Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Mauricio Manhães: Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design

628 views

Published on

Over the last two decades, service design has steadily attracted adopters from both practitioner and academic realms. The diverse origins of these adopters pose challenges for the further advancement of the discipline. To address one of those challenges, an automated text analysis technique was used to identify discursive elements of service design practitioners’ narrative to address organizational change. The findings identified three basins of meaning in the discursive construction of service design practitioners: STORIES, TEAM, and IMPLEMENTING. It also identified a strong lack of consistency of service design discursive elements regarding implementation.

Published in: Design
  • Be the first to comment

Mauricio Manhães: Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design

  1. 1. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Mauricio Manhaes, Ph.D. mmanhaes@scad.edu. Savannah College of Art and Design Savannah, GA, United States. 1
  2. 2. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Constructing an Approach 2
  3. 3. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Constructing an Approach • Study to investigate the characteristics of a service design discourse • Fall 2016 - Present • Four phases and counting: • Phase 1 – Service Design Approach • Phase 2 – Topics from Automated Text Analysis • Phase 3 – Proto-discourse about Service Design • Phase 4 – Proposing Three Overarching Perspectives 3
  4. 4. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 1 Service Design Approach 4
  5. 5. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 1 – Service Design Approach • Fall Quarter of 2016 • Research: • How service design practitioners describe their approach to complex projects (Basore, Dhawan, Dong, Moore, & Sin, 2017). • Organizational Change 5
  6. 6. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 1 – Organizational Change Managers # Manager Location Company Position 1 MGR1 HK Consultancy Convenor 2 MGR2 USA Industry Design Practices Director 3 MGR3 USA Industry Global VP, User Experience & Design 4 MGR4 UK Consultancy Senior Executive Coach & Trainer 5 MGR5 USA Industry Human-Centered Innovation Leader 6 MGR6 USA Consultancy Organizational & Program Development 7 MGR7 USA Consultancy Innovation Manager 8 MGR8 USA Consultancy Design Transformation Lead 9 MGR9 Brazil Consultancy Founder and Service Designer 10 MGR10 USA Consultancy Talent & Culture Manager 11 MGR11 USA Industry HR Business Partner
  7. 7. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 1 – Service Design Practitioners # Respondent Scenarios Location Company Position 1 R4/S1 S1 USA Consultancy Experience Design Lead 2 R5/S1 S1 USA Consultancy Senior Art Director 3 R7/S1 S1 Canada University Organizational Psychologist in Training 4 R2/S2 S2 UK Company Senior Consultant and Design Director 5 R4/S2 S2 USA Consultancy Founder and Service Design Consultant 6 R5/S2 S2 USA Company Experience Designer 7 R1/S3 S3 USA Company Design Director 8 R2/S3 S3 USA Consultancy Lead Service Designer 9 R3/S3 S3 Germany Company Founder, Service Design Consultant and Author 10 R1/S4 S4 USA Company Service Designer 11 R2/S4 S4 China Consultancy Innovation Consultant 12 R2/S5 S5 Hong Kong Consultancy Senior Design Research Consultant 13 R5/S5 S5 Germany Independent consultant User Driven Innovation, Research and Strategy Consultant
  8. 8. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Affinization
  9. 9. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design
  10. 10. Phase1-DifferentPaths
  11. 11. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 1 – Service Design Approach 11
  12. 12. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 1 - Touchpoint 8-3 Organisational change is currently an intriguing topic in the field of service design. Effective change efforts help drive innovation and promote other positive cultural practices within organisations. However, dealing with cultural change within an organisation is a complex endeavour. As we all know, organisations vary in size, hierarchal structures, mission, values and other factors. These all present a number of challenges when trying to implement cultural change. While there are similarities in approaches, there is not one standard way to tackle these issues. 12
  13. 13. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 Topics from Automated Text Analisys 13
  14. 14. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 – Topics: Automated Text Analysis No Keywords Eigenvalue % Var Freq. Cases % Cases 1 STORIES; SERVICE; PROJECTS; MAPS; IMPACT; PHASE; WORK; INTERNAL; PROTOTYPES; INNOVATION; JOURNEY; MAPPING; METHODS; DESIGN; WORKING 8.41 16.97 62 5 100.00% 2 TEAM; DATA; INTERVENTION; IMPORTANT; ORGANIZATION; EMPLOYEES; CULTURE; WORKING; CHANGE; BUY-IN; MANAGEMENT; PROJECTS 3.69 15.33 59 5 100.00% 3 IMPLEMENTING; CO-CREATE; PEOPLE; BUY-IN; UPPER; MANAGEMENT; PROTOTYPES 2.79 10.27 29 4 80.00% 14
