These 2 slides are taken from the Cohen et alppts from the accompanying website. It just summarises the stages of a project and tries to give an overview of where they are – you might want to skip this apge and move ont the next quickly!
I’ve highlighted where we are at them moment
ISM for D&T: Research Methods 2 Interviews Alison Hardy & Sarah Davies Monday 28th January 2013
Learning outcomes• Know about the interview as a research tool and as a method for collecting data;• Be able to design and construct your own interview schedule in accordance with conventional practice• Be able to conduct research interviews with confidence• Be aware of some of the strengths and limitations of interviewing in educational research Sharp (2012. p.73)
One major advantage of the interview is itsadaptability.A skilful interviewer can follow up ideas,probe responses and investigate motivesand feelings, which the questionnaire cannever do. Bell (2010, p.161)27 January 2013 3
Approaches and paradigmsNormative paradigm Interpretive paradigmSurvey research Case study research Documentary researchExperimental research Action researchSharp 2012. p.46This is just one interpretation of approaches to educational research. Cohen, Manionand Lawrence (2007a) discuss these paradigms and how they represent a researchersepistemology and ontology.Reflect:• Where are you on the paradigm spectrum?• What do you think this says about you as a researcher?
A SEQUENCE OF CONSIDERATIONS Ontology, epistemology, constraints,PREPARATORY purposes, foci, ethics, research ISSUES question, politics, literature review METHODOLOGY Approaches, reliability, validity SAMPLING & Reliability, validity, piloting INSTRUMENTATION TIMING & SEQUENCING
A SEQUENCE OF CONSIDERATIONS ORIENTING DECISIONS E.G. SURVEY, EXPERIMENT, RESEARCH DESIGN & NATURALISTIC, CASE STUDY, METHODOLOGY ACTION RESEARCH, TESTING DATA ANALYSISCohen, Manion and Morrison, PRESENTING AND2007b REPORTING RESULTS
Key features of the interview include:Summary from Sharp 2009 p.74 and Cohen, Manion and Morrison2007, p.349:• A flexible tool• Collect detailed information through conversation• Used with a relatively small number of participants• Can be expensive in time• Can be open to bias• Anonymity may be difficult• Allows for the exploration and nature of expressed views, opinions, perceptions, attitudes, preferences and behaviours• allows specific lines of enquiry or matters of interest to be pursued as they arise and in depth• achieve relatively high levels of personal interaction• maintain an acceptable level of standardisation
Planning an interview Schedule• Be clear about the data that you wish to collect in relation to your questions• Consider how many questions to ask and plan a logical order
Questions first?‘Questions then survey or survey then questions?• The kind of questions you ask will in part determine the kind of survey you will produce.• In turn, the kind of survey you produce will in part determine the kind of questions you will ask.• Always think about how you are going to analyse your survey data (levels of measurement, dependent/ independent/ control variables. ‘ (Lake 2011. P.4)
ActivityIn 3’s look at the interview example schedule(SECURE Interview guidance)• How has the schedule been designed? – Amount of questions – Types of questions – Order of questions• What data will be collected?Compare with SD example (again semi-structured but one to one phone interview)
considerations• Pilot and review of schedule• Interview protocol
Types of interviewStructuredUnstructuredSemi-structuredGroup interviews and focus groups
Interviewing Skills• Quality and nature of questions• Listening skills• Body language• Setting and atmosphere• Overall conduct of the interview (Burton and Bartlett 2005, p.111)
References• BELL, J., 2010. Doing your Research Project: a Guide for First-Time Researchers in Education, Health and Social Science. 5th ed. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Open University Press.• BURTON, D., and BARTLETT, S., 2005. Practitioner Research for Teachers. London: Paul Chapman.• COHEN, L., MANION, L. and MORRISON, K., 2007. Research Methods in Education. 6th ed. Oxon: Routledge.• SHARP, J., 2009. Success with your education research project. GB: Learning Matters Ltd.
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