Researching Costa Rica

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A Chronology of Research in Costa Rica presented to the NSTA Educational Delegation in 2010 by Holbrook Travel

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Researching Costa Rica

  1. 1. FROM CHRONICLES TO MODERN TECHNOLOGIES
  2. 3. <ul><li>TROPICAL RAINFORESTS ARE RESTRICTED TO AN AREA OF LESS THAN 20% OF THE WORLD’S SURFACE </li></ul><ul><li>YET, MORE THAN ONE THIRD OF ALL THE PLANET’S SPECIES ARE FOUND IN THE RAINFORESTS. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>32,000 SQUARED MILES </li></ul><ul><li>871 BIRD SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>600+ ANIMAL SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 PLANT AND TREE SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 SPECIES OF LEPIDOPTERANS </li></ul><ul><li>114 SPECIES OF BATS </li></ul>
  4. 5. JOSE DE ACOSTA (1540-1600) FRAY BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS (1484-1566) <ul><li>FIRST CHRONICLES OF CULTURE, FLORA, FAUNA AND USES OF THE LOCALS IN THE AMERICAS </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>1600 – 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>VERY LITTLE OR NO ACTIVITY IN TERMS OF FIELD RESEARCH IN AREAS OTHEE THAN AGRICULTURE </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>THE MOST PROLIFIC PERIOD FOR FIELD SCIENCES IN HISTORY OF COSTA RICA </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>EUROPEAN NATURALISTS </li></ul><ul><li>LIVED IN THE COUNTRY FOR MANY YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>ASSIMILATED TRADITIONS AND CULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETE INVENTORY OF FLORA AND FAUNA </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT (1769-1859) </li></ul><ul><li>ALEXANDER VON FRANTZIUS (1821-1877) </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>ADOLPHE TONDUZ </li></ul><ul><li>(1862-1921) </li></ul><ul><li>ANDERS SANDOE OERSTED </li></ul><ul><li>1816-1872) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>KARL HOFFMANN </li></ul><ul><li>1823-1859) </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAM MORE GABB </li></ul><ul><li>(1839-1878) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>SPENCER FULLERTON BAIRD (1823-1887) </li></ul><ul><li>MORITZ WAGNER </li></ul><ul><li>(1813-1887) </li></ul>
  12. 13. THE COSTA RICAN NATURALISTS <ul><li>ANASTASIO ALFARO </li></ul><ul><li>(1865-19519 </li></ul><ul><li>ALBERTO MANUEL BRENES </li></ul><ul><li>(1870-1948) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>RESULTS: </li></ul><ul><li>UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL HERBARIUM </li></ul><ul><li>LICEO DE COSTA RICA </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>MODERN SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>MORE IMMEDIATE EXPOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH EFFORTS GO TOGETHER WITH CONSERVATION INITIATIVES </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH END EXPLORATION INSTITUTIONS GET INVOLVED </li></ul>
  15. 16. HENRY PITTIER (1857-1950) <ul><li>FOUNDER OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INSTITUTE </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD RESEARCHER </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST STUDIES ON LIFE ZONES </li></ul>
  16. 17. CLODOMIRO PICADO (1877-1944) <ul><li>BIOLOGIST & RESEARCHER </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBER OF PASTEUR INSTITUTE </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPED SNAKE ANTI-VENOMS </li></ul><ul><li>CO-DISCOVERER OF PENICILIN </li></ul>
  17. 18. LESLIE HOLDRIDGE (1907-1999) <ul><li>BOTANIST </li></ul><ul><li>CO-FOUNDER OF TCC AND OTS </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPED CURRENT SYSTEM FOR CLASIFICATION OF LIFE ZONES </li></ul>
  18. 19. ARCHE CARR (1909-1987) <ul><li>BIOLOGIST </li></ul><ul><li>CREATION OF TORTUGUERO NATIONAL PARK </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANCE OF MIGRATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MULTINATIONAL EFFORTS FOR CONSERVATION </li></ul>
  19. 20. ALEXANDER SKUTCH <ul><li>AGRONOMIST & ORNITHOLOGIST </li></ul><ul><li>STUDIED COSTA RICAN AVIFAUNA </li></ul><ul><li>CO-FOUNDER OF TCC </li></ul>
  20. 21. PAUL STANDLEY (1884-1963) <ul><li>BOTANIST </li></ul><ul><li>WORKED WITH FLORA OF CENTRAL AMERICA </li></ul><ul><li>MODERN METHOD S OF DESCRIPTION AND TAXONOMY </li></ul>
  21. 22. JUVENAL VALERIO (1900-1971) <ul><li>DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL MUSEUM </li></ul><ul><li>PROFESSOR UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL HERBARIUM </li></ul>
  22. 23. RAFAEL LUCAS RODRIGUEZ (1915-1981) <ul><li>BOTANIST </li></ul><ul><li>ORCHID INVENTORY </li></ul><ul><li>PROFESSOR AT UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA </li></ul>
  23. 24. CHARLES LANKESTER (1879-1969) <ul><li>BOTANIST </li></ul><ul><li>ORCHID INVENTORY </li></ul><ul><li>FILANTROPIST </li></ul><ul><li>CREATOR OF LANKESTER BOTANICAL GARDENS </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>MORE INSTITUTION BASED </li></ul><ul><li>RECEIVES WIDE COVERAGE </li></ul><ul><li>APPLIED TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>MORE ACCESS TO FUNDING </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MULTINATIONAL EFFORTS </li></ul>
  25. 27. UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY TECH INSTITUTE
  26. 28. OVSICORI AND RSN GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE LANKESTER BOTANICAL GARDENS
  27. 29. IUCN WWF NATURE CONSERVANCY
  28. 30. OTS TCC INBIO CATIE
  29. 33. <ul><li>RESEARCH PROTOCOLS & METHODOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST HAND EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>CONSERVATION PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPOSURE TO REAL NEEDS AND REGIONAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBAL MENTALITY </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>WITNESS FIRST HAND ONGOING REASEARCH AND CONSERVATION INITIATIVES - TORTUGUERO </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION TO LONG-TERM RESEARCH / FOLLOW UP PROGRAMS - ARENAL </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>PARTICIPATION IN STRATEGIES DEVELOPED FOR FIELD RESEARCH EDUCATION & APPLIED SCIENCES - MONTEVERDE </li></ul>

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