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September 12The role of the oceans
All of Earth’s waterSource: Howard Perlman, United States Geological Survey
WHAT ROLES DO THE OCEANS PLAY WITHIN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM?  They absorb and reflect solar radiation.                         ...
“   The low-latitude oceans are Earth’s main storage tanks    of solar heat.                                              ...
3Main reasons.
1Physical properties of water
The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit massrequired to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.
The specific heat of water is WAY higher than any of Earth’s other surfaces.                             Water             ...
Heat capacity = Density × Specific Heat    cal/cm3     g/cm 3       cal/g
HEAT CAPACITIES60 : 5 : 2 : 1  water : ice : air : land
“   The low-latitude oceans are Earth’s main storage tanks    of solar heat.                                              ...
Sun angle controls heat absorption.Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
Depth-temperature profile at 180°W                                 0                                 2000                  ...
Source: reefdaddy                    2                    Turbulent mixing
Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
The mixed layer is uppermost layer of the ocean,where temperature and salinity are relatively constant.
Boreal winter                      Depth of mixed layer (meters)Source: Giorgiogp2
Boreal summer                      Depth of mixed layer (meters)Source: Giorgiogp2
Depth-temperature profile at 180°W                                 0                                 2000                  ...
3The conveyor belt
The thermohaline circulation
Source: Jonathan Cohen
Average annual ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxSource: NOAA PMEL Carbon Program
The residence time describes the average time awater molecule will spend in a specific reservoirwithin the hydrological cyc...
Age of ocean waters inferred from radiocarbon observationsSource: Gebbie and Huybers, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 2012
Antarctica and                                                                                     Greenland              ...
The thermal inertia describes the resistance of a componentof the climate system to temperature change.
Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
Sensitivity to solar heating (land vs. ocean)Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
Pacific Decadal Oscillation index3210-1-2-3     1900   1920     1940      1960      1980   2000
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index
September 20                Impacts on terrestrial climatesSource: Franklin Hunting
GEOG8280  XT C L AS SNE
GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans
GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans
GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans
GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans
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GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans

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GEOG8280.02, The role of the oceans

  1. 1. September 12The role of the oceans
  2. 2. All of Earth’s waterSource: Howard Perlman, United States Geological Survey
  3. 3. WHAT ROLES DO THE OCEANS PLAY WITHIN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM? They absorb and reflect solar radiation. (albedo) They transport heat. (climate variability) They are source of water vapor. (greenhouse effect, precipitation) They store heat. (heat capacity, latent heat)
  4. 4. “ The low-latitude oceans are Earth’s main storage tanks of solar heat. Bill Ruddiman ” Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
  5. 5. 3Main reasons.
  6. 6. 1Physical properties of water
  7. 7. The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit massrequired to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.
  8. 8. The specific heat of water is WAY higher than any of Earth’s other surfaces. Water Ice Wood, oak Soil, wet Tar Earth, dry Brick, common Concrete, light Clay Lava Glass Granite Steel 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 cal/gSource: The Engineering Toolbox
  9. 9. Heat capacity = Density × Specific Heat cal/cm3 g/cm 3 cal/g
  10. 10. HEAT CAPACITIES60 : 5 : 2 : 1 water : ice : air : land
  11. 11. “ The low-latitude oceans are Earth’s main storage tanks of solar heat. Bill Ruddiman ” Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
  12. 12. Sun angle controls heat absorption.Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
  13. 13. Depth-temperature profile at 180°W 0 2000 Depth [m] 4000 90˚S 60˚S 30˚S 0˚ 30˚N 60˚N 90˚N Latitude 179.5WSource: Levitus and Boyer, 1994
  14. 14. Source: reefdaddy 2 Turbulent mixing
  15. 15. Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
  16. 16. The mixed layer is uppermost layer of the ocean,where temperature and salinity are relatively constant.
  17. 17. Boreal winter Depth of mixed layer (meters)Source: Giorgiogp2
  18. 18. Boreal summer Depth of mixed layer (meters)Source: Giorgiogp2
  19. 19. Depth-temperature profile at 180°W 0 2000 Depth [m] 4000 90˚S 60˚S 30˚S 0˚ 30˚N 60˚N 90˚N Latitude 179.5WSource: Levitus and Boyer, 1994
  20. 20. 3The conveyor belt
  21. 21. The thermohaline circulation
  22. 22. Source: Jonathan Cohen
  23. 23. Average annual ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxSource: NOAA PMEL Carbon Program
  24. 24. The residence time describes the average time awater molecule will spend in a specific reservoirwithin the hydrological cycle.
  25. 25. Age of ocean waters inferred from radiocarbon observationsSource: Gebbie and Huybers, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 2012
  26. 26. Antarctica and Greenland Soil Glaciers 20,000 yr 1 to 2 months 20 to 100 yr Atmosphere Groundwater 9 days 10,000 yr Lakes Snow Oceans 50 to 100 yr 2 to 6 months 3,200 yr 1 week 1 year 100 years 10,000 years1 day 1 month 10 years 1,000 years 100,000 years
  27. 27. The thermal inertia describes the resistance of a componentof the climate system to temperature change.
  28. 28. Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
  29. 29. Sensitivity to solar heating (land vs. ocean)Source: Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate: Past, Present and Future
  30. 30. Pacific Decadal Oscillation index3210-1-2-3 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
  31. 31. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index
  32. 32. September 20 Impacts on terrestrial climatesSource: Franklin Hunting
  33. 33. GEOG8280 XT C L AS SNE

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