Comparison reduced

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Comparison reduced

  1. 1. COMPARISON<br />A: ADJECTIVES<br />* There are three degrees of comparison:<br />1 Positive:darktalluseful<br />2 Comparative:darkertallermore useful<br />3 Superlative:darkesttallestmost useful<br />* One-syllable adjectives form their comparative and superlative by adding er and est to the positive form:<br />- bright brighter brightest<br />- new newer newest<br />* Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive: <br />- expensive more expensive most expensive<br />- interesting more interesting most interesting<br />* Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the above rules. Those ending in er, y, or ly add er, est:<br />- clever cleverer cleverest<br />- easy easier easiest<br />- holy holier holiest<br />* Irregular comparisons:<br /> - good better best<br />- bad worse worst<br />- little less least<br />- many more most<br />- much <br /> further furthest<br />- far farther farthest<br />- old older oldest<br /> elder eldest<br />B: ADVERBS<br />* With adverbs of two or more syllables the comparative is formed by putting more before the adverb, and the superlative by putting most before the adverb:<br />- quickly more quickly most quickly<br />- fortunately more fortunately most fortunately<br />* Single-syllable adverbs, however, and the adverb early, add er and est:<br />- hard harder hardest<br />- fast faster fastest<br />- early earlier earliest<br />* Irregular comparisons:<br />- well better best<br />- badly worse worst<br />- late later last<br />- little less least<br /> - much more most<br />- far farther farthest<br /> further furthest<br />STRUCTURES<br />* After comparatives we use than.<br />- Jill is more intelligent than Alec.<br />- Peter works harder than John.<br />- It's cheaper to go by car than to go by train.<br />* Before the comparative of adjectives and adverbs you can use: a bit / a little / much / a lot / far / a good deal<br />- Let's go by car. It's much (or a lot) cheaper.<br />- Could you speak a little (or a bit) more slowly?<br />- Her illness was far more serious than we at first thought<br />* not so/as .......... as .......<br />-Jack isn't as old as he looks. (= He looks older than he is).<br />-The city centre wasn't as crowded this morning as it usually is. (= it is usually more crowded).<br />-Jim didn't do as well in his examination as he had hoped. (= he had hoped to do better)<br />* as .................... as ..............<br />- I'm sorry I'm late. I got here as fast as I could.<br />- There's plenty of food, so eat as much as you like.<br />- Can you send me the money as soon as possible, please?<br />* We also say twice as ..... as, three times as ..... as, etc.<br />- Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.<br />- Their house is about three times as big as ours.<br />* We say the same as (not 'the same like')<br />-Ann's salary is the same as mine. (or 'Ann gets the same salary as me')<br />- Tom is the same age as George.<br />* After than and as it is more usual to say me/him/her/them/us when there is no verb. Compare these sentences:<br />- You are taller than I am = You are taller than me.<br />- I can't run as fast as he can = I can't run as fast as him.<br />-They have more money than we have = They have more money than us.<br />* After superlatives, we use in with places (towns, buildings, etc.):<br />-What's the longest river in the world? (not 'of the world.')<br />- We were lucky to have one of the nicest rooms in the hotel.<br />Also (the best...) in the class / in the team / in the company, etc.<br />But: the happiest day of my life, the hottest day of the year.<br />Note that we often use the present perfect after a superlative:<br />- What's the best film you've ever seen?<br />- That was the most delicious meal I've had for a long time.<br />

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