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Biology unit 1 cell (reparado)


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Biology unit 1 cell (reparado)

  1. 1. SENSITIVITY NUTRITION RESPIRATION EXCRETION MOVEMENTGROWTHREPRODUCTIONBiologyPROCARYOTE EUCARYOTEDIVISION OF WORKMULTICELLULAR plants or animalscontain millions ofSPECIALIZATIONORGANELLES  CELLS  TISSUES ORGANS  SYSTEM  ORGANISMRESPIRATORYSYSTEMDIGESTIVESYSTEMCIRCULATORYSYSTEMNERVOUSSYSTEMENDOCRINESYSTEMEXCRETORYSYSTEMREPRODUCTIVESYSTEMMADE UP BY CELLSAbility todetectSTIMULI andreact tothem*gaseousexchange*BREATHINGChemicalreaction inthe cell thatreleases Efrom food(break down+ O2)Obtainingnutrients fromenvironmentthat providethem with Eand materialsRemoval of thewaste productsgenerated inthe chemicalreactions(METABOLISM)Movement inwhole body orparts tochangeposition orplacePERMANENTincrease inSIZE andMASS byincrease thenumber orsize of a cellMaking neworganismsLIKE ITSELFAnimal cell1 divides/ 1 specializesCell*grows*change shape (adapt tofuction)*lose ability to %Plant cellGenerates cell wall / specialized-> vacuoleis the science that studies life and living organisms
  2. 2. ENZYME1) CATALYST => speed up chemical reactions Catabolism (respiration)/Anabolism(building up of proteins)But NO CHANGE/can be re used2) PRoTEINS => aminoacids=> CHON3) SPECIFIC : act on ONE substance (break down)/ a pair of substances (build up)=>SUBSTRATE Hydrogen perioxide (H2O2)+ catalase = H2O+O4) Higher t °/ faster they act : Optimum t °40° C+ than 40° C => cross linkages break down/loses shapeand properties DENATURATION5) PH is a measure of ACIDITY (-7) or ALKALINITY (+7)and is amathematical method for expressing the concentration of H+ions in solution.Most enzymes work best at a ph of 7/ They are affected by extremes of ph --Exceptions: pepsin ph2 amylase ph 7 or +76) Present in a) membrane system b) mitochondria c) special vacuoles d) cytoplasmTypical organelles Organelles present inbothTypical organelles*Lysosomes (digestthings)*Cell membrane (noescaping/maintainsstruct/ controls substthat enter or leave)*Cell wall (shape/notbursting)=> cellulose/PERMEABLE*centrioles (cellular %) *Nucleus (control centerDNA)*Plastids (STARCH)Chloroplasts =>CHLOROPHYLL(photosynthesis)*several vacuoles NOTpermanent*Cytoplasm*Nucleolus (makeribosomes)*Central vacuole(keep plantupright) SAP*Ribosomes (generateproteins)*Mitochondria (generateE)*Smooth EndoplasmicReticulum (toxic/lipids)*Rough EndoplasmicReticulum (transportproteins)*Golgi Apparatus(packaging/distribution)
  3. 3. WatersolubleNOT soluble in WATER  foodstorageCHOPhysiology of a whole organism is the physiology of its component cells !!!!How long could the people have remained alive in the water?On the night of the Titanic sinking, the temperature of the salt water was likelyaround 28° F(-2 °C). The human body loses heat to the water about 30 timesfaster than it does to the air. When the core body temperature falls toapproximately (31°C), a decrease in consciousness occurs. If the coretemperature cools to below 86° F(30°C) then heart failure becomes a majorconcern, as it is the most common cause of hypothermia-related deaths. Thepeople in the -2 °C water above the sinking Titanic would have had anywhere from severalminutes to an hour to live, depending on their physical condition and how much they flailed. Somepeople in the water might have believed that swimming would help their body to generate heat. Inreality, people who swam or moved around a lot would have lost heat 35-50% faster and beensusceptible to exhaustion. There were even several people who died from hypothermia in theTitanic lifeboats, because they were open and gave no protection against the cold. Regulationshave since been put in place that require lifeboats to be fully or partially enclosed.Chemical components1. WATER *75-90% of cell*good solvent* high thermal capacity  it can absorb a lot of heat without its t° rising todangerous levels As water freezes at 0°C most cells are damaged2. PROTEINS  STRUCTURAL PROTEINS / ENZYMES CHONS molecules made up by long chains of AMINOACIDS3. LIPIDS  CHO 3 molecules of fatty acids +1 molecule of glycerol cell membrane and internal membranes droplets of fat stored inCYTOPLASM4. CARBOHY DRATES  *SIMPLEMonosaccharides (1 single carbon ring)  glucose/fructoseDisaccharides (2 carbon rings) maltose/sucrose* COMPLEX PolysaccharidesGLYCOGEN/STARCH/CELLULOSE
