September 18                How does weather affect tree growth?Source: Paul Schulte
Red mangroveRhizophora mangle
Red mangroveRhizophora mangle
Red mangrove         Rhizophora manglePhotograph: Kevin Hutchinson
Trees without rings    (approximate)
Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
GEOG5839ARE TREE RINGS ANNUAL?
The “pinning” method   Source: Keith Weston
Band dendrometer
Band dendrometer measurements on a white pine near Cloquet MNSource: Alm and Brown, Minnesota Forestry Notes, 1964
Atomic bomb test in Almogordo, New Mexico, July 16, 1945.
Y ?  HHow do we knowWtemperate or boreal trees are ANNUAL?
Phenology is the study of the timing of recurringbiological events, their relationship to biotic andabiotic forces, and th...
Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) is a common tree along rivers in Minnesota and the upper Midwest.Select trees of this species...
h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
DormancyFruit drop                                  Bud break    Flowers visible              Leaf out
DORMANCY               The buds of most temperature trees are protected by a               covering of scales during the d...
BUD BREAKA leaf bud is considered "breaking" once a green leaf tip isvisible at the end of the bud.
LEAF OUTA leaf is considered "unfolded" once its stalk or base isvisible outside of the bud.
FLOWERS VISIBLEFor bur oak, the male flowers hang loosely from the branchand are called catkins.
FRUIT DROP‘Fruit drop’ occurs when mature acorns are ripenedand have dropped from the tree.
Every species has its own phenological ‘calendar’                                   leaf out                              ...
“   Cambial activity is not continuous in space or in time.                                              Kozlowski and Pal...
GEOG5839WEATHER, CLIMATE & TREES
temperature   water   day length
HOW DOES TEMPERATURE AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: spaka acks
Source: Marchand, P. J. 1996. Life in the Cold: AnIntroduction to Winter Ecology, 3rd ed. UniversityPress of New England. ...
carbon dioxide   water   oxygen   water   sugar 6CO2 + 12H20 ➔ 6O2 + 6H20 + C6H1206
TEMPERATUREhigh growth                        frozen water                                        low photosynthetic rate ...
HOW DOES MOISTURE AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: circulating
Source: Karen Rice
Stomata are microscopic pore on the epidermis (surface)of land plants. Stomata act as gateways that allow plantsto exchang...
PINE NEEDLEleaf stomata
CO2               CO2 H2O          H2O       LEAF CROSS-SECTION       abundant water
CO2                CO2     CO2CO2         CO2                CO2   CO2                      CO2  H2O                    H2...
WATERhigh growth                reduced cell division                                        flooding              reduced...
HOW DOES DAY LENGTH AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: Chris Nixon
DAY LENGTHhigh growth                      flowering                   dormancy                 germinationlow growth     ...
total                             growth rate                                             growth rate                     ...
THE   LAW       OF THE    MINIMUM  Growth is controlled by the scarcest resource  (limiting factor), not the total amount ...
Source: Neil Pederson
GEOG5839ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS
Tree-ring display at elementary school                                    Photograph:Tom Swetnam
Dr. Hal Fri sUniversity of Arizona
Fri s, Tree Rings and Climate, 1976
Source: Fritts et al., Ecology, 1965
High                   Low                          Forest interior                       Semiarid forest border          ...
High                                     Av                                          era                                  ...
High                                                                             S                                        ...
High                                                                            E S                                       ...
High                                                                            E S                                       ...
Source: Fritts et al., Ecology, 1965
“   Thus the physiological processes, such as photosynthesis,    respiration, assimilation, and cambial activity, are larg...
Source: United States Geological Survey
A species may grow and reproduce over acertain range of habitats; that range isdescribed as its ecological amplitude.
h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
THE PRINCIPLE OFECOLOGICAL AMPLITUDETrees that grow near the margins or limits of their ecological amplitudeare o en more ...
GEOG8280  XT C L AS SNE
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?
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GEOG5839.05, How does weather and climate affect tree growth?

  1. 1. September 18 How does weather affect tree growth?Source: Paul Schulte
  2. 2. Red mangroveRhizophora mangle
  3. 3. Red mangroveRhizophora mangle
  4. 4. Red mangrove Rhizophora manglePhotograph: Kevin Hutchinson
  5. 5. Trees without rings (approximate)
  6. 6. Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
  7. 7. GEOG5839ARE TREE RINGS ANNUAL?
  8. 8. The “pinning” method Source: Keith Weston
  9. 9. Band dendrometer
  10. 10. Band dendrometer measurements on a white pine near Cloquet MNSource: Alm and Brown, Minnesota Forestry Notes, 1964
  11. 11. Atomic bomb test in Almogordo, New Mexico, July 16, 1945.
