Big Business  and the Gilded Age
Transcontinental Railroad ‘62 <ul><li>Bessemer process </li></ul><ul><li>Union Pacific v. Central Pacific </li></ul><ul><l...
 
 
fig16_04.jpg
The Railroad Network, 1880 • pg. 596 <ul><li>Investments in Rails by RR companies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1850  $300 millio...
Catch-up slide…take a breather
fig16_04.jpg
Mining Frontier <ul><li>Gold in Cali (they were going back to Cali.) </li></ul><ul><li>Comstock Lode (Nevada) = silver </l...
Cattle Frontier <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of rail/Transcontinental railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
fig16_15.jpg
Changing Indian Policy <ul><li>1881  A Century of Dishonor  by Helen Hunt Jackson  </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation policy si...
Wounded Knee <ul><ul><li>On December 29, 1890, soldiers opened fire on Ghost Dancers encamped on Wounded Knee Creek in Sou...
Effects of Dawes Act <ul><li>90 m. of 138 m. acres of N.A. land became white-owned in just 45 years </li></ul><ul><li>boar...
Causes of Industrialization <ul><li>Railroads  (1 st  “Big Business”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Causes of Industrialization <ul><li>Entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Captains of industry”  or “Robber barons” </li><...
fig16_20.jpg
fig16_07.jpg
Causes of Industrialization <ul><li>Laissez-faire gov’t. – few regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t. aid </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Land Grant Colleges: A Sampling MISSOURI   University of Missouri   MONTANA  Montana  State University NEBRASKA  Universit...
Second Industrial Revolution: Effects <ul><li>Industrial Economy  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1913, US produced one-third of ...
Table 16.1 • pg. 594
Second Industrial Revolution: Effects <ul><li>Cities grow    esp. west Appl. Mtns. </li></ul><ul><li>Gap btw. rich and po...
New Business models <ul><li>Vertically integrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own all aspects of an manufacturing </li></ul></ul...
Government and the Economy <ul><ul><li>Gov’t not equipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican economic policies favor in...
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The West And Industrialization

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  • Page 594: Permanent and Temporary Bridge at Green River, Wyoming, by Andrew J. Russell, who took hundreds of photographs in 1868 and 1869 of the construction of the Union Pacific portion of the transcontinental railroad. In the background is Citadel Rock. Credit: Reproduction from the collections of the Library of Congress, Prints &amp; Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-11235.
  • Page 594: Permanent and Temporary Bridge at Green River, Wyoming, by Andrew J. Russell, who took hundreds of photographs in 1868 and 1869 of the construction of the Union Pacific portion of the transcontinental railroad. In the background is Citadel Rock. Credit: Reproduction from the collections of the Library of Congress, Prints &amp; Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-11235.
  • Page 608: Hunters shooting buffalo as the Kansas-Pacific Railroad cuts across the West, 1870s. Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
  • Page 615: The Bosses of the Senate, a cartoon from Puck , January 23, 1889, shows well-fed monopolists towering over the obedient senators. Above them, a sign rewrites the closing words of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: “This is the Senate of the Monopolists, by the Monopolists, and for the Monopolists.” Credit: Library of Congress, Prints &amp; Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-494.
  • Page 600: Next!, a cartoon from the magazine Puck , September 7, 1904, depicts the Standard Oil Company as an octopus with tentacles wrapped around the copper, steel, and shipping industries, as well as a state house and Congress. One tentacle reaches for the White House. Credit: Reproduction from the collections of the Library of Congress, Prints &amp; Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-435.
  • The West And Industrialization

