Industrialization and Reform
Essential Questions -
How did industrialization, social reform, and
philosophical movements i...
3 Revolutions (1820s-1850s)
• Economic
• Social Reform
• Political (next week)
The Marshall Court Decisions
• Fletcher v. Peck
• Dartmouth v. Woodward
(Daniel Webster )
– States cannot impair the
obli...
The Marshall Court Decisions
• Gibbons v. Ogden
– Fed. Gov’t. regulates
interstate commerce
Fulton’s steamboat
Claremont (...
A Market Society
• Rise of Corporations
• The Factory System
– Samuel Slater established America’s first factory in 1790
–...
Lowell Mills
Lowell Mills
Water Power
The Locks at Lowell (32 ft. drop)
Boott Mill (1835)
Lowell Boardinghouse
Morning Bell at Lowell
1st
Ring
4:30
Last Ring
10:00
Lowell Factory Church (1825)
Rise of factories
A New Economy
• Transportation
– Improvements costs and linked farmers to markets
– Toll roads did little
– Improved water...
Samuel Morse and his Telegraph
Railroads & Canals Example
• Robert Fulton’s Steamboat 1809
(Fulton’s Folly)
• Erie Canal (1825)
(Clinton’s Ditch)
Connecting the Great Lakes w/ Miss. River
Railroads, Canals, & Turnpikes
Travel Times from New York City in 1800 and 1830
The Market Revolution:
Western Settlement,
1800–1820
A New Economy (con’t)
• Inventions
– Eli Whitney’s cotton
gin (1793)
– McCormick’s reaper
(1831)
Industrialization Effects
• market economy
• population increase & westward expansion
• prosperity
• union & economic sect...
Social Reform(ers)
• Prison & mental illness
• Education - public & higher education
• Women’s rights/suffrage
• Temperanc...
Dorothea Dix
• Girls’ school 1821
• Report to MA (reading)
• Helped open mental
hospitals in 11 states
Horace Mann
• Started MA public schools
• 'common' or public schools
would strengthen
democracy by uniting
children of all...
Colleges Founded
• Amherst (1821)
• Trinity College (1823)
• Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (1836)
• Oberlin (1833)
Women’s Rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women’s Rights
Susan B. Anthony
So let us consider women in
the 1st half of the 18th
C.
• Adams  “Don’t forget the ladies”
• “The Cult of True Womanhood”...
Temperance movements
Transcendentalist
• Truth “transcends” human
understanding
• Natural world
• Reclaim life from
mechanized world
• Ralph Wa...
Transcendentalist
• Henry David Thoreau
• On Civil Disobedience
– Opposition to Mexican War
(it’ll promote slavery)
– Refu...
Utopian societies
• Oneida
• Brook Farm
• Amana
• Robert Owen  New Harmony
– Cooperation would “supersede individual
inte...
Religious movements
• Shakers
– Ann Lee founder
– social equality
– dramatic religious
experiences
– celibacy
Christianity’s 2nd
Great Awakening
• Educated, Middle class-oriented
• Emotions
• celebration of personal self-improvement...
Religious movements (cont.)
• Mormon faith
• Joseph Smith
• Brigham Young leads
them west (1846)
Mormon Trail
Industrialization and reform slideshare
Industrialization and reform slideshare
Industrialization and reform slideshare
Industrialization and reform slideshare
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Industrialization and reform slideshare

  1. 1. Industrialization and Reform Essential Questions - How did industrialization, social reform, and philosophical movements influence the direction of American life? How did people respond to the new challenges of industrial life?
  2. 2. 3 Revolutions (1820s-1850s) • Economic • Social Reform • Political (next week)
  3. 3. The Marshall Court Decisions • Fletcher v. Peck • Dartmouth v. Woodward (Daniel Webster ) – States cannot impair the obligation of contracts
  4. 4. The Marshall Court Decisions • Gibbons v. Ogden – Fed. Gov’t. regulates interstate commerce Fulton’s steamboat Claremont (1809) 
  5. 5. A Market Society • Rise of Corporations • The Factory System – Samuel Slater established America’s first factory in 1790 – First large-scale American factory (1814 Waltham, MA) • Lowell followed – “interchangeable parts” that could be rapidly assembled into standardized finished products – South lags behind North
  6. 6. Lowell Mills
  7. 7. Lowell Mills
  8. 8. Water Power
  9. 9. The Locks at Lowell (32 ft. drop)
  10. 10. Boott Mill (1835)
  11. 11. Lowell Boardinghouse
  12. 12. Morning Bell at Lowell 1st Ring 4:30 Last Ring 10:00
  13. 13. Lowell Factory Church (1825)
  14. 14. Rise of factories
  15. 15. A New Economy • Transportation – Improvements costs and linked farmers to markets – Toll roads did little – Improved water transportation did most • Steamboat/ canals • increased the speed • lowered the expense of commerce $100- $10 – Railroads – Telegraph
  16. 16. Samuel Morse and his Telegraph
  17. 17. Railroads & Canals Example • Robert Fulton’s Steamboat 1809 (Fulton’s Folly) • Erie Canal (1825) (Clinton’s Ditch)
  18. 18. Connecting the Great Lakes w/ Miss. River
  19. 19. Railroads, Canals, & Turnpikes
  20. 20. Travel Times from New York City in 1800 and 1830
  21. 21. The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, 1800–1820
  22. 22. A New Economy (con’t) • Inventions – Eli Whitney’s cotton gin (1793) – McCormick’s reaper (1831)
  23. 23. Industrialization Effects • market economy • population increase & westward expansion • prosperity • union & economic sectionalism • reactions to mechanization of life – faith that human’s can make progress/improve life – desire for all to share in fruits of prosperity – push back against hurried life of factory and the market economy
  24. 24. Social Reform(ers) • Prison & mental illness • Education - public & higher education • Women’s rights/suffrage • Temperance • Transcendentalists • Utopian societies • Religious revival • Abolition (later)
  25. 25. Dorothea Dix • Girls’ school 1821 • Report to MA (reading) • Helped open mental hospitals in 11 states
  26. 26. Horace Mann • Started MA public schools • 'common' or public schools would strengthen democracy by uniting children of all social classes (PBS.org)
  27. 27. Colleges Founded • Amherst (1821) • Trinity College (1823) • Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (1836) • Oberlin (1833)
  28. 28. Women’s Rights Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  29. 29. Women’s Rights Susan B. Anthony
  30. 30. So let us consider women in the 1st half of the 18th C. • Adams  “Don’t forget the ladies” • “The Cult of True Womanhood” “cult of domesticity” (read later) • Seneca Falls – 1848 “Declaration of Sentiments”
  31. 31. Temperance movements
  32. 32. Transcendentalist • Truth “transcends” human understanding • Natural world • Reclaim life from mechanized world • Ralph Waldo Emerson 
  33. 33. Transcendentalist • Henry David Thoreau • On Civil Disobedience – Opposition to Mexican War (it’ll promote slavery) – Refused to pay tax ($ used for the war)
  34. 34. Utopian societies • Oneida • Brook Farm • Amana • Robert Owen  New Harmony – Cooperation would “supersede individual interest” – Econ. equality…Socialism??
  35. 35. Religious movements • Shakers – Ann Lee founder – social equality – dramatic religious experiences – celibacy
  36. 36. Christianity’s 2nd Great Awakening • Educated, Middle class-oriented • Emotions • celebration of personal self-improvement, self- reliance, and self-determination • Timothy Dwight & Charles Finney
  37. 37. Religious movements (cont.) • Mormon faith • Joseph Smith • Brigham Young leads them west (1846)
  38. 38. Mormon Trail

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