Slavery in America

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Slavery in America

  1. 1. Slavery in Early America <ul><li>Constitution Never Mentions “Slavery” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Founding Fathers were slave owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importation permitted until 1808 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin 1793 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “peculiar institution” </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Cotton Gin
  3. 3. Cotton Gin <ul><li>Makes slavery appear economically viable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before  25 days for 50 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After  1 day for 50 lbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes slaves to increase in value </li></ul><ul><li>“ King Cotton” bcms. South’s lifeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced 1% of world’s total in 1793 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1850 70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 60% of NATION’s exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New England textile mills depend on it </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Importation
  5. 5. The Middle Passage
  6. 6. Paternalism <ul><li>Slaves are like children and masters must watch out for them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owners had vested interest in caring for slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$$ investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Slave Population <ul><li>1790 = 700,000 (approx.) </li></ul><ul><li>1800 = 900,000 +200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1810 = 1,200,000 +300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1820 = 1,500,000 +300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1830 = 2,000,000 +500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1840 = 2,500,000 +500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1850 = 3,200,000 +700,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1860 = 4,000,000 +800,000 </li></ul>
  8. 9. Slave Concentration 1820
  9. 10. Slave Concentration 1860
  10. 12. Slavery Review <ul><li>Founding Fathers/Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Slave ownership #s </li></ul><ul><li>Importation </li></ul><ul><li>Paternalism </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of slavery </li></ul>
  11. 13. Anti-slavery Movements <ul><li>American Colonization Society (1817) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberia founded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repatriation of former slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gag Rule (1836-1844) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Great Awakening Inspires </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Dwight Weld’s American Slavery As It Is </li></ul>
  12. 14. Concentrations of Slaves
  13. 17. Frederick Douglass
  14. 18. William Lloyd Garrison
  15. 19. Harriet Beecher Stowe <ul><li>b. Litchfield, daughter of minister </li></ul><ul><li>Educ. @ Hartford Female Seminary </li></ul><ul><li>Hubby was Bible prof. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncle Tom’s Cabin ‘52 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>response to Fugitive Slave Act 1850 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold 300,000 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Escape Routes
  17. 21. Major Slave Rebellions <ul><li>Denmark Vesey 1822 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36 executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slave codes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Major Rebellions cont. <ul><li>Nat Turner 1831 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visions inspire him to “fight against the Serpent” in VA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 “Rebels”  stabbed, shot and clubbed 55 white people to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanged and skinned on 11/11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>55 blacks officially executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFECTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks not compliant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harsher slave laws </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Slave Codes Prohibitions <ul><li>buy or sell goods w/out master’s approval </li></ul><ul><li>legally marry </li></ul><ul><li>use alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>assemble w/out a white man </li></ul><ul><li>church w/out white man or approved black pastor </li></ul><ul><li>be taught read or write ~ fines/jail </li></ul><ul><li>testify in court against whites </li></ul><ul><li>tried w/slaveholder jury (no blacks) </li></ul><ul><li>own gun </li></ul><ul><li>keep family together </li></ul><ul><li>walk freely~ had to carry pass (even if free black) </li></ul><ul><li> ~ curfew </li></ul>
  20. 24. Abolition of Slavery
  21. 25. Political Parties Beliefs: Antebellum America
  22. 26. Whigs <ul><li>Born by National Republicans in 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>JQA and Clay were leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Political Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ market farmers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skilled native-born workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.E. & New York </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally bald (hence the name) </li></ul><ul><li>Loose construction of Const. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-internal improvements, tariffs </li></ul>
  23. 27. Democrats <ul><li>Strict construction </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed fed. gov’t. regulation of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed national bank </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed internal improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Lower tariff (southerners, esp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants join </li></ul>
  24. 28. “ Log Cabin and Hard Cider”  1 st Whig Election (1840) <ul><li>William Henry Harrison elected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ simple man” (really aristocrat from VA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-national bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress should regulate spread of slavery </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Winners in the 1840s <ul><li>1840 Harrison  Tyler (Whig) </li></ul><ul><li>1844 Polk (Democrat) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-Texas annexation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-Oregon from Britain (54 o 40’ or fight) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1848 Taylor (“hero of BV”) (Whig) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No platform </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Election of 1852 (“it’s the end of the world as we know it”) <ul><li>Whigs descent begins  best leaders d. </li></ul><ul><li>End of national parties &… </li></ul><ul><li>Begin. of SECTIONAL parties </li></ul>
  27. 31. American (Know-Nothing) Party ( K now- K nothing Party) <ul><li>Anti-Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-immigrant (nativist) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Americans Must Rule America” </li></ul>
  28. 32. Republican Party <ul><li>Formed as reaction to K-N Act (1854) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-slavery origins </li></ul><ul><li>Home to Whigs, N. Dems., Free Soil, Know-Nothings </li></ul>
  29. 33. Election of 1856
  30. 34. Sectionalism & the Civil War <ul><li>Missouri Compromise 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>Wilmot Proviso 1846 </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise of 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska 1854 </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott v. San(d)ford 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown’s Raid 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>Election of Republican Abraham Lincoln 1860 </li></ul>
  31. 35. Missouri Compromise (1820)
  32. 36. Mexican Cession Raises Questions <ul><li>Lands of the Southwest are added to the U.S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will they be SLAVE or FREE?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 major compromises will try and settle the matter…but fail. in 1848 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty is introduced in 1850 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New territories may vote to be free or slave </li></ul></ul>
  33. 37. Compromise of 1850
  34. 38. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  35. 39. Congressional Elections 1854
  36. 40. Bleeding Kansas
  37. 41. Dred Scott v. San(d)ford <ul><li>b. 1799, d. 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Illinois/Wisconsin (free areas) </li></ul><ul><li>Sued for his freedom based on having lived in a free state </li></ul>
  38. 42. Dred Scott v. Sandford <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney </li></ul><ul><li>(Mr. Excitement!) </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves are not citizens, so Scott cannot sue </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional (Congress cannot forbid Southerners from bringing their property anywhere) </li></ul>
  39. 43. John Brown “The Meteor”

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