Endocrine system mine for 4th


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Endocrine system mine for 4th

  1. 1. Endocrine System Function control systems, maintain homeostasis: a) control chemical and water balance in body b) control growth and metabolism c) control embryonic development and preparation for nurturing a newborn d) influence sexual behavior, stimulate growth and maturation of the gonads e) feedback to the nervous system
  2. 2. The Endocrine System • Derives its name from the fact that various glands release – Through special chemical hormones directly into substances released into the blood called hormones the blood, which in turn – Hormones affect other transports the endocrine glands or body hormones to target systems, speeding up or organs. slowing down the activity of • Controls many body functions these organs Once used, hormones do not remain in the blood, they are changed in the liver and excreted by the kidneys
  3. 3. Endocrine System How does it work? Basic Overview of the Feedback System 1) Nervous systems monitors environment 2) If aberrations are detected - nervous system sends message to endocrine glands 3) Endocrine glands produce and secrete hormones into blood 4) Hormones hit target organ 5) Target organ produces substance 6) Substance is picked up by receptors and brain stops sending message to endocrine glands
  4. 4. Response of the body to Hormones Affect long-term changes such as Growth rate Puberty Pregnancy Slower Often affect many organ systems at once Defficiency or excess produce illnesses It depends on the speed of the circulatory system
  5. 5. The Endocrine System • • Consists of several glands located in various parts of the body. Pituitary gland: a small gland attached the base of the brain • “The Master Gland” – Primary function is to control other glands. – Produces many hormones. – Secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus in the base of the brain.
  6. 6. The Pituitary Gland produces • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • Regulates the amount of water reabsorbed in the KIDNEYS • Thyroid-stimulating hormone • Acts on thyroid and make (TSH) it produce THYROXINE • Growth hormone (GH) • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) • Luteinizing hormone (LH) (T3 and T4) *Affects the growth rate of the body and the skeleton in particular * Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maduration and reproductive process of the body in GIRLS When it reaches the ovaries, it makes one of the follicles start to mature and to produce oestrogen * Together with FSH induces OVULATION
  7. 7. The Endocrine System – TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones, thus ↑ metabolic rate – Growth hormone (GH) ∀ ↓ glucose usage ∀ ↑ consumption of fats as an energy source – ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones – FSH & LH stimulates maturation & release of eggs from ovary.
  8. 8. Pituitary Gland Disorders: To much growth hormones (GH) in early childhood can result in a condition called gigantism. To little GH can result in Pituitary Dwarfism. Robert Wadlow
  9. 9. The Endocrine System • The Thyroid Gland – lies in the anterior neck just below the larynyx. – Two lobes, located on either side of the trachea, connected by a narrow band of tissue • It produces the thyroid hormones: – thyroxine (T4) • AA+ iodine It controls our level of activity, promotes normal skeletal growth and normal development of the brain – triiodothyronine (T3) • When stimulated (by TSH or by cold), these are released into the circulatory system and ↑ the metabolic rate.
  10. 10. The Endocrine System • Inadequate levels of thyroid hormones = a) hypothyroidism b) hyperthyroidism • Symptoms: – Facial bloating – weakness – cold intolerance – lethargy – altered mental status – oily skin and hair Signs and symptoms: -insomnia, fatigue -tachycardia -hypertension -heat intolerance -weight loss
  11. 11. The Endocrine System • Pancreas – a key gland located in the folds of the duodenum – has both endocrine (ductless) and exocrine functions – secretes several key digestive enzymes but also hormones • Islets of Langerhans – specialized tissues in which the endocrine functions of the pancreas occurs – include 3 types of cells: • alpha (α ) • beta (β) • delta (∂) – each secretes an important hormone.
  12. 12. The Endocrine System • The rise of glucagon • When blood glucose stimulates the liver to levels fall, α cells↑ the * release glucose stores amount of glucagon in the (from glycogen and blood . additional storage sites(fats)) * to manufacture glucose (gluconeogenesis) • HIGH level of sugar in the blood
  13. 13. The Endocrine System • When the level of sugar in the blood is HIGH • Beta Cells (β) release insulin (antagonistic to glucagon). Delta Cells (∂) produce somatostatin, which inhibits both glucagon and insulin. • When Insulin reaches the liver, it stimulates the liver cells to take up glucose and store it as GLYCOGEN • Insulin ↑ the rate at which various body cells take up glucose. Thus, insulin lowers the blood glucose level.
  14. 14. GLUCAGON INSULIN Encourages the burning of fats for energy Encourages the storage of fats/ burns glucose for energy Encourages the use of cholesterol, slows down the cholesterol production Encourages the production of cholesterol, to be stored Promotes the kidneys to remove salts Slows down the kidneys, it stops and fluids from bloodstream  salts and fluids from leaving Blood pressure DECREASES INCREASES blood pressure Happens some time after eating Secreted after you eat Encourages the breakdown of smooth muscle over your vessels to make room for blood to flow Blood pressure DECREASES Encourages the growth of smooth muscle over your vessels less room for blood to flow Blood pressure INCREASES There´s no easy way to increase the production of GLUCAGON Is increased by consuming carbohydrates
  15. 15. DIABETES Type 1 Type 2 Failure of the islets to produce sufficient insulin Reduced ability of the body cells to use insulin Less common Common in over 40-year-old people Autoimmune/ inherited Most common obesity Juvenile onset Adult onset Insulin-dependent Controlled by diet/doesn’t require insulin
  16. 16. • Adrenal Glands *2 small glands that sit atop both kidneys. * Each has 2 divisions, each with different functions. 1) the Adrenal Medulla secretes ADRENALINE (closely related to the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system). Also called epinephrine, 1) increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress 2) supplies more oxygen to your brain and muscles 3)constricts the vessels in your skin and digestive system 4) tenses your muscles (to run away) 5) conversion of glycogen into glucose/fats to fatty acids
  17. 17. The Endocrine System 2) The Adrenal Cortex secretes steroid hormones (corticosteroids) synthesized from cholesterol – gluticocorticoids: CORTISOL -↑ the level of glucose in the blood/ controls the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins – Released in response to stress, injury, or serious infection – Mineralocorticoids:ALDOSTERONE – work to regulate the concentration of potassium and sodium in the body.
  18. 18. The Endocrine System Reproductive organs • Gonads and Ovaries: – the endocrine glands associated with human reproduction. – They produce a) GAMETES  Female ovaries produce eggs and male gonads produce sperm b) HORMONES Testes: Ovaries: Controlled by pituitary hormones FSH and LH, they manufacture • testosterone promotes male growth and masculinization Under the control of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland, they manufacture • estrogen • protesterone Prepare the uterus for the implantation of the embryo
  19. 19. Where are these hormones generated? Thyroxine Insulin testosterone Calcitonin growth hormone estrogen progesterone Epinephrine or Adrenaline Glucagon
  20. 20. Which disease do you think they suffer?
  21. 21. Performance- enhancing hormones ANABOLIC STEROIDS and HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE increases muscle development and reduces body fat Side effects: sterility, masculinization, liver and kidney malfunction ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) stimulates production of red blood cells more oxygen in sports that require resistance Side effects: risk of strokes and heart attacks