    1. 1. Big Business and the Gilded Age
    2. 2. Transcontinental Railroad ‘62 <ul><li>Bessemer process </li></ul><ul><li>Union Pacific v. Central Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese laborers (12,000/90% CPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Land grants = $133-500 m. to rail co. </li></ul><ul><li>Completed 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. & Big Business  stimulate, not regulate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land (131 million acres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian removal </li></ul></ul>
    3. 5. fig16_04.jpg
    4. 6. The Railroad Network, 1880 • pg. 596 <ul><li>Investments in Rails by RR companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1850 $300 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1870 $2.5 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1865 = 35,000 miles of rail </li></ul><ul><li>1880 = 93,000 “ “ </li></ul><ul><li>1890 = 166,000 “ “ </li></ul>The Railroad Network, 1880
    5. 7. Catch-up slide…take a breather
    6. 8. fig16_04.jpg
    7. 9. Mining Frontier <ul><li>Gold in Cali (they were going back to Cali.) </li></ul><ul><li>Comstock Lode (Nevada) = silver </li></ul>
    8. 10. Cattle Frontier <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of rail/Transcontinental railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbed wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigerated rail cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive drives from Tex.  Neb. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train to Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beef begins to “do the body good” </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. fig16_15.jpg
    10. 12. Changing Indian Policy <ul><li>1881 A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation policy since 1850s </li></ul><ul><li>Dawes Act 1887 ~ Americanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reservations into 160 acre farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 yrs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced assimilation breeds… </li></ul><ul><li>Ghost Dance…which leads to… </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded Knee Massacre…The End </li></ul>
    11. 13. Wounded Knee <ul><ul><li>On December 29, 1890, soldiers opened fire on Ghost Dancers encamped on Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota, killing between 150 and 200 Indians, mostly women and children </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. Effects of Dawes Act <ul><li>90 m. of 138 m. acres of N.A. land became white-owned in just 45 years </li></ul><ul><li>boarding schools tear apart N.A. families </li></ul>
    13. 15. Causes of Industrialization <ul><li>Railroads (1 st “Big Business”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport goods = national market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inventions </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources  coal, iron ore </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural pop. increase high </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. Causes of Industrialization <ul><li>Entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Captains of industry” or “Robber barons” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanderbilt, Rockefeller, Carnegie, Swift, Morgan, Duke </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. fig16_20.jpg
    16. 18. fig16_07.jpg
    17. 19. Causes of Industrialization <ul><li>Laissez-faire gov’t. – few regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t. aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land grants  rails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  colleges (Morrill Land Grant Act ’62) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tariffs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Land Grant Colleges: A Sampling MISSOURI University of Missouri MONTANA Montana State University NEBRASKA University of Nebraska NEVADA University of Nevada, Reno NEW HAMPSHIRE University of New Hampshire NEW JERSEY Rutgers NEW MEXICO New Mexico State University NEW YORK Cornell University NORTH CAROLINA North Carolina State University NORTH DAKOTA North Dakota State University OHIO Ohio State University OKLAHOMA O klahoma State University OREGON Oregon State University PENNSYLVANIA Penn State University PUERTO RICO University of Puerto Rico RHODE ISLAND University of Rhode Island SOUTH CAROLINA Clemson University SOUTH DAKOTA South Dakota State University TENNESSEE University of Tennessee TEXAS Texas A&M University UTAH Utah State University VERMONT University of Vermont VIRGINIA Virginia Tech WASHINGTON Washington State University WEST VIRGINIA West Virginia University WISCONSIN University of Wisconsin-Madison WYOMING University of Wyoming ALABAMA Alabama A&M University Auburn University Tuskegee University ALASKA University of Alaska, Fairbanks ARIZONA University of Arizona ARKANSAS University of Arkansas CALIFORNIA University of California COLORADO Colorado State University CONNECTICUT University of Connecticut DELAWARE University of Delaware FLORIDA Florida A&M University University of Florida GEORGIA University of Georgia IDAHO University of Idaho ILLINOIS University of Illinois INDIANA Purdue University IOWA Iowa State University KANSAS Kansas State University KENTUCKY University of Kentucky LOUISANA Louisana State University MAINE University of Maine MARYLAND University of Maryland MASSACHUSETTS Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUniversity of Massachusetts MICHIGAN Michigan State University MINNESOTA University of Minnesota MISSISSIPPI Mississippi State University
    19. 21. Second Industrial Revolution: Effects <ul><li>Industrial Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1913, US produced one-third of the world’s industrial output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory work  majority work non-farming jobs </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Table 16.1 • pg. 594
    21. 23. Second Industrial Revolution: Effects <ul><li>Cities grow  esp. west Appl. Mtns. </li></ul><ul><li>Gap btw. rich and poor grows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism says its ok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horatio Alger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New business models  vertical v. horizontal </li></ul>
    22. 24. New Business models <ul><li>Vertically integrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own all aspects of an manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontally integrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own all/most of one industry (steel) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. Government and the Economy <ul><ul><li>Gov’t not equipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican economic policies favor industrialists and bankers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms begin Civil Service (Pendleton) Act of 1883 created a merit system for federal employees  civil service exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1887 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 </li></ul></ul>

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