Class 8, Sampling strategies

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Class 8, Sampling strategies

  1. 1. KEVIN ANCHUKAITISCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY FRI MAR 4, 2011 BLEGEN 445 3:30 PMA THOUSAND YEARS OFHUMAN HISTORY AND THEASIAN MONSOON FROMTROPICAL TREE RINGS
  2. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OFAGGREGATE TREE GROWTH THE PRINCIPLE OF REPLICATION STANDARDIZATION
  3. 3. TREE-RING WIDTH DATApith bark
  4. 4. S A M P L I N G S T R AT E G I E SPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  5. 5. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  6. 6. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  7. 7. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  8. 8. THE PRINCIPLE OFECOLOGICAL AMPLITUDEA tree species may grow and reproduce over a certain range ofhabitats; that range is described as its ecological amplitude.Trees that grow near the margins or limits of their ecologicalamplitude are o en sensitive to changes in their environment.
  9. 9. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  10. 10. Photograph: Phil Camill
  11. 11. Average temperatures are remarkably consistent at treeline locations around the worldSource: Körner and Paulsen, Journal of Biogeography, 2004
  12. 12. Photograph: Greg Brooks
  13. 13. Photograph: a rancid amoeba
  14. 14. High Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  15. 15. High Av era ge r ing -w idt Ar h bo ria ld om ina nc e Low Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  16. 16. High S NG RI N T Low B SE PERCENT A Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  17. 17. High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA RE O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  18. 18. ‘Complacent’
  19. 19. ‘Sensitive’
  20. 20. COMPLACENT SENSITIVE High E S R E T N EE TW BE N T IO LA RE O R Low C Forest interior Semiarid forest border DECREASING EFFECTIVE PRECIPITATION INCREASING VARIABILITY IN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION MORE DAYS WHERE MOISTURE IS LIMITING TO PROCESSES IN TREEc.f. Fri s, 1976
  21. 21. Complacent SensitiveFri s, 1976
  22. 22. THE PRINCIPLE OF SITE SELECTIONDendrochronologists should apply the principles oflimiting factors and ecological amplitude to determinewhich trees are most likely to provide information about aspecific environmental signal.
  23. 23. THE PRINCIPLE OF AGGREGATE TREE GROWTHRt = At + Ct + δD1t + δD2t + Et
  24. 24. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  25. 25. Photograph: Phil Camill
  26. 26. ecotone a transitional area where one plant communitychanges into another, usually caused by changes in theenvironment such as changes in elevation or soilcharacteristics.
  27. 27. TARGETED vs. RANDOM
  28. 28. Photograph: mullica
  29. 29. where do we find old trees?
  30. 30. OLDLIST h p://www.rmtrr.org/oldlist.htm
  31. 31. Eastern OLDLIST h p://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~adk/oldlisteast/
  32. 32. Trees can grow anywhere!
  33. 33. Intermountain bristlecone pine 4,844 yearsPhotograph: Tom Harlan
  34. 34. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  35. 35. Methuselah RidgePhotograph: Tom Harlan
  36. 36. Bristlecone comparison photos
  37. 37. Wind erosion on bristlecone tagPhotograph: Tom Harlan
  38. 38. Bristlecone vista Alerce 3,622 yearsPhotograph: Tim Waters
  39. 39. distribution map ofFITZROYA CUPRESSOIDES
  40. 40. Giant sequoia 3,266 yearsPhotograph: Julie Jordan Sco
  41. 41. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  42. 42. Photograph: Byron Hetrick
  43. 43. Bristlecone vista Coast redwood 2,200 yearsPhotograph:hoppinjonn
  44. 44. h p://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/li le/
  45. 45. Photograph: Brandi Korte
  46. 46. The Seward oak 330 yr?Photograph: Ralph Sievert
  47. 47. White pine 1714Photograph: Kurt Kipfmueller
  48. 48. White cedar 1452Photograph: Danny Margoles
  49. 49. Leonardo da Vinci b. 1452 d. 1519
  50. 50. IDENTIFYING CHARACTERISTICS OF PONDEROSA PINE TREES AT DIFFERENT LIFE STAGES Live crown Trunk Likely Crown shape Branches Bark ratio shape injuries Old trees fla ened, ‘bonsai’ shape, sparse and open, may be small; o en fire-pruned few but large columnar smooth, small flakes, fire scars, dead tops, broken (>200 yr) lopsided. pale orange or grey branches, lightning scars, rot, burls, exposed roots Young trees pointed top, ‘teardrop’ or ‘Christmas tree’ shape, large many fine branches, dense foliage near tapered large, coarse flakes, deep very few, possible mistletoe or (<150 yr) dense foliage the trunk fissures, dark gray or black lightening scars with dark orangeSource: Huckaby et al., 2003
  51. 51. Crown shapefla ened, ‘bonsai’ shape,sparse and open, may belopsided.
  52. 52. Branchesfew but large
  53. 53. Trunk shapecolumnar
  54. 54. youngest IDEALIZED SILHOUETTES OF middle PONDEROSA PINES oldest good sites poor sitesSource: Huckaby et al., 2003
  55. 55. Dr. Neil Pederson Lamont-Doherty Earth Observation
  56. 56. Pederson, N. 2010. External characteristics ofold trees in the Eastern Deciduous Forest.Natural Areas Journal 30, 396:407.
  57. 57. SIXCHARACTERISTICS OF OLD TREES smooth bark low stem taper high stem sinuosity crowns with few, thick, twisting limbs low crown volume low ratio of leaf area to trunk volume
  58. 58. Quercus alba <150 yr, with flaky barkPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  59. 59. Quercus alba >250 yr, with low ridgingPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  60. 60. Liriodendron tulipifera ca. 80 yrPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  61. 61. Liriodendron tulipifera ca. 500 yrPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  62. 62. Quercus muehlenbergii ca. 399 yr, with a low stem taperPhotograph: A. Wiggs
  63. 63. Lirodendron tulipifera showing serpentine bole and characteristic crown architecturePhotographs: Neil Pederson
  64. 64. Quercus muehlenbergii ca. 348 yr, with a few large branches in its crownPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  65. 65. Photograph: Diane Main
  66. 66. L. tulipifera with broken crown (le ) and a celery top crown (right)Photograph: Neil Pederson
  67. 67. “ Size ma ers not. Look at me. Judge me by my size, do you? Hm? Mmmm.” Yoda
  68. 68. Q. montana 250 to 350+ yrs, U ertown NJPhotograph: Neil Pederson
  69. 69. Quercus montana Quercus montana 428 yr 427 yr Quercus montana 411 yrPhotograph:s Neil Pederson
  70. 70. where do we find tree-ring data?
  71. 71. INTERNATIONALTREE-RING DATABANK h p://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/treering.html
  72. 72. Exercise!Use Google Earth to review the globaldistribution of tree-ring data.

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