Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Brewing And Baking

1,725 views

Published on

Published in: Self Improvement, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Brewing And Baking

  1. 1. Brewing and baking and mycoprotein Ancient biotechnologies (mycoprotein is not ancient!)
  2. 2. Bread making <ul><li>Basic ingredients are wheat, water, yeast, fat, sugar and salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough is made by mixing ingredients together. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough then ferments at 27 o C in a humid atmosphere. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bread making <ul><li>The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , feeds on the sugar breaking it down anaerobically to ethanol and carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bread making <ul><li>The bubbles of CO 2 remain trapped in the sticky dough causing it to rise. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough is then cut and placed in loaf tins. </li></ul><ul><li>Dough then goes through a final fermentation at 45 o C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bread making <ul><li>The baking kills the yeast, evaporates off the alcohol and cooks the flour. </li></ul><ul><li>A modern bakery can make 10 000 loaves of bread per hour. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beer Making <ul><li>Most beers are made from barley and hops. </li></ul><ul><li>The process consists of seven stages! </li></ul>
  7. 8. Beer Making <ul><li>Malting </li></ul><ul><li>Barley steeped in water </li></ul><ul><li>Then allowed to germinate. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibberellic acid is added to speed up germination </li></ul><ul><li>During process amylases are mobilised (to hydrolyse seeds starch into maltose) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Beer Making <ul><li>Kilning </li></ul><ul><li>Malt is gradually heated to between 65 and 80 o C </li></ul><ul><li>This kills the embryos without destroying the amylase. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the temp. – the darker the beer. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Beer Making <ul><li>Milling </li></ul><ul><li>Barley grains then crushed into a powder called grist . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Beer Making <ul><li>Mashing </li></ul><ul><li>The grist is mixed with water at 65 o C. </li></ul><ul><li>The amylase breaks down the starch into sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutrient rich liquor ( sweet wort) is separated from the spent grains. </li></ul><ul><li>The spent grains can be used as cattle feed. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Beer Making <ul><li>Boiling </li></ul><ul><li>Hops added for bitter flavour </li></ul><ul><li>Further enzyme action is stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Full flavour is extracted. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Beer Making <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Boiled wort is cooled to 30 o C and innoculated with yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Left to ferment for 7 to 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars turned into alcohol and CO 2 </li></ul>
  13. 14. Beer Making <ul><li>Finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Beer is filtered (spent yeast sold to make yeast extract – Marmite) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern beers are pasteurised, standardised and finally bottled or canned. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Mycoprotein A food protein made from microorganisms
  15. 16. Mycoprotein <ul><li>Made from the hyphae of the fungus Fusarium graminearum </li></ul><ul><li>Cultured on a solution of </li></ul><ul><li>glucose from cereal starch (carbon source) </li></ul><ul><li>ammonia (nitrogen source) </li></ul><ul><li>mineral salts </li></ul><ul><li>choline (promotes longer hyphal growth) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Mycoprotein <ul><li>Cultured in air lift fermenter (see special hand out from Edexcel) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture maintained at 30 o C to promote optimum growth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Grown by continuous culture. </li></ul><ul><li>High in protein but low in fat – a healthy food? </li></ul>
  17. 18. Mycoprotein <ul><li>Problem is that it contains too much RNA </li></ul><ul><li>This has to be removed by enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tastes of nothing! </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal hyphae do resemble myofibrils in meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketed under the name of Quorn. </li></ul>

×