In the past two decades, ethnic and national conflicts have clearly re-emerged as one of the greatest, and potentially most dangerous, political problems in the international arena. A series of violent conflicts have erupted in Europe, Asia and Africa, claiming the lives of many thousands of victims, and injuring and displacing many more. In sight of this overwhelming evidence, academia finds itself obliged to ask why nationalism and ethnonationalism can prompt such violence, how they can wreck havoc and in what way these horror-scenarios can be adverted. This presentation considers the threats posed to democratic values by the existence of serious ethnic conflict within a single national territory, and investigates several structural solutions (including, but not limited to, partition, secession, integration, federalism and consociationalism). As such, it hopes to clear out which holds the best hope of success.