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  1. 1. Connectives A) because, as, since, but, although, while, soComplete the sentences with because, but, although or so.1 We looked everywhere for the ring ______________ we but couldnt find it.2 ______________ we looked everywhere for the ring, we Although couldnt find it. so3 He was bored with the picnic ______________ he started digging a hole. because4 He started digging a hole ______________ he was bored with the picnic.
  2. 2. Complete the rules below with the linkingwords because, but, although or so.A We use __________________ to because , as, since answer the question Why.B We use ___________or ___________ to but although join two opposite ideas.C We use ______________ to introduce a so result.• Add the words as, and since to the rules above.
  3. 3. Read the text below and choose the correct linking word for each space.When I was 17, I applied to a (1) A although B so C becausedrama school (1) __________ I because (2) A but B although C sowas good at acting. At myinterview they asked me to read (3) A So B Although C Butsomething. I was very nervous (2) (4) A As B Because C Although__________ I did it really badly. so (5) A since B although C but(3) ___________ they could see I Althoughwas nervous, they didnt give meanother chance and I got a job asa hairdresser instead. (4)__________ Im sorry I didnt Althoughbecome an actor, Ive had a goodlife as a hairdresser (5) _________ sinceIve met lots of interesting people.
  4. 4. B) Saying when things happen: when, while,until, before/after, as soon as• Look at the underlined words. They are all linking words.• When did Toby get a job with Atkins engineering? A when he was a university student. B as soon as he finished university. C six months after he (had) finished university.
  5. 5. Read the sentences below and choose the correct linking word for each space.0 before Ill speak to Lena ____________ I ask anyone else. A before B while C until1 as soon as Marco was very tired and he fell asleep ____________ the lesson began. A until B as soon as C while2 while Could you fill in this form ____________ youre waiting, please? A after B when C while3 when Tell me ____________ youre ready to leave and Ill call a taxi. A when B until C while4 I walked through the door and the phone rang immediately. The phone rang ____________ I walked through the door. as soon as A as soon as B until C before5 Claudia did the maths homework last, ____________ she had finished all the after other exercises. A before B while C after6 I missed Jack ____________ he left. after A after B while C before7 We didnt realise how high up we were ____________ we looked down. until A until B after C while
  6. 6. Complete the second sentence so that itmeans the same as the first.1 Lisas party started at 9 oclock. Lisas party didnt start _____________ 9 oclock. until2 When her friends arrived, Lisa immediately put on some music. Lisa put on some music _____________ her friends as soon as arrived.3 Lisas friends danced and then they had something to eat. Lisas friends danced _____________ they had before something to eat.3 Lisa didnt go to bed until she had tidied up the house. after Lisa went to bed _____________ she had tidied up the house.
  7. 7. Complete these sentences truthfullyabout yourself.1 Before I go to school, I ______________2 I dont start school until _____________3 While Im at school, I _____________.4 When I have some spare time at school, I ________________.5 As soon as I get home from school, I ______________.6 After I get home from school, I ________
  8. 8. C) before/after -ingLook at these sentences1 Make sure you have enough money with you before filling your car with petrol.2 You can pay with cash or credit card after filling your car with petrol.• Which should you do first:1 make sure you have enough money or fill your car?2 pay with cash or credit card or fill your car?• Underline the verb which follows before and after. What do you notice?
  9. 9. Decide in which order these actions happen.Join them with before or after• You should:fall asleep / set your alarm clock (before) set your alarm clock before falling asleep _____________________________________________write a plan / answer the question (after) _____________________________________________ answer the question after writing a planfind a towel / have a shower (before) find a towel before having a shower _____________________________________________have lunch / go swimming (after) _____________________________________________ have lunch after going swimmingbuy the tickets / arrive at the concert (before) _____________________________________________ buy the tickets before arriving at the concertcheck your bank account / buy something expensive (before) _____________________________________________ expensive check your bank account before buying somethinggo to bed / turn the TV off (before) turn the TV off before going to bed _____________________________________________