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Eastern North American Andrenidae, bees, taxonomy, distribution, identification


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Eastern North American Andrenidae, bees, taxonomy, distribution, identification

  1. 1. Andrenidae Colletidae Melittidae A guide to their identification in Eastern North America
  2. 2. Acknowledgements <ul><li>This presentation has been put together by a consortium of North American bee biologists </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation has developed over many years and the original web picture acknowledgements were lost, if you see one of your pictures let us know and we will add your picture credit </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence can be sent to Sam Droege at </li></ul>
  3. 3. Format <ul><li>Each Genus has an information page followed by a page of illustrations and a map of the distribution of Eastern North American species; western populations of Eastern species are shown, but the Western species are not mapped. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of Eastern species are listed at the top of the page </li></ul>
  4. 4. Groups of Genera <ul><li>Andrenidae </li></ul><ul><li>Andrena </li></ul><ul><li>Calliopsis </li></ul><ul><li>Panurginus </li></ul><ul><li>Perdita </li></ul><ul><li>Protandrena </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudopanurgus </li></ul><ul><li>Colletidae </li></ul><ul><li>Caupolicana </li></ul><ul><li>Colletes </li></ul><ul><li>Hylaeus </li></ul><ul><li>Melittidae </li></ul><ul><li>Hesperapis </li></ul><ul><li>Macropis </li></ul><ul><li>Melitta </li></ul>
  5. 5. Family: Andrenidae <ul><li>Comprised of the following Genera: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrena – 116 species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calliopsis - 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panurginus - 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perdita -26 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protandrena - 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudopanurgus - 15 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Andrena <ul><li>Prominent facial fovea on females </li></ul><ul><li>Most species black a few with reddish abdomens </li></ul><ul><li>Some males and females with yellow on clypeus </li></ul><ul><li>Many species are pollen specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Many subtle characters available to separate species, but when using guides score these very conservatively as there are more opportunities for error when the species number is high and the number of questions long and then double check against species accounts and the complete scoring for the species. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar genera: Melitta, Colletes, Lasioglossum </li></ul>
  7. 7. Andrena - 116
  8. 8. Calliopsis <ul><li>Inhabits open fields. </li></ul><ul><li>The very common C. andreniformis often inhabits heavily used playing fields and other human-impacted sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Small size, 2-submarginal cells, the bright yellow legs of the male and the 3 vertical ivory-colored facial markings of the females are a distinctive combination </li></ul>
  9. 9. Calliopsis - 3 Small, C. andreniformis Common in Highly Disturbed Areas
  10. 10. Panurginus <ul><li>Small, spring, uncommon, black species </li></ul><ul><li>Males often having yellow on their face </li></ul><ul><li>2 submarginal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Close to Pseudopanurgus (which are mostly Fall species), but told apart by first recurrent and first transcubital veins directly intersecting </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-episternal groove completely absent, but usually very hard to see </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genera: Pseudopanurgus, Perdita, Protandrena </li></ul>
  11. 11. Panurginus - 3 Tiny and Uncommon
  12. 12. Perdita <ul><li>Among the smallest of bees </li></ul><ul><li>Most males and females have patterns of white or pale yellow on their face, thorax and abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>Most females with very thin and sparse tibial scopa </li></ul><ul><li>Short, truncated marginal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommonly collected but can be common in sandy localities </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genera: Pseudopanurgus, Panurginus, Protandrena </li></ul>
  13. 13. Perdita - 26 Tiny, Sand-Lover
  14. 14. Protandrena <ul><li>A very uncommon group in the East </li></ul><ul><li>3 submarginal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Best told by keying them out through the guide </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genera: Andrena, panurginus, Pseudopanurgus </li></ul>
  15. 15. Protandrena - 3 Rare
  16. 16. Pseudopanurgus <ul><li>Fall species, often on composites </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Panurginus </li></ul><ul><li>Small, dark bees, with 2 marginal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-episternal groove present, sometimes very weak and hard to see, running down and to the front from upper end of the mesepisturnum, in some minute species this is visible only at upper end </li></ul><ul><li>First transcubital vein does not meet the first recurrent vein; first recurrent vein shifted slightly to the interior of the second submarginal cell </li></ul><ul><li>Males have often extensive amounts of yellow on their faces. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be difficult to differentiate species </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genera: Panurginus, Protandrena, Perdita </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pseudopanurgus - 15 Tiny, Uncommon
  18. 18. Colletidae <ul><li>Comprised of the following genera: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caupolicana – 2 species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colletes – 35 species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hylaeus – 24 species </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Caupolicana <ul><li>A rarely observed genus restricted to coastal dune areas in the deep south and the sandy central Florida Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>These fast flying large species are usually only active at dawn and dusk </li></ul><ul><li>2 submarginal cells </li></ul><ul><li>The first recurrent vein usually joins or nearly joins the first transcubital vein </li></ul>
  20. 20. Caupolicana - 2 Deep South, Deep Sand Specialist, Very rare
  21. 21. Colletes <ul><li>General body shape often similar to a honeybee </li></ul><ul><li>Face heart-shaped due to the angling inward of the compound eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive in that the lower portion of the second recurrent arches out toward wing tip </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genus: Apis </li></ul>
  22. 22. Colletes - 35
  23. 23. Hylaeus <ul><li>Black, small, thin-elongate body, with relatively few hairs and no scopa as this genus carries pollen internally </li></ul><ul><li>Most females have elongate, thin, diamond yellow or ivory markings in the paraocular area between the eye and the clypeus/antennae </li></ul><ul><li>Males usually have more extensive yellow facial markings, with yellow throughout the area below the antennae </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hylaeus - 24 Common, masked, no scopa
  25. 25. Melittidae <ul><li>Comprised of the following genera: </li></ul><ul><li>Hesperapis – 2 species </li></ul><ul><li>Macropis – 4 species </li></ul><ul><li>Melitta – 3 species </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hesperapis <ul><li>Extremely uncommon bees </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted to coastal barrier islands in the Gulf of Mexico and dunes of the Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen noticeably flattened and integument soft compared to other groups </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genus: Calliopsis </li></ul>
  27. 27. Hesperapis - 2 Very Rare, Deep South Barrier Islands
  28. 28. Macropis <ul><li>Rare bees, apparently much less common than in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with loosestrife ( Lysimachia) plants </li></ul><ul><li>Small, dark bees, males with extensive yellow facial markings, 2 submarginal cells </li></ul>
  29. 29. Macropis - 4 Small, Rare Bee, Oil Specialist, Loosestrife
  30. 30. Melitta <ul><li>Andrena like, rarely encountered pollen specialists on Ericaceous shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Scopal hairs on female only on tibia not on femur and trochanter-like Andrena </li></ul><ul><li>Females also lack facial foveae, unlike Andrena </li></ul><ul><li>Males lack a basitibial plate </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Genus: Andrena </li></ul>
  31. 31. Melitta - 3 Uncommon, Specialist
  32. 32. Resources <ul><li>Species lists, Identification Guides, and Maps for genera and species are available at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>A guide to the genera of the bees of Canada is available at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell’s 1960’s book on the bees of the Eastern United States is available as a series of pdf files at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>A slightly out of date guide to the identification of the genera of ALL of North America is available at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>