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# Test 1

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### Test 1

1. 1. PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TEST NO: 1 Date: 10 Nov 2012 Question: The Road User Costs for various types of vehicles are affected by the road roughness, as shown in Figure 1. Unit Road User Costs (US\$ per vehicle-km) 1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 Medium Car Medium Bus 0.600 Heavy Truck Motorcycle 0.400 0.200 0.000 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 Roughness (IRI, m/km) FIGURE 1: RUC VERSUS ROUGHNESS A district engineer carried out an investigation on three different routes and the results are shown in Table 1; TABLE 1: RESULTS OF SITE SURVEY Route 1 Average Daily Traffic volume: Medium car: 5000 Medium Bus: 50 Heavy Truck: 1000 Existing International Roughness Index (IRI) = 10 m/km Required overlay = 100 mm Design period =3 years Length to be overlayed= 2 km Overlay costs = RM300,000 Route 2 Average Daily Traffic volume: Medium car: 20000 Medium bus: 1000 Heavy Truck: 2000 Existing International Roughness Index(IRI) = 4.5 m/km Required overlay = 60 mm Design period= 3 years Length to be overlayed = 4 km Overlay costs= RM400,000 Route 3 Average Daily Traffic volume: Medium car: 10000 Medium bus: 400 Heavy Truck: 800 Existing International Roughness Index(IRI) = 7 m/km Required overlay = 70 mm Design period= 3 years Length to be overlayed = 3 km Overlay costs= RM 360,000 Suggest the most suitable route to be overlaid based on benefit over cost criteria.
2. 2. Assumptions: a. b. c. d. IRI after overlay will remain constant for the design period Traffic volume and composition will remain constant for the design period All costs in Figure 1 are in Malaysian Ringgit IRI after overlay varies with thickness of overlay given by the following equation
3. 3. Solution: For the Rout 1 Route 1 Average Daily Traffic volume: Medium car: 5000 Medium Bus: 50 Heavy Truck: 1000 Existing International Roughness Index (IRI) = 10 m/km Required overlay = 100 mm Design period =3 years Length to be overlayed= 2 km Overlay costs = RM300,00 RIa= 2.0 + 0.0071 Max ( 80 – H, 0 ) Max ( RIb – 2 , 0 ) = 2 + 0.0071 Max ( 80 – 100 , 0 ) max ( 10 – 2 , 0 ) = 2 RIb = 10 Unit Road User Costs (US\$ per vehicle-km) 1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 Medium Car Medium Bus 0.600 Heavy Truck Motorcycle 0.400 0.200 0.000 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Roughness (IRI, m/km) 14.0 16.0 18.0
4. 4. Vehicle Type RM per vehicle-km IRb = 10 0.24 0.83 0.93 Medium car Medium Bus Heavy Truck RM per vehicle-km IRa = 2 0.205 0.58 0.69 RM per vehicle-km IRb - IRa 0.04 0.25 0.24 We have unit user cost and we should find the total cost for each type of vehicle by the bellow equation: Vehicle type's cost = Unit user cost × 365 × number of year × length of overlay × ADT Vehicle type's cost Medium car Medium Bus Heavy Truck Unit user cost 0.04 365 length of overlay 2 ADT RM 365 number of year 3 5000 438'000.00 0.25 365 3 2 50 27'375.00 0.24 365 3 2 1000 525'600.00 ∑ 1,2,3 = 990'975.00 RM Benefit over cost = 990'975 – 300'000 = 690'975.00 RM
5. 5. route 2 Route 2 Average Daily Traffic volume: Medium car: 20000 Medium Bus: 1000 Heavy Truck: 2000 Existing International Roughness Index (IRI) = 4.50 m/km Required overlay = 60 mm Design period =3 years Length to be overlayed= 4 km Overlay costs = RM400,00 RIa= 2.0 + 0.0071 Max ( 80 – H, 0 ) Max ( RIb– 2 , 0 ) = 2 + 0.0071 Max ( 80 – 60 , 0 ) max ( 4.5 – 2 , 0 ) = 2.355 RIb = 4.5 Unit Road User Costs (US\$ per vehicle-km) 1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 Medium Car Medium Bus 0.600 Heavy Truck Motorcycle 0.400 0.200 0.000 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Roughness (IRI, m/km) 14.0 16.0 18.0
6. 6. Vehicle Type RM per vehicle-km IRb = 4.5 0.21 0.61 0.77 Medium car Medium Bus Heavy Truck RM per vehicle-km IRa = 2.355 0.205 0.59 0.72 RM per vehicle-km IRb - IRa 0.005 0.02 0.05 We have unit user cost and we should find the total cost for each type of vehicle by the bellow equation: Vehicle type's cost = Unit user cost × 365 × number of year × length of overlay × ADT Vehicle type's cost Medium car Medium Bus Heavy Truck Unit user cost 0.005 365 length of overlay 4 ADT RM 365 number of year 3 20000 438'000.00 0.02 365 3 4 1000 87'600.00 0.05 365 3 4 2000 438'000.00 ∑ 1,2,3 = 963'600.00 RM benefit over cost = 1'095'000 – 400'000 = 563'600.00 RM
7. 7. Rout 3 Route 3 Average Daily Traffic volume: Medium car: 10000 Medium Bus: 400 Heavy Truck: 800 Existing International Roughness Index (IRI) = 7.00 m/km Required overlay = 70 mm Design period =3 years Length to be overlayed= 3 km Overlay costs = RM 360,00 RIa = 2.0 + 0.0071 Max ( 80 – H, 0 ) Max ( RIb – 2 , 0 ) = 2 + 0.0071 Max ( 80 – 70 , 0 ) max ( 7 – 2 , 0 ) = 2.355 RIb = 7 Unit Road User Costs (US\$ per vehicle-km) 1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 Medium Car Medium Bus 0.600 Heavy Truck Motorcycle 0.400 0.200 0.000 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 Roughness (IRI, m/km) Vehicle Type Medium car Medium Bus Heavy Truck RM per vehicle-km IRb = 7 0.22 0.69 0.82 RM per vehicle-km IRa = 2.355 0.21 0.59 0.71 RM per vehicle-km IRb - IRa 0.01 0.1 0.11
8. 8. We have unit user cost and we should find the total cost for each type of vehicle by the bellow equation: Vehicle type's cost = Unit user cost × 365 × number of year × length of overlay × ADT Vehicle type's cost Medium car Medium Bus Heavy Truck Unit user cost 0.01 365 length of overlay 3 ADT RM 365 number of year 3 10000 328'500.00 0.10 365 3 3 400 131'400.00 0.11 365 3 3 800 289'080.00 Ʃ = 748'980.00 benefit over cost = 748'980 – 360'000 = 388'980.00 RM Rout Costs 1 690'975.00 RM 2 563'600.00 RM 3 388'980.00 RM So, I recommend the 1st rout to be overlaid based on benefit over cost riteria.