純粹的腦力肉搏戰中壓垮人類的思維盒,但你我卻在斗智斗勇中分得了蛋糕。 我們的大腦平均重 2.7 磅(1,200 克),約佔體重的 2%,而大象則不到十分之一。
  16. Studies have shown that across species relatively large brains "do seem to provide some complex cognitive skills, such as innovative solutions to ecological problems, more efficient resource mapping and food acquisition, and more complex social strategies (such as deception)," said Nancy Barrickman, a graduate student in Duke University's Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy. 研究表明,跨物種相對較大的大腦“似乎確實提供了一些複雜的認知技能,例如生態問題的創新解決方案、更有效的資源映射和食物獲取,以及更複雜的社會策略(例如欺騙),”Nancy Barrickman 說 ,杜克大學生物人類學與解剖學系研究生。 ============== 教育背景 Duke University 圖片 Duke University Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)Evolutionary Anthropology 2001 年 - 2008 年
  17. A study by Sarah Benson-Amram, of the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and her colleagues revealed experimental data linking animal smarts with relative brain size. 位於拉勒米的懷俄明大學的 Sarah Benson-Amram 和她的同事進行的一項研究揭示了將動物智慧與相對大腦大小聯繫起來的實驗數據。
  18. A study by Sarah Benson-Amram, of the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and her colleagues revealed experimental data linking animal smarts with relative brain size. 位於拉勒米的懷俄明大學的 Sarah Benson-Amram 和她的同事進行的一項研究揭示了將動物智慧與相對大腦大小聯繫起來的實驗數據。
  19. A study by Sarah Benson-Amram, of the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and her colleagues revealed experimental data linking animal smarts with relative brain size. 位於拉勒米的懷俄明大學的 Sarah Benson-Amram 和她的同事進行的一項研究揭示了將動物智慧與相對大腦大小聯繫起來的實驗數據。
  20. In that study, detailed Jan. 25, 2016, in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers gave 140 zoo-dwelling mammalian carnivores, from 39 different species, a tasty problem to solve. The animals had to open an L-shaped latch to open a box and grab the treat inside. They found that animals in the bear family did best, while two species of mongoose never managed to open the latch. After accounting for other factors that could led to successful latch-opening, such as manual dexterity and sociality, the researchers concluded that relative brain size was the most significant predictor of success in the task. 動物們必須打開一個 L 形的閂鎖才能打開一個盒子並抓住裡面的食物。 他們發現熊科動物做得最好,而兩種貓鼬從來沒有打開過門閂。 在考慮了其他可能導致成功打開閂鎖的因素(例如手的靈巧性和社交性)後,研究人員得出結論,相對大腦大小是任務成功的最重要預測因素。 該研究於 2016 年 1 月 25 日在美國國家科學院院刊上進行了詳細介紹,研究人員為來自 39 種不同物種的 140 只棲息在動物園的哺乳動物食肉動物提供了一個需要解決的美味問題。
  21. In that study, detailed Jan. 25, 2016, in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers gave 140 zoo-dwelling mammalian carnivores, from 39 different species, a tasty problem to solve. The animals had to open an L-shaped latch to open a box and grab the treat inside. They found that animals in the bear family did best, while two species of mongoose never managed to open the latch. After accounting for other factors that could led to successful latch-opening, such as manual dexterity and sociality, the researchers concluded that relative brain size was the most significant predictor of success in the task. 動物們必須打開一個 L 形的閂鎖才能打開一個盒子並抓住裡面的食物。 他們發現熊科動物做得最好,而兩種貓鼬從來沒有打開過門閂。 在考慮了其他可能導致成功打開閂鎖的因素(例如手的靈巧性和社交性)後,研究人員得出結論,相對大腦大小是任務成功的最重要預測因素。 該研究於 2016 年 1 月 25 日在美國國家科學院院刊上進行了詳細介紹,研究人員為來自 39 種不同物種的 140 只棲息在動物園的哺乳動物食肉動物提供了一個需要解決的美味問題。
  22. In that study, detailed Jan. 25, 2016, in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers gave 140 zoo-dwelling mammalian carnivores, from 39 different species, a tasty problem to solve. The animals had to open an L-shaped latch to open a box and grab the treat inside. They found that animals in the bear family did best, while two species of mongoose never managed to open the latch. After accounting for other factors that could led to successful latch-opening, such as manual dexterity and sociality, the researchers concluded that relative brain size was the most significant predictor of success in the task. 動物們必須打開一個 L 形的閂鎖才能打開一個盒子並抓住裡面的食物。 他們發現熊科動物做得最好,而兩種貓鼬從來沒有打開過門閂。 在考慮了其他可能導致成功打開閂鎖的因素(例如手的靈巧性和社交性)後,研究人員得出結論,相對大腦大小是任務成功的最重要預測因素。 該研究於 2016 年 1 月 25 日在美國國家科學院院刊上進行了詳細介紹,研究人員為來自 39 種不同物種的 140 只棲息在動物園的哺乳動物食肉動物提供了一個需要解決的美味問題。
