Fractures: greenstick, transverse & spiral


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overview of common fractures

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Fractures: greenstick, transverse & spiral

  1. 1. fractures<br />greenstick, transverse & spiral<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone<br />Fractures occur when there is more force applied to the bone than the bone can absorb <br />Trauma (most common)<br />Osteoporosis, <br />Stress/overuse (common in athletes)<br />Symptoms<br />Pain and/or swelling in the injured area <br />Obvious deformity in the injured area <br />Difficulty using or moving the injured area in a normal manner <br />Warmth, bruising, or redness in the injured area <br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />Diagnostic Tools<br />X-rays reveal most fractures<br />CTscan when more detailed-image is needed<br />Treatment depends on nature and location of break<br />Cast or splint<br />Immobilizes the injured area to allow alignment and healing<br />Protects the injured area from motion or use<br />Traction<br />Stretching the muscles and tendons around the broken bone to allow the bone ends to align and heal<br />Surgery<br />Metal rods or pins are used externally or internally to hold the bone fragments in place to allow alignment and healing<br />Physical therapy once bone is healed<br />
  4. 4. How fractures heal<br />Bones heal through a gradual process called remodeling<br />Healing time depends on the type of fracture<br />Anetwork of strong fibers forms inside clot, holding bone fragments together<br />Fibers are replaced by new bone, which is weak and spongy at first--called a fracture callus<br />The new bone grows stronger--the fracture callus shrinks as the bone is used<br />Tissues bleed around the fracture, forming a blood clot in the space between bone fragments<br />
  5. 5. 3 Common Types of Fractures<br />Greenstick<br />Transverse<br />Spiral<br />
  6. 6. Greenstick Fracture<br />Incomplete break where one side of bone is broken and the other side is bent<br />Results in a “bowing” appearance<br />
  7. 7. Greenstick Fracture<br />Common in children due to softness of their bones<br />Can be difficult to diagnose<br />Typical symptoms associated with broken bone may be absent or minimal in greenstick fractures because bone is not displaced<br />Often resembles soft-tissue injury, such as a sprain or a bad bruise<br />X-rays reveal most greenstick fractures<br />In children, CT scan may provide better images due to child’s lower bone density<br />Casting is typical treatment<br />
  8. 8. Transverse Fracture<br />Bone is completely broken in a manner that is perpendicular to the way the bone runs<br />Bone is separated into 2 pieces<br />
  9. 9. Transverse Fracture<br />Typically caused by blunt injury or trauma<br />Fall, car accident, etc.<br />X-ray is the main diagnostic tool to assess damage<br />Reduction (alignment) may be very painful<br />Casting is typical treatment<br />Surgery for those areas which cannot be realigned by casting <br />
  10. 10. Spiral Fracture<br />Complete break, spiraling around the shaft of the bone <br />Bone has been twisted apart<br />“corkscrew” appearance<br />
  11. 11. Spiral Fracture<br />Common sports injury<br />Rarely occurs when person is not in motion<br />Bones are weakest when twisted<br />Often associated with child abuse<br />Red flag for healthcare workers<br />Reduction (alignment) may be very painful<br />Difficult to diagnose with single x-ray film due to helical nature of the fracture<br />Often confused with oblique fractures<br />Multiple x-rays or CT scan needed for accurate diagnosis<br />Treated with casting<br />Greater likelihood of surgery due to nature of the injury<br />