Genetic engineering2


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Genetic engineering2

  1. 1. Anything in RED needs to be copied into your organizer. People Changing Genes
  2. 2. Selective Breeding (Artificial Selection) <ul><li>Breeding animals with desired traits in order to increase the expression of those desired traits. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Selective Breeding takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation in plants, animals, and other organisms, to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all domestic animals and plants have been produced by selective breeding </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mutations <ul><li>Genetic Variations are caused by mutations in the genetic code or DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations can happen naturally due to errors during meiosis or mitosis. Exposure to radiation, viruses, chemicals can also cause mutations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some mutations have no effect at all while others can be harmful or helpful. Beneficial mutations may help an individual live longer and pass down the beneficial mutation to more offspring. (This is a driving factor of evolution.) </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is caused by a mutation that allows the cells to grow out of control causing a mass or tumor. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common and Uncommon Mutations/Variations <ul><li>It is believed that Blue Eyes originated from a mutation in a single individual 6,000 to 10,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations/Mutations in our genetic sequences can also lead to high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Polydactyl is an uncommon mutation that causes extra fingers. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterochromia is an uncommon mutation that causes different colored eyes or one eye of with two different colors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hybridization <ul><li>Breeding closely related species in order to bring together the best of both groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Species: Two individuals that can mate and produce viable (fertile) offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid animals are not viable (fertile). </li></ul>
  7. 7. The liger is a hybrid cross between a male lion ( Panthera leo ) and a tigress ( Panthera tigris ). Thus, it has parents with the same genus but of different species.
  8. 8. <ul><li>A cama is a hybrid between a male dromedary camel and a female llama. The first cama was born on January 14, 1998. The aim was to create an animal with the size and strength of the camel, but the more cooperative temperament and the higher wool production of the llama. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog (or Vlčák/Vlčiak) is a relatively new breed of dog that traces its original lineage to an experiment conducted in 1955 in Czechoslovakia. After initially breeding 48 working line German Shepherd Dogs with 5 Eurasian wolves, a plan was worked out to create a wolf-dog hybrid that would have the temperament, pack mentality, and trainability of the German Shepherd Dog and the strength, physical build, and stamina of the Eurasian wolf.
  10. 10. Zebroid is the generic name for all zebra hybrids. The different hybrids are generally named using the convention of sire's name + dam's name. There is generally no distinction made as to which zebra species is used. Many times when zebras are crossbred, they develop some form of dwarfism.
  11. 11. Inbreeding (line breeding) <ul><li>The breeding of closely related individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to maintain the desired characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>This is RISKY, because it increases the danger of genetic defect . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Genetic Engineering <ul><li>Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism that do not occur naturally. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Until recently, animal and plant breeders could not modify the genetic code of living things </li></ul><ul><li>They were limited by the variation that exists in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Today scientists can go right to the genetic code and re-write an organisms DNA, transfer genes at will from one organism to another and design new living things to meet specific needs </li></ul>
  14. 14. DNA Extraction <ul><li>DNA can be extracted from most cells by a simple chemical procedure </li></ul><ul><li>The cells are opened and the DNA is separated from other parts of the cell </li></ul>
  15. 15. Using the DNA Sequence <ul><li>Knowing the sequence of an organisms DNA allows researchers to study specific genes, to compare them with the genes of other organisms, to try to discover the functions of different genes and gene combinations </li></ul>
  16. 16. Transgenic organisms or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) <ul><li>Organisms that contain genetic information from other species </li></ul><ul><li>How does one do this? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a gene from one organism and place it in another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This idea has sparked the new booming industry of biotechnology. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fun With Fireflies <ul><li>There is an enzyme that makes fireflies glow called Luciferase </li></ul><ul><li>Could we take a gene out of an animal and put it in something else? </li></ul><ul><li>Could we get things that don’t glow, to glow </li></ul>
