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Sitzung 9

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Sitzung 9

  1. 1. Semantic Technologies Übung, Wintersemester 2011/12 7. Dezember 2011 - Regeln
  2. 2. Aufgabe• Bearbeiten Sie das Protégé OWL Tutorial: ‣ http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/• Schauen Sie sich die entstehende OWL-Datei beim Bearbeiten parallel in einem Text-Editor an.• Folgen Sie den einzelnen Exercises soweit wie sie können und senden Sie mir die entstandene Pizza-Ontologie.
  3. 3. Reasoner• Inferenzmaschine im Kontext des Semantic Web• Nützlich für: • Ableitung neuer Tripel aus bestehenden • Prüfung der Konsistenz von Ontologien• Beispiele: Pellet, FaCT++, HermiT
  4. 4. Beispiel 1 Uni-Vokabular
  5. 5. a
  6. 6. a
  7. 7. aa
  8. 8. aaa
  9. 9. aaaa
  10. 10. aaaaa
  11. 11. RulesRegelsprachen für das Semantic Web
  12. 12. Rules• Implizite Regeln in RDFS & OWL • Beispiele: • „Alle Professoren sind Dozenten“ - rdfs:subClassOf • „Wenn ein Seminar von einem Dozenten gehalten wird, dann hält dieser Dozent das Seminar“ - owl:inverseOf • „Hauptseminare werden nur von Professoren gehalten“ - owl:Restriction • ...
  13. 13. Rules• Problem: • „Eine Person mit einem männlichen Geschwisterteil hat einen Bruder.“ • IF ?x hasSibling ?y AND ?y rdf:type Man THEN ?x ?hasBrother ?y. • Nicht durch OWL-Konstrukte ausdrückbar.➡Lösung: Regelsprachen
  14. 14. SWRLSemantic Web Rule Language
  15. 15. SWRL• Kombiniert OWL mit Horn-Logik• Bsp.: • IF ?x hasSibling ?y AND ?y rdf:type Man THEN ?x ?hasBrother ?y.➡In SWRL: • hasSibling(?x,?y), Man(?y) -> hasBrother(?x,?y)
  16. 16. SWRL• Allgemeine Syntax: • B ,...,B -> A ,...,A 1 n 1 m• Sprich: • „Aus B und B ... und B folgt A und A 1 2 n 1 2 ... und Am.“
  17. 17. SWRL• Dabei gilt: • Die Prädikate B ... B und A ... A sind 1 n 1 n • OWL-Klassen der Form C(x) • OWL-Eigenschaften der Form P(x,y)
  18. 18. SWRL• Außerdem gilt: • Die Werte x und y der Prädikate sind • Werte eines Datentyps • OWL-Individuen • Variablen der Form „?a“
  19. 19. SWRL• Beispiele: • Professor(?x) -> Dozent(?x) • haelt(?x,?y) -> wirdGehaltenVon(?y,?x) • haelt(thaller,?y), teilnehmer(?x,?y) ! -> interessiertSichFuer(?x,?y) • title("Semantic Technologies",?y), Uebung(?y) ! -> interessiertSichFuer(?x,?y)
  20. 20. RuleML• Familie von XML-Formaten zur Repräsentation von Regeln• Basis für XML-Serialisierung von SWRL
  21. 21. Beispiel 2 Personen
  22. 22. Aufgabe 1• Erstellen Sie mit Protégé eine möglichst reichhaltige OWL-Ontologie für Familienbeziehungen. Folgende Klassen und Eigenschaften sollen enthalten sein: • Person, MalePerson, FemalePerson, hasSibling, hasBrother, hasSister, hasChild, hasSon, hasDaughter, hasParent, hasFather, hasMother• Nutzen Sie den Reasoner für Konsistenzchecks.
  23. 23. Aufgabe 2• Legen sie mehrere Individuals als Instanzen von Thing und Beziehungen zwischen diesen Instanzen an.• Nutzen Sie den Reasoner um automatisch auf die Klassen dieser Individuals zu schließen.
  24. 24. Aufgabe 3• Löschen Sie alle Domains und Ranges der Ontologie und formulieren Sie stattdessen Regeln, die den gleichen Effekt haben.
  25. 25. Aufgabe 4• Geben Sie Regeln in SWRL an, die die Ableitung spezifischerer Properties möglich machen.• Bsp.: • MalePerson(?y), Person(?p), hasSibling(?p, ?y) ! -> hasBrother(?p, ?y)

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