Class 8, Past Climates and Society


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Class 8, Past Climates and Society

  1. 1. GEOG5426 Past climates, past societies
  2. 2. By November 3 [Tentative] list of 10 articles related to your region and time period.
  3. 3. November 24 Brief (15-minute) summaries of project topics. (1) What are the most important features of the modern climate in your region? (2) What proxies are available in your region, over the time interval specified? How are they related to climate? and (3) How different were past climates from modern conditions? Why is that important?
  4. 4. Scientists are sometimes like American tourists; [we] think that if we just speak English loud enough, people will understand us. “ Kevin Finneram, editor in chief Issues in Science and Technology
  5. 5. Tip #1 Use images, not text
  6. 6. Hear a piece of information, and three days later you'll remember 10% of it. Add a picture and you'll remember 65%.” “ John Medina
  7. 7. LOWfrequency
  8. 8. Tip #2 Design for the back row
  9. 9. Make It BIG
  10. 10. Make It
  11. 11. Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada • Lake Winnipeg is the 11th largest freshwater lake in the world • The lake’s watershed includes territory in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Minnesota and North Dakota • Its tributaries include the Saskatchewan, Red, Winnipeg and Assiniboine Rivers. • The lake drains northward into the Nelson River and contributes to Hudson Bay. Photograph of Lake Winnipeg from Gimli, Manitoba
  12. 12. St. George et al.,The Holocene, 2010
  13. 13. St. George et al.,The Holocene, 2010
  14. 14. Anatomical signatures from riparian trees can be used to extend flood records by several hundred years. Flood hazards and tree rings In the Red River basin, shifts in annual precipitation of roughly ten percent altered flood risks significantly during the last 350 years. Geological processes are not affecting flood hazards at relevant timescales. The current design flood for the Red River valley was produced by an exceptional combination of extensive flooding in the northeastern Great Plains and unusual spring weather across central North America. Paleoflood Records for the Red River, Manitoba, Canada
  15. 15. characteristics of D2M‘hotspots’ Not correlated with major modes Do not track SST anomalies Are not synchronized with each other ✘ ✘ ✘
  16. 16. Tip #3 Get to the point
  17. 17. The secret of being a bore is to tell everything.” “ Voltaire
  18. 18. MURDER YOUR DARLINGS. “ Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch ”
  19. 19. “I’m more important that the next speaker.” “I’m more important than this session.” “I’m more important than my audience.” What going over time really means
  20. 20. Strive for continual improvement
  21. 21. You must unlearn what you have learned.” “ Yoda
  22. 22.
  23. 23. M EGADROUGHT intensity at least equivalent to modern multiyear droughts duration longer than the several years to decade thereof Seager et al., Journal of Climate, 2008
  24. 24. Red River floods
  25. 25. Red River valley
  26. 26. AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  27. 27. DaKohlmeyer
  28. 28. River diversion Main channel Winnipeg population: 680,000 Photograph: Greg Brooks
  29. 29. why are Red River floods so severe?
  30. 30. why are Red River floods so severe? geology &climate history!
  31. 31. Level of Lake Winnipeg (metres)
  32. 32. We do not think that the country below Fort Garry will ever be flooded again for experience shows clearly that each successive flood has indicated far less depth of the plains that its predecessors – a fact fully accounted by the rapid widening of the river channel. “ ”Anonymous, 1861
  33. 33. Brooks (2003) Geomorphology
  34. 34. how o en does the Red River flood?
  35. 35. Photograph: Greg Brooks Red River Manitoba
  36. 36. 2008
  37. 37. 1875
  38. 38. Photo: Erik Nielsen
  39. 39. Photo: Erik Nielsen
  40. 40. 67 Photo: Erik Nielsen
  41. 41. Photo: Erik Nielsen
  42. 42. 70 St.. George and Nielsen,The Holocene, 2003 Normal growth Flood damaged
  43. 43. St. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003 350 years of Red River floods
  44. 44. The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” “ Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826 St.. George and Rannie, CanadianWater Resources Journal, 2003
  45. 45. 74 Winnipeg floodway expansion
  46. 46. GEOG5426 Past climates, past societies
  47. 47. Climate and the collapse of the Mayan Civilization Haug et al., Science, 2003
  48. 48. Intertropical Convergence Zone The region where the northeasterly and southeasterly trade winds converge, forming an o en continuous band of clouds or thunderstorms near the equator. National Weather Service
  49. 49. Photo: f-l-e-x
  50. 50. Photo: Celso Flores
  51. 51. Photo: npa erson
  52. 52. Haug et al., Science, 2003
  53. 53. Haug et al., Science, 2003
  54. 54. Aztec drought and “The Curse of One Rabbit” Therrell et al., BMAS, 2004
  55. 55. Therrell et al., BAMS, 2004
  56. 56. Therrell et al., BAMS, 2004
  57. 57. photo: Howard Arno
  58. 58. Therrell et al., BAMS, 2004
  59. 59. Therrell et al., BAMS, 2004
  60. 60. November 10 Statistics in Paleoclimate