  23. Differences in brain size within a species, such as humans, are relatively small, making it difficult to tease out the effects of brain size and the effects of other factors. For instance, the difference in intelligence between an individual with, say, a brain that's 1,100 grams and one that's 1,400 grams (which could be found in humans) is confounded by other variables, including differences in density of neurons, other structural brain differences and socio-cultural factors. 一個物種(例如人類)的大腦大小差異相對較小,因此很難梳理出大腦大小的影響和其他因素的影響。 例如,大腦重量為 1,100 克和大腦重量為 1,400 克(可在人類中發現)的個體之間的智力差異會被其他變量混淆,包括神經元密度差異、其他結構性大腦差異和 社會文化因素。
  24. Take genius Albert Einstein, who's brain was not significantly bigger than the average human’s. Rather, some scientists have found, his ability to grasp mind-boggling concepts and make seemingly impossible mental leaps may have come down to connections. Turns out, his noggin was likely highly integrated so that several paths would have connected distant regions to one another. [What If Humans Were Twice as Intelligent?] 以天才阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦為例,他的大腦並不比普通人大多少。 相反,一些科學家發現,他掌握令人難以置信的概念並做出看似不可能的思維飛躍的能力可能歸結於聯繫。 事實證明,他的腦袋很可能是高度整合的,因此多條路徑可以將遙遠的區域彼此連接起來。 [如果人類的智商提高一倍會怎樣?]
  25. And the debate continues … 爭論還在繼續……
  26. Brain size seems to have nothing to do with scores on standardized intelligence tests, according to a brain-scan study of young children. 根據一項針對幼兒的腦部掃描研究,腦部大小似乎與標準化智力測驗的分數無關。
  27. Michael McDaniel, an industrial and organizational psychologist at Virginia Commonwealth University, has claimed that bigger brains do make for smarter people. Many researchers, however, disagree with McDaniel's conclusion. His research, published in 2005 in the journal Intelligence, suggested that across all age groups and sexes, brain volume is linked to intelligence. 弗吉尼亞聯邦大學的工業和組織心理學家邁克爾麥克丹尼爾聲稱,更大的大腦確實可以造就更聰明的人。 然而,許多研究人員不同意麥克丹尼爾的結論。 他的研究於 2005 年發表在《智力》雜誌上,表明在所有年齡組和性別中,腦容量都與智力有關。 =================== Michael A. McDaniel, Ph.D
  28. Men are smarter than women, according to research published in 2006, which the study researchers say could be due to men having relatively larger brains, a difference of about 0.2 pounds (100 grams). Another scientist put forth several socio-cultural factors that would make the men-smarter results null. 根據 2006 年發表的研究,男性比女性更聰明,研究人員表示,這可能是由於男性的大腦相對較大,相差約 0.2 磅(100 克)。 另一位科學家提出了幾個社會文化因素,這些因素會使男性更聰明的結果無效。
  29. Men are smarter than women, according to research published in 2006, which the study researchers say could be due to men having relatively larger brains, a difference of about 0.2 pounds (100 grams). Another scientist put forth several socio-cultural factors that would make the men-smarter results null. 根據 2006 年發表的研究,男性比女性更聰明,研究人員表示,這可能是由於男性的大腦相對較大,相差約 0.2 磅(100 克)。 另一位科學家提出了幾個社會文化因素,這些因素會使男性更聰明的結果無效。
  30. Average brain weights for primates (not relative to body size): • Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) — 0.77 pounds (350 grams) • Mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) — 0.95 pounds (430 grams) • Mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) — 0.004 pounds (2 grams) • 黑猩猩(Pan troglodytes)——0.77 磅(350 克) • 山地大猩猩 (Gorilla gorilla beringei) — 0.95 磅(430 克) • 鼠狐猴 (Microcebus murinus) — 0.004 磅(2 克)
  31. 為動物王國的其他部分評估大腦,將包括: • 抹香鯨——17 磅(7,800 克) • 海象——2.4 磅(1,100 克) • 家貓 — 0.06 磅(30 克) Sizing up brains for the rest of the animal kingdom, would include: • Sperm whale — 17 pounds (7,800 grams) • Walrus — 2.4 pounds (1,100 grams) • Domestic cat — 0.06 pounds (30 grams)
  32. If brain size had anything to do with innovation and creativity, some scientists expected to see a link between the so-called Mind's Big Bang (the emergence of bone tools and cave paintings that occurred between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago) and the emergence of modern-size human brains. Not the case. 如果大腦大小與創新和創造力有任何關係,一些科學家希望看到所謂的思維大爆炸(50,000 至 70,000 年前骨器和洞穴壁畫的出現)與現代科技的出現之間的聯繫 -大小的人類大腦。 不是這樣的。
  33. Brain Size Series
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