Jacksonian Democracy

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Jacksonian Democracy

  1. 1. “ Old Hickory” – Andrew Jackson
  2. 2. Era of Good Feelings ~ Vol. II
  3. 3. Election of 1824 <ul><li>31% </li></ul><ul><li>42% </li></ul><ul><li>13% </li></ul><ul><li>13% </li></ul>
  4. 4. Corrupt Bargain
  5. 5. Election of 1828
  6. 6. Jacksonian Democracy <ul><li>Egalitarian (Common man) </li></ul><ul><li>End property ownership requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sufferage </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigning begins </li></ul><ul><li>Party conventions </li></ul><ul><li>2 Party system is BACK! Yeah!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Spoils system </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jacksonian Democracy - VOTING
  8. 8. # of voters % increase <ul><li>1824  356,000 unknown </li></ul><ul><li>1828  1,150,000 225% </li></ul><ul><li>1832  1,250,000 8% </li></ul><ul><li>1836  1,500,000 17% </li></ul><ul><li>1840  2,300,000 35% </li></ul>
  9. 10. Kitchen Cabinet Peggy Eaton Affair
  10. 11. Nullification Crisis <ul><li>Tariff of Abominations (1828) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners (Calhoun – VP) despise tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>writes Exposition and Protest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webster-Hayne Debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Webster  Nationalism & Union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Hayne  States’ Rights & Nullification </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Nullification Crisis <ul><li>States can declare laws “NULL and VOID” if state convention opposes it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In U.S. states are sovereign  fed. power is given by the states so states have right to take it away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States’ rights doctrine AGAIN asserted </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Jackson’s Reaction <ul><li>W/ Pres. Challenged, he reacts </li></ul><ul><li>Force Bill </li></ul><ul><li>SC accepts compromise tariff (Clay) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nullifies Force Act (ha, ha) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Jackson’s Indian Removal <ul><li>1 st “western” president </li></ul><ul><li>Championed Common man (small farmer) </li></ul><ul><li>Fought in Seminole War </li></ul>
  14. 15. Cherokee <ul><li>Northern Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Most Americanized of the tribes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet (Sequoyah writes, 86 characters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution modeled on U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians w/ Cherokee-language Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses (not teepees) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers and slaveholders </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) <ul><li>Georgia wanted 7000+ acres </li></ul><ul><li>Congress provided $30,000 to Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Gold discovered on Cherokee land 1829 </li></ul><ul><li>Chief John Ross files suit </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee are not for. nation & couldn’t sue </li></ul>
  16. 18. Worcester v. Georgia (1832) <ul><li>Cherokee are “distinct pol. community” </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia’s laws can have “no force” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He’s made his decision, now let him enforce it” ~ Jackson </li></ul>
  17. 19. Trail of Tears (1838) <ul><li>Choctaws (1831-32) </li></ul><ul><li>Creeks (1836) </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokees (1838 actual Trail of Tears) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15,000+ forced march by U.S. army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 25% died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from 100 m. acres to 32 m. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$68 m. to Indians </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Indian Removal
  19. 21. 2 nd Seminole War <ul><li>Osceola battles forced migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defied treaty agreeing to move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osceola captured under white flag truce </li></ul>
  20. 22. War on the Bank <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West v. east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common man v. elites/aristocracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose v. tight $$$$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper v. gold/silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay for pres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson vindictive – “the bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it! ” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. War on the Bank <ul><li>Clay tries to force Bank’s rechartering </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson veto bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It will make “rich men…richer by an act of Congress” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jackson crushes Clay in 1832 </li></ul>
  22. 24. Election of 1832 (Jackson’s 2 nd term)
  23. 25. Bank War Battles <ul><li>Jackson’s first salvo – no deposits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fed. $$ to state banks…no deposits to BUS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ pet banks” get $$ and lend, lend, lend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public land sales increase ($2 to $24 mil.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State banks thrive then… </li></ul><ul><li>Biddle responds by calling in loans </li></ul><ul><li>Then… </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Real estate market… </li></ul><ul><li>CRASH </li></ul>
  25. 27. War on the Bank <ul><li>Effects (’36) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specie circular  must use gold/silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to buy fed. lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Speculation slows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  real estate prices fall further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUS not re-chartered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic of 1837 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. King Andrew I <ul><li>Opponents mocking nickname </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ignored Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoils system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kitchen Cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some thought Jackson answered to no one </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Jackson’s Democracy Fini <ul><li>Jeffersonian  feared concentrated </li></ul><ul><li>econ./pol. power (War on BUS) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Gov’t. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No public schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interfered w/ parents role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>undermined freedom of rel. (church schools) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto  more than all previous pres. Combined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Maysville Road bill (angered Clay) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>republican virtue = frugality & industriousness </li></ul><ul><li>Power to the Pres. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rep. of “the people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Election of 1836 ( Van Buren)
  29. 31. Martin Van Buren <ul><li>“… the less Government interferes with private pursuits, the better for the general prosperity.” </li></ul><ul><li>— President Martin Van </li></ul><ul><li>Buren </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 5, 1837 </li></ul>

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