  18. 18. Glowing Tobacco Plant <ul><li>Put luciferase gene in a tobacco plant and you can get a glowing tobacco plant </li></ul>
  19. 22. Glow - Fish
  20. 23. Glow - Mice
  21. 26. Transgenic Microorganisms <ul><li>Before: Diabetics had to use insulin from cadavers </li></ul><ul><li>Now: We make bacteria that produce human proteins such as insulin, growth hormone, clotting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Future: Bacteria may produce substances to fight cancer, make raw materials for plastic and fibers </li></ul>
  22. 27. Transgenic Animals <ul><li>There are currently no transgenic animals that are approved for human consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>But there are a lot of experimental studies being done. </li></ul>
  23. 28. Transgenic Animals <ul><li>Mice made to have human immune systems </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock with growth hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens resistant to bacterial infections that cause us food poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Mad cow resistant cows </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep and pigs that produce our proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Spider web goats </li></ul>
  24. 29. Spider Web Goats? <ul><li>Take the gene for making spider web silk </li></ul><ul><li>C. darwini silk is more than twice as tough as any previously described silk, and over 10 times tougher than Kevlar. </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Put it in a goat </li></ul><ul><li>Then milk it </li></ul><ul><li>Extract the spider web silk in large quantities… </li></ul><ul><li>And we could have… </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>The best bullet proof vest ever! </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest steel cables </li></ul><ul><li>And much more… </li></ul>
  27. 32. Transgenic Plants <ul><li>Already here, already controversial </li></ul><ul><li>You have already eaten transgenic plants! </li></ul><ul><li>They are called GMOs or Genetically Modified Organisms </li></ul>
  28. 33. Soy Beans <ul><li>93% of soy beans today are genetically modified </li></ul>
  29. 34. Corn <ul><li>86% of corn is genetically modified </li></ul>
  30. 35. Insect Resistant <ul><li>The bulk of both soy beans and corn that is genetically modified is modified to have a natural insecticide </li></ul>
  31. 36. Herbicide resistant <ul><li>Others resist weed killing chemicals </li></ul>
  32. 37. The other categories <ul><li>Virus resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed fruit ripening </li></ul><ul><li>Altered oil control </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen control </li></ul>
  33. 38. Transgenic Plant Myths <ul><li>The fish tomato and the fish berry </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically modify plants to have a fish gene that makes them able to live in colder temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentally tested, but never worked </li></ul>
  34. 39. A Rising Trend <ul><li>As more and more farmers are realizing the efficiency of these GM plants, the more they will be used </li></ul>
  35. 40. Clone <ul><li>A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced by a single cell </li></ul>
  36. 41. How to get a clone in 4 easy steps <ul><li>1. Remove the nucleus of an egg </li></ul>
  37. 42. How to get a clone in 4 easy steps <ul><li>2. Fuse egg with a cell taken from another organism </li></ul><ul><li>3. Place in the uterus of a foster mother </li></ul><ul><li>4. Foster mother gives birth to cloned baby </li></ul>
  38. 43. Donor Nucleus These two cells are fused using an electric shock. Fused Cell The fused cell begins dividing normally. Embryo The embryo is placed in the uterus of a foster mother. The embryo develops normally into a lamb—Dolly Egg Cell An egg cell is taken from an adult female sheep. The nucleus of the egg cell is removed.
  39. 44. Dolly <ul><li>First time this was done in a mammal was in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>A gigantic scientific breakthrough at the time </li></ul>
  40. 45. We have also cloned <ul><li>Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Mice </li></ul><ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Monkey </li></ul>
  41. 46. Starlight…guess where it was cloned
  42. 47. The cutest clone <ul><li>First cloned cat </li></ul><ul><li>“ CC ” </li></ul>
  43. 48. Cloned Mice Nucleus Donor Egg Donor Surrogate Mother Cloned babies
  44. 49. Female gives birth to her own dam twin! <ul><li>Dam = female horse </li></ul>
  45. 50. The worlds first cloned dog
  46. 51. Breaking News in the Cloning World! <ul><li>Scientists just announced that for the first time, they have successfully cloned a rhesus monkey embryo . </li></ul>
  47. 52. Pros and Cons of Cloning <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Saving endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic animals for human consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Organ and tissue transplants </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Cloned animals have genetic defects </li></ul><ul><li>Health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Animals tend to die young. </li></ul>
  48. 53. Should we reproductively clone humans? <ul><li>Not anytime soon! </li></ul><ul><li>It took 188 tries on Dolly </li></ul><ul><li>Success rate of .4 on the horse </li></ul><ul><li>Success rate of 1.6 on the dog </li></ul><ul><li>How many humans would die before this worked? </li></ul>