Reconstruction I

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  • Page 566: President Andrew Johnson, in an 1868 lithograph by Currier and Ives. Because of Johnson’s stubborn opposition to the congressional Reconstruction policy, one disgruntled citizen drew a crown on his head with the words, “I am King.” Credit: Courtesy of Ed Sullivan.
  • Reconstruction I

    1. 1. Reconstruction Or, the more things change the more they stay the same?
    2. 2. On treating the South harshly… <ul><li>Student #1 said “…but that will upset them.” </li></ul><ul><li>Student #2 responded, “Isn’t that what we’re supposed to do?” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Reconstruction ~ Background <ul><li>Lincoln’s Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% Plan 1863 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen’s Bureau begun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13th Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wade-Davis Plan 1864 </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman’s Special Field Order 15 (40 acres & a mule) </li></ul><ul><li>Lee surrenders…Lincoln Assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>13 th Amendment ratified </li></ul>
    4. 4. Phase 1 – Johnson’s Plan Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>new constitution in S. states </li></ul><ul><li>new gov’t. elected in S. states </li></ul><ul><li>S. states do not repay war debts </li></ul><ul><li>oath for pardon (rich, mil./pol. </li></ul><ul><li>leaders couldn’t get one) </li></ul><ul><li>ratify 13th (abolish slavery) </li></ul><ul><li>restore lands to former owners </li></ul>
    5. 5. Effects of Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>new gov’t org. </li></ul><ul><li>many Conf. receive pardons (back in power) </li></ul><ul><li>some S. states refuse to cancel debt </li></ul><ul><li>Black codes passed ~ slave laws changed to apply to freedmen </li></ul><ul><li>~ passes </li></ul><ul><li>~ curfew </li></ul><ul><li>~ job restrictions </li></ul><ul><li> only work = field hands </li></ul><ul><li> labor contracts </li></ul><ul><li> unemployed blacks seized & “auctioned” as laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. J. says Reconstruction is complete by Dec. 1865 </li></ul>
    6. 6. fig15_11.jpg
    7. 7. Pres. or Congress: The Fight over Reconstruction <ul><li>believe Reconstruction is their job </li></ul><ul><li>finally meet in Dec. (Johnson had refused special session) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refuse to seat most Southerners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fund Freedmen’s Bureau again, vetoed </li></ul><ul><li>pass Civil Rights Bill of 1866 = citizenship, legal equality, no discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>veto overridden (1st time ever) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>14th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S. rejects (69-8, 27-2, 3 states no support) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1866 elections Radical Rep. swept in Cong. </li></ul></ul>

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