  12. 12. Y ? HHow do we knowWtemperate or boreal trees are ANNUAL?
  13. 13. Phenology is the study of the timing of recurringbiological events, their relationship to biotic andabiotic forces, and the inter-relations among phasesof the same or different species.
  14. 14. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) is a common tree along rivers in Minnesota and the upper Midwest.Select trees of this species can live for up to 450 years.
  15. 15. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  16. 16. DormancyFruit drop Bud break Flowers visible Leaf out
  17. 17. DORMANCY The buds of most temperature trees are protected by a covering of scales during the dormant period.Source: Steve Ryan
  18. 18. BUD BREAKA leaf bud is considered "breaking" once a green leaf tip isvisible at the end of the bud.
  19. 19. LEAF OUTA leaf is considered "unfolded" once its stalk or base isvisible outside of the bud.
  20. 20. FLOWERS VISIBLEFor bur oak, the male flowers hang loosely from the branchand are called catkins.
  21. 21. FRUIT DROP‘Fruit drop’ occurs when mature acorns are ripenedand have dropped from the tree.
  22. 22. Every species has its own phenological ‘calendar’ leaf out flowers visible fruit drop bud break dormancy dormancyJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb
  23. 23. “ Cambial activity is not continuous in space or in time. Kozlowski and Pallardy ” Physiology of Woody Plants
  24. 24. GEOG5839WEATHER, CLIMATE & TREES
  25. 25. temperature water day length
  26. 26. HOW DOES TEMPERATURE AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: spaka acks
  27. 27. Source: Marchand, P. J. 1996. Life in the Cold: AnIntroduction to Winter Ecology, 3rd ed. UniversityPress of New England. Hanover, NH. 304 pp.
  28. 28. carbon dioxide water oxygen water sugar 6CO2 + 12H20 ➔ 6O2 + 6H20 + C6H1206
  29. 29. TEMPERATUREhigh growth frozen water low photosynthetic rate low photosynthetic rate higher evaporation shorter growing seasonlow growth cold hot
  30. 30. HOW DOES MOISTURE AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: circulating
  31. 31. Source: Karen Rice
  32. 32. Stomata are microscopic pore on the epidermis (surface)of land plants. Stomata act as gateways that allow plantsto exchange CO2 and O2 with the atmosphere.
  33. 33. PINE NEEDLEleaf stomata
  34. 34. CO2 CO2 H2O H2O LEAF CROSS-SECTION abundant water
  35. 35. CO2 CO2 CO2CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 H2O H2OH2O H2O H2O LEAF CROSS-SECTION water shortage
  36. 36. WATERhigh growth reduced cell division flooding reduced cell expansion anoxic conditions C02 starvationlow growth dry wet
  37. 37. HOW DOES DAY LENGTH AFFECT TREE GROWTH?Source: Chris Nixon
  38. 38. DAY LENGTHhigh growth flowering dormancy germinationlow growth short long
  39. 39. total growth rate growth rate due to temperature G(t) = gE(t) • min[gT, gW] growth rate growth rate due to soil water due to radiationA er Evans et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2006
  40. 40. THE LAW OF THE MINIMUM Growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor), not the total amount of resources available
  41. 41. Source: Neil Pederson
  42. 42. GEOG5839ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS
  43. 43. Tree-ring display at elementary school Photograph:Tom Swetnam
  44. 44. Dr. Hal Fri sUniversity of Arizona
  45. 45. Fri s, Tree Rings and Climate, 1976
  46. 46. Source: Fritts et al., Ecology, 1965
  47. 47. High Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  48. 48. High Av era ge rin g-w Ar idt bo h ria ld om ina nc e Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  49. 49. High S NG RI N T Low B SE PERCENT A Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  50. 50. High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA R E O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  51. 51. High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA R E O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  52. 52. Source: Fritts et al., Ecology, 1965
  53. 53. “ Thus the physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, assimilation, and cambial activity, are largely a function of favorable or unfavorable climatic regimes, and ” hence the trees exhibit a high amount of similar variation in relative year-to-year fluctuations of their ring widths. Fri s et al., 1965 Ecology
  54. 54. Source: United States Geological Survey
  55. 55. A species may grow and reproduce over acertain range of habitats; that range isdescribed as its ecological amplitude.
  56. 56. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  57. 57. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  58. 58. THE PRINCIPLE OFECOLOGICAL AMPLITUDETrees that grow near the margins or limits of their ecological amplitudeare o en more sensitive to changes in their environment.
  59. 59. GEOG8280 XT C L AS SNE

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