  15. 15. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Topic 1: Word Cloud 15 STORIES SERVICE PROJECTSMAPS IMPACT PHASE WORK INTERNAL PROTOTYPES INNOVATION JOURNEY MAPPING METHODS DESIGN WORKING
  16. 16. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 – Higher Consistency Topic: “Service Stories” No Keywords Eigenvalue % Var Freq. Cases % Cases 1 STORIES; SERVICE; PROJECTS; MAPS; IMPACT; PHASE; WORK; INTERNAL; PROTOTYPES; INNOVATION; JOURNEY; MAPPING; METHODS; DESIGN; WORKING 8.41 16.97 62 5 100.00% 2 TEAM; DATA; INTERVENTION; IMPORTANT; ORGANIZATION; EMPLOYEES; CULTURE; WORKING; CHANGE; BUY-IN; MANAGEMENT; PROJECTS 3.69 15.33 59 5 100.00% 3 IMPLEMENTING; CO-CREATE; PEOPLE; BUY-IN; UPPER; MANAGEMENT; PROTOTYPES 2.79 10.27 29 4 80.00% 16
  17. 17. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Service and Stories
  18. 18. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Service Design 3OPs: nothing new… • State A: Now • State B: Preferred Future • Bridge: Implement (Simon, 1968) 18 Topic 1 Stories/Service Topic 2 Team/Data Topic 3 Implementing/Co-create “A new logical structure of the design process is: 1 Instead of a problem, we have: state A of a system; 2 Instead of a solution, we have: state B of the system; and 3 The designer and the user are part of the system (stakeholders).” (Findeli, 2001)
  19. 19. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 – Topics with Different Consistencies No Keywords Eigenvalue % Var Freq. Cases % Cases 1 STORIES; SERVICE; PROJECTS; MAPS; IMPACT; PHASE; WORK; INTERNAL; PROTOTYPES; INNOVATION; JOURNEY; MAPPING; METHODS; DESIGN; WORKING 8.41 16.97 62 5 100.00% 2 TEAM; DATA; INTERVENTION; IMPORTANT; ORGANIZATION; EMPLOYEES; CULTURE; WORKING; CHANGE; BUY-IN; MANAGEMENT; PROJECTS 3.69 15.33 59 5 100.00% 3 IMPLEMENTING; CO-CREATE; PEOPLE; BUY-IN; UPPER; MANAGEMENT; PROTOTYPES 2.79 10.27 29 4 80.00% 15 words 12 words 7 words Table 2 – Topics Extraction from 9 Respondents of Phase 1 19
  20. 20. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 – Topics with Different Consistencies No Keywords Eigenvalue % Var Freq. Cases % Cases 1 STORIES; SERVICE; PROJECTS; MAPS; IMPACT; PHASE; WORK; INTERNAL; PROTOTYPES; INNOVATION; JOURNEY; MAPPING; METHODS; DESIGN; WORKING 8.41 16.97 62 5 100.00% 2 TEAM; DATA; INTERVENTION; IMPORTANT; ORGANIZATION; EMPLOYEES; CULTURE; WORKING; CHANGE; BUY-IN; MANAGEMENT; PROJECTS 3.69 15.33 59 5 100.00% 3 IMPLEMENTING; CO-CREATE; PEOPLE; BUY-IN; UPPER; MANAGEMENT; PROTOTYPES 2.79 10.27 29 4 80.00% 15 words 12 words 7 words Table 2 – Topics Extraction from 9 Respondents of Phase 1 20
  21. 21. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 – Excerpts of Topics • Topic 1 - ‘STORIES’: • Q6 – R2 / S2: “Opportunity STORIES, […]. User STORIES (Epic, Themes and STORIES) […].” • Q7 – R3 / S3: “Keep on communicating both success as well as failure STORIES.” • Topic 2 - ‘TEAM’: • Q7 – R7 / S1: “After the large group intervention, the TEAM would meet to consider next steps.” • Q7 – R3 / S3: “Create a formal internal TEAM (or council) or service design experts […].” • Topic 3 - ‘IMPLEMENTING’: • Q5 – R7 / S1: “Collect this qualitative data from customers and employees to get a pulse on the overall buy-in of the organization on a potential change initiative before IMPLEMENTING anything.” • Q7 – R1 / S1: “[…] absolutely has to be co-create with the people that will be IMPLEMENTING changes […].” 21
  22. 22. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 2 - SERVDES 2018 • ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, service design has steadily attracted adopters from both practitioner and academic realms. The diverse origins of these adopters pose challenges for the further advancement of the discipline. To address one of those challenges, this text investigates the use of an automated text analysis technique to explore the possibility to identify discursive elements of service design practitioners’ narrative to address organizational change. The author presents results of an automated text analysis of textual responses to a survey that reveal the main topics associated with 9 service design practitioners’ approaches to 5 different scenarios. These findings identify three basins of meaning in the discursive construction of the survey respondents: STORIES, TEAM, and IMPLEMENTING. It also shed light on a possible framework for apprehending the social reality of service design practices through discursive elements.
  23. 23. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 3 Proto-discourse about Service Design 23
  24. 24. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 3 – Proto-discourse about Service Design • Understand the Topics from the automated text analysis • Analyse Topics under the results of the previous phases • Relate Topics to the available literature 24
