Respiratory system mine 4th year

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Respiratory system mine 4th year

  1. 1. Respiratory System
  2. 2. Why do we, large organisms, need a respiratory system???
  3. 3. Any respiratory surface needs: ▪ 1- LARGE SURFACE AREA ▪ 2-THIN EPITHELIUM  SHORT DISTANCE FOR DIFFUSION ▪ 3- CAPILLARY NETWORK  KEEPS * LOW CONCENTRATIONOF * HIGH CONCENTRATIONOF ▪ 4-VENTILATION  HIGH DIFFUSION GRADIENT ▪ 5- GOOD SUPPLY OF ▪ 6- MUST BE MOIST  PREVENT CELLS FROM DYING
  4. 4. The respiratory gases ▪ are: cells need to: obtain O2 WHY? eliminate CO2 WHY?
  5. 5. The respiratory gases ▪ are: cells need to: obtain O2 to produce ATP from food eliminate CO2 to prevent toxic effects+ water BREATHING
  6. 6. Breathing and respiration Respiration is the process used in all living things for gaining ENERGY from FOOD. Breathing: VENTILATION GASEOUS EXCHANGE Process of renewing the air in the lungs Inspiration / Expiration Intake of O2 and output of CO2 at the alveoli
  7. 7. Human Respiratory System
  8. 8.  Passageway for respiration  Receptors for smell  Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign material  Warms incoming air Upper Respiratory Tract Functions Epiglottis  stops food and drink from entering the air passages when we swallow
  9. 9.  Functions:  Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound production  Trachea: transports air to and from lungs  Bronchi: branch into lungs  Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange Lower Respiratory Tract Cartilage rings  No collapsing
  10. 10. MUCUS Lined by EPITHELIUM CILIATED CELLS Trap dust /bacteria bronchi Bronchioles Trachea Away from the alveoli *alveolar number 480 million *90 m2 of absorbing surface
  11. 11. Alveoli Right ventricle Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery LEFT atrium
  12. 12. Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids DIGESTION AA Glucose Fatty acids + glycerol BLOOD Glucose PYRUVIC ACID 2 C Y T O P L A S M No O2 enzymes C6H12O6 2C2H5OH+2 CO2+ 118kj/2 ATP Glucose alcohol carbon E dioxide KREBS CYCLE MITOCHONDRION AEROBIC RESPIRATION enzymes C6H12O6 + 6 O 6CO2+6H2O+ 2830kj / 38 ATP (40% is used) Glucose oxygen carbon water E Substrates dioxide Glucose Glucose PYRUVIC ACID LACTIC ACID 2 ATP LACTIC ACIDPYRUVIC ACID BLOOD MUSCLE LIVER CORI CYCLE Only in EXTREME MUSCULAR ACTIVITY 6 ATP FERMENTATION GLUCO NEO GENESIS OXYGEN DEBT
  13. 13. Parietal pleura Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Pleural cavity Diaphragm LUNGS * Air sacs/ no muscle => expand or contract by movements of RIBS (and its muscles) and DIAPHRAM Produce PLEURAL FLUID NO FRICTION
  14. 14. The lungs have helpers ▪ The RIBS protect the lungs and help us breathe. ▪ Another helper is the DIAPHRAGM. ▪ The INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES (internal & external)
  15. 15. Respiratory Cycle Figure 10.9 EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS contract INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS contract Air flows OUT
  16. 16. Lung volumes and capacities Gaseous Exchange happens here 5 ls500 cm3 3 ls 1.5 litres
  17. 17. Breathing▪ is an involuntary function of the CNS * a respiratory / breathing center in the medulla oblongata [part of brain stem] establishes basic breathing pattern Brain stem Spinal cord
  18. 18. Film of moisture Lining of the alveoli Dissolves the O2 Evaporates into the alveoli Saturates the air with water vapour
  19. 19. Explain this statement: Persons who are born and live at sea level will have a smaller lung capacity than those who spend their life at a high altitude.
  20. 20. Can cause Bronchioles constriction Cilia stop beating More mucus production *LUNG CANCER *EMPHYSEMA SMOKER’S COUGH *CHRONIC BRONCHITIS *HEART DISEASE *LEG AMPUTATION *STROKE *CANCER OF BLADDER *ULCERS *TOOTH DECAY/ GUM DISEASE *PREGNANT SMOKERS * SMALLER BABIES *MISCARRIAGES
  21. 21. Cancer of the bronchus has spread into the lungs (29)
  22. 22. Lungs: The picture on the left is of emphysema (large air sacs) and the picture on the right is of normal lung.(27) emphysema normal lung

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