By November 3
[Tentative] list of 10 articles related to
your region and time period.
Brief (15-minute) summaries of project topics.
(1) What are the most important features of the modern
climate in your region?
(2) What proxies are available in your region, over the time
interval speciﬁed? How are they related to climate? and
(3) How diﬀerent were past climates from modern
conditions? Why is that important?
Scientists are sometimes like American tourists;
[we] think that if we just speak English loud enough,
people will understand us.
Kevin Finneram, editor in chief
Issues in Science and Technology
Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
• Lake Winnipeg is the 11th largest
freshwater lake in the world
• The lake’s watershed includes
territory in Alberta, Saskatchewan,
Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota and
• Its tributaries include the
Saskatchewan, Red, Winnipeg and
• The lake drains northward into the
Nelson River and contributes to
Photograph of Lake Winnipeg from Gimli, Manitoba
Anatomical signatures from riparian trees can be used to extend flood records by
several hundred years.
Flood hazards and tree rings
In the Red River basin, shifts in annual precipitation of roughly ten percent
altered flood risks significantly during the last 350 years. Geological processes
are not affecting flood hazards at relevant timescales.
The current design flood for the Red River valley was produced by an exceptional
combination of extensive flooding in the northeastern Great Plains and unusual
spring weather across central North America.
Paleoﬂood Records for the
Red River, Manitoba, Canada
characteristics of D2M‘hotspots’
Not correlated with major modes
Do not track SST anomalies
Are not synchronized with each other
We do not think that the country below Fort Garry will
ever be ﬂooded again for experience shows clearly that
each successive ﬂood has indicated far less depth of
the plains that its predecessors – a fact fully accounted
by the rapid widening of the river channel.
St.. George and Nielsen,The Holocene, 2003
St. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
350 years of Red River ﬂoods
The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of
an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending
for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only
approachable by boats and canoes.”
Hudson Bay Company, 1826
St.. George and Rannie, CanadianWater Resources Journal, 2003
Climate and the collapse of the Mayan Civilization
Haug et al., Science, 2003
Intertropical Convergence Zone
The region where the northeasterly and southeasterly
trade winds converge, forming an o en continuous band
of clouds or thunderstorms near the equator.
National Weather Service