  25. 25. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 3 – Proto-discourse for STORIES Topic 1: Stories (Excerpt) • The analysis and synthesis of Topic 1: • STORIES; SERVICE; PROJECTS; MAPS; IMPACT; PHASE; WORK; INTERNAL; PROTOTYPES; INNOVATION; JOURNEY; MAPPING; METHODS; DESIGN; WORKING; • […] DESIGN of innovative SERVICE propositions demands crafting and telling the right kind of practical and emancipatory STORIES (Alvesson & Karreman, 2000; Feldman & Sköldberg, 2004) to the right audiences at the right PHASE. […] 25
  26. 26. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 3 – Proto-discourse for TEAM Topic 2: Team (Excerpt) • The analysis and synthesis of Topic 2: • TEAM; DATA; INTERVENTION; IMPORTANT; ORGANIZATION; EMPLOYEES; CULTURE; WORKING; CHANGE; BUY-IN; MANAGEMENT; PROJECTS; • […] in which an organisation “lives” by analysing its relationships with current and prospective stakeholders (ORGANIZATION; CULTURE), as well as the nature and the role of said stakeholders (EMPLOYEES; TEAM; MANAGEMENT). To understand stakeholders’ contexts most IMPORTANT (prioritizing) aspects, service design relies on producing valid DATA. […] 26
  27. 27. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 3 – Proto-discourse for IMPLEMENTING Topic 3: Implementing (Excerpt) • The analysis and synthesis of Topic 3: • IMPLEMENTING; CO-CREATE; PEOPLE; BUY-IN; UPPER; MANAGEMENT; PROTOTYPES • […] influence and contribute to IMPLEMENTING organizational change. In order to do that, service design efforts should CO-CREATE an understanding in middle and lower MANAGEMENT, and then obtain UPPER MANAGEMENT BUY-IN-in […] 27
  28. 28. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 3 and 4 SERVSIG 2018 • Opportunities for Services in a Challenging World • Paris, June 14-16, 2018 28
  29. 29. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 4 – Proposing Three Overarching Perspectives 29
  30. 30. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 4 - Constructing a Discourse 1. Understanding Stakeholders Contexts (Topic 2: Team/Data) With training in qualitative and quantitative research methodology and tools, coupled with advanced design and co-creation skills, a SD is able to develop and communicate a holistic yet detailed analysis of the various factors that impact the relationship of an organization with current and prospective stakeholders; 2. Understanding Innovation Dynamics (Topic 1: Stories/Service) Having a deep understanding of service and of the complexities involved in its lifecycles (which may include a solid knowledge about the Service-Dominant Logic), a SD is able to identify and communicate strategic opportunities and to ideate and design innovative propositions with the power to disrupt, thus propelling institutions into preferred futures; 3. Understanding Institutional Transitions (Topic 3: Implementing/Co-create) Possessing a broad socio-historic perspective on the economic landscape, a SD is able to develop and communicate a constantly updated understanding of macro and micro-trends that may contribute to effectively encourage and manage institutional transitions into the future. 30
  31. 31. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 4 - Reviewers of Prototype Discourse # Reviewer Location Company Position 1 REV1 USA Consultancy Executive Director 2 REV2 Germany Company Founder 3 REV3 USA University Director Graduate Program 4 REV4 USA University Associate Chair 31
  32. 32. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 4 – Journal’s Editorial Board # Ed. Board Location Company Position 1 EDT1 Netherlands Consultancy Principal Service Designer 2 EDT2 Denmark Company Senior R&D User Research Lead 3 EDT3 Finland Company First Vice President 4 EDT4 UK Consultancy Design Team Lead 5 EDT5 UK Consultancy Communication Designer 6 EDT6 Germany NGO Founder and President 32
  33. 33. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 4 - Touchpoint 9-1 “From a critical standpoint, it was preferred to designate overarching perspectives rather than specific human characteristics or practices, so that these three conceptual spaces can be applied by all sorts of companies and individuals, freeing them from defining specific tools, practices, personalities, professional skills and capabilities.” 33
  34. 34. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Phase 5 – …? 34
  35. 35. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design 8 Topic Extraction by Document
  36. 36. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Topic 1 (Document): PLANNING; INNOVATION
  37. 37. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design 8 Topic Extraction by Paragraph
  38. 38. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Topic 1 (Paragraph): HUMAN; CENTERED; EXPERIENCES
  39. 39. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design 8 Topic Extraction by Phrase
  40. 40. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Topic 1 (Sentence): DESIGN; RESEARCH;
  41. 41. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Hiring a Service Designer… Why? What? Understanding Stakeholders Contexts With training in qualitative and quantitative research methodology and tools, coupled with advanced design and co-creation skills, a SD is able to develop and communicate a holistic yet detailed analysis of the various factors that impact the relationship of an organization with current and prospective stakeholders. Assess the candidate on his/her: (a) qualitative and quantitative research skills on human-centered design (including workshop facilitation) and business-related aspects affecting an organization, (b) ability to locate, acquire and analyze data, and provide a context related interpretation through specific methods and tools, and (c) competence in visualizing and communicating effectively and meaningfully the results of research. Understanding Innovation Dynamics Having a deep understanding of service and of the complexities involved in its lifecycles (which may include a solid knowledge about the Service- Dominant Logic), a SD is able to identify and communicate strategic opportunities and to ideate and design innovative propositions with the power to disrupt , thus propelling institutions into preferred futures. Assess the candidate on his/her: (a) understanding of the organization’s offerings (goods and services), production and delivery system in context, (b) ability to identify strategic opportunities and how to leverage them, and (c) proficiency in designing propositions that both differentiate and propel the organization’s offerings towards innovation. Understanding Institutional Transition Possessing a broad socio-historic perspective on the economic landscape, a SD is able to develop and communicate a constantly updated understanding of macro and micro-trends that may contribute to effectively encourage and manage institutional transitions into the future. Assess the candidate on his/her: (a) socio-historic and economic understanding of social contexts, (b) ability to identify and screen the relevant trends attending to different criteria and goals, and (c) empathy and collaboration skills that can facilitate both internal and external organizational transition. 41
  42. 42. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Three Overarching Perspectives 42
  43. 43. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Service Design 3OPs: a critical thinking perspective • State A: Now • State B: Preferred Future • Bridge: Implement (Simon, 1968) 43 Topic 1 Stories/Service Topic 2 Team/Data Topic 3 Implementing/Co-create “A new logical structure of the design process is: 1 Instead of a problem, we have: state A of a system; 2 Instead of a solution, we have: state B of the system; and 3 The designer and the user are part of the system (stakeholders).” (Findeli, 2001)
  44. 44. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Literature • Karpen, I. O., Gemser, G., & Calabretta, G. (2017). A multilevel consideration of service design conditions: Towards a portfolio of organisational capabilities, interactive practices and individual abilities. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(2), 384–407. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-05-2015-0121 • Akaka, M. A., Vargo, S. L., & Wieland, H. (2017). Extending the Context of Innovation: The Co- creation and Institutionalization of Technology and Markets. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3- 319-43380-6_3 • Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2015). Institutions and Axioms: An Extension and Update of Service-Dominant Logic. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 5–23. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-015-0456-3 • Findeli, A. (2001). Rethinking Design Education for the 21st Century: Theoretical, Methodological, and Ethical Discussion. Design Issues, 17(1), 5–17.
  45. 45. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design A multilevel consideration of service design conditions. (Karpen, Gemser, & Calabretta, 2017). 45
  46. 46. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Uncertainty Understanding Stakeholders Context Understanding Innovation Dynamics Understanding Institutional Transitions Prototyping Experiments Tests Pilots Higher Lower Critical Thinking Path
  47. 47. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design 47
  48. 48. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design 48
  49. 49. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design Service Design as a Discoursive System Common Discourse “From a critical standpoint, […] freeing them from defining specific tools, practices, personalities, professional skills and capabilities.”
  50. 50. Three Overarching Perspectives for Service Design @mcmanhaes - mmanhaes@scad.edu - mauricio.manhaes@liveworkstudio.com.br 51 Thanks! Reflections? Questions?

×