W H AT A R E T R E E R I N G S ?
slides
Photograph: dylancantwell
Lecture 2 - What are tree rings?
Lecture 2 - What are tree rings?Definition of trees
Lecture 2 - What are tree rings? Tree anatomy
Lecture 2 - What are tree rings?                Tree-ring terminology
Lecture 2 - What are tree rings?                                   Trees without rings
What are trees?
Trees are not limited to a single orderor even division of plants.“Tree-ness” is defined by aspecific growth form.
Trees are woody plants (a category thatalso includes shrubs and some vines).
Trees are perennial plants, which are plants                         that live for more than two years.Photograph: Sco But...
Trees have a single main stem(or trunk).
Shrubs have multiple stems               (and are not trees).Photograph: daryl_mitchell
Plants are often required to attain                            a minimum height at maturity to                            ...
secondary thickening Woody plants are capable of                     secondary thickening, adding new                     ...
Basic tree anatomy
Heartwood              SapwoodCambium               Bark
tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsvascular cambium 1 a lateral meristem in the vascular tissue of plants.               ...
Photograph: easagor
Photograph: Crossroads Foundation Photos
Most recent               growthOldest wood
Cross-sectional                                    (or transverse) planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
Radial planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
Tangential planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
Cross-sectional plane
BarkPith       Cambium
pith 1 the small core of so spongey tissue that forms     the central longitudinal axis of a tree stem, branch     or twig...
Scots pine                                  Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
Common beech                                  Fagus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
Heartwood            Sapwood
Photograph: sonykus
Photosynthetic wastes
Photograph: Dave_Gray
Tree-ring terminology
Gymnosperms (coniferous)
Gymnosperms haveencapsulated seeds.                      Douglas-fir                      Pseudotsuga menziesii
Red pinePinus resinosa
Red pinePinus resinosa
Eastern hemlockTsuga canadensis
Earlywood            Eastern hemlock            Tsuga canadensis
Latewood           Eastern hemlock           Tsuga canadensis
Total ring-width                   Eastern hemlock                   Tsuga canadensis
Tracheids                                              Scots pine                                              Pinus sylve...
tracheids 1 elongated cells that function in food conduction          and structural support.          2 most common type ...
large cells                                               thin cell walls                                    small cells  ...
Ray                                        Scots pine                                        Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: F...
rays 1 fla ened bands of tissue that extend horizontally     in a radial plane through the tree stem.     2 transport sap a...
Angiosperms(deciduous)
Angiosperms (like oak) haveexposed seeds.
Palm                                  Cocos spp.Photograph: Fritz Schweingruber
White oak                         Quercus albaPhotograph: Tie Guy II
Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
English oak                                  Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
Earlywood vessels                                                      English oak                                        ...
English oak                                  Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
Latewood                                   vessels                                             English oak                ...
vessel element 1 a type of hardwood cell that has a relatively               large diameter, thick cell wall and perforate...
ring porous a hardwood with (1) relatively large vessels            in the earlywood and (2) distinctly smaller           ...
Fibre                                          English oak                                          Quercus roburPhotograp...
fibre an elongated hardwood cell with thick walls     that contributes greatly to the material     strength of wood.
Ray                                        English oak                                        Quercus roburPhotograph: Fri...
American elm                             Ulmus americanaPhotograph: daryl_mitchell
diffuse porous a hardwood with vessels that are              approximately the same size and              distributed (fair...
Sycamore maple                                  Acer pseudoplatanusPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
European beech                                  Fagus sylvaticaPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
Trees without rings
Photograph: joanna8555
Photograph: stephenk1977
Trees without rings    (approximate)
Mangrove spp.Photograph: Kevin Hutchinson
Mangrove spp.
Mangrove spp.