  4. 4. Chemical Process (IN THE CELL)by which ENERGY is produced from FOOD(GLUCOSE)5. SALTS : as IONS, take part in chemical reactions/ involved in determining how much waterenters or leaves the cell (OSMOSIS)6. VITAMINS: *take part in chemical reactions in the cell*plants produce them/ animals have to obtain them ready- madeSynthesis and conversion in cellsCells are able to build up or break down CARBOHY DRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINSAnimal cells CAN change * CARBOHY DRATES to LIPIDS or viceversa* PROTEINS to CARBOHY DRATES butCAN’T make PROTEINS unless they receive AMINOACIDS (plants can make their ownstarting from sugar and salts)RESPIRATION(TISSUERESPIRATION)* AEROBIC FOOD (CHO)+ OXYGEN= OXIDATION *converts *Hydrogen to water*carbon to carbon dioxide* sets free ENERGY for contaction of musclecells/ active transport/ building up of large molecules/cell division1ststep In the cytoplasm 1stGLYCOLISIS  metabolic pathway involving 10 reactions (withits enzymes) that converts GLUCOSE into PYRUVATE+ free ENERGY (2 ATP+NADH)ANAEROBIC PROCESS2ndstep A) If there is O2 =>AEROBIC RESPIRATION IN THE MITOCHONDRIA KREBS CYCLE AEROBIC EquationKJ:It is a derived unit of energy or work in the International System of Units, it’s the amount of Eby completely oxidizing 180 gr of glucoseenzymesC6H12O6 + 6 O 6CO2+6H2O+ 2830kj / 38 ATP (40% is used and the rest is released as heat)Glucose oxygen carbon water ESubstrates dioxide
  5. 5. CALORY: 1 cal= 4,187 j. It’s not very used now. It expresses the energetic power of food.It’s theamount of Caloric Energy necessary to increase in 1°C the temperature of 1 gramme of waterATP: Basic biomolecule of ENERGY used in cell metabolismB) If there isn’t O2 => ANAEROBIC ReSPIRATION in the cytoplasm  FERMENTATION(yeats/muscle) (glucose not completely break down)Respiration in MUSCLES => 1stANAEROBIC => produces PYRUVIC ACID (alcohol) => it iscompletely oxidized to CARBON DIOXIDE and WATERExtreme muscular activity => PYRUVIC ACID builds up in a muscle FASTER than it can beOXIDIZED => it turns into LACTIC ACID => removed into bloodstream => LIVER => In the liver,gluconeogenesis occurs. It reverses both glycolysis and fermentation by converting lactate firstinto pyruvate, and finally back to glucose. The glucose is then supplied to the muscles through thebloodstream (CORI CYCLE)Cori cycle While In the anaerobic respiration there is a gain of 2 moles of ATP, there is acost of 6 moles of ATP in the gluconeogenesis part of the cycle. => The cycle can’t besustained continuouslyAfter exercise =>HIGH LEVEL of O2 consumption PERSISTS until the excess of LACTIC ACID isoxidized => Volume of O2 needed to complete oxidize the lactid acid : OXYGEN DEBTAccumulation of Lactic acid causes CRAMPS and MUSCULAR FATIGUEDisadvantages of ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: *produces less energy/ produces toxic waste products(lactid acid)enzymesC6H12O6 2C2H5OH+2 CO2+ 118kjGlucose alcohol carbon Edioxide
  6. 6. BASAL METABOLISM => MINIMUM turnover of energy needed simply to keep an organism ALIVE forcirculation, breathing, body temperature, brain function, chemical processes in the liver (2400 kj)METABOLISM: chemical reactions Catabolism (respiration)/Anabolism (building up of proteins)AEROBIC RESPIRATION SIMILARITIES ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION*USES O2 *E released by breakdown of SUGAR *Don’t use O2* always produces Carbondioxide +water*ATP made *CO2 sometimes made*Large amount of Ereleased*Some energy lost as HEAT *Small amount of Ereleased*ALCOHOL or LACTID ACIDmade
  7. 7. CELL needs  water/O2/ salts and needs to release CO2 byDIFFUSION (+  - ) Net movement of molecules from a region of higher concentrationto a region with lower concentration DOWN a concentration gradient as a result odrandom movement It depends on * concentration gradient/ thickness of themembrane/surface area/size of the molecules gasesACTIVE TRANSPORT movement of IONS in or out of the cell through the cell membrane,from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration, AGAINST theconcentration gradient, using ENERGY released by respiration(from - concentration  + concentration) => ENERGYENDOCYTOSIS (Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis) - EXOCYTOSIS (form of active transport)OSMOSIS => diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution(high water potential) toa concentrated solution (low water potential) through a partially permeable membrane* Partially Permeable MEMBRANE*+diluted to +concentrated WATER
  8. 8. WATER POTENTIAL quantifies the tendency of WATER to leave a system due toOSMOSIS/ Gravity or MECHANICAL PRESSURE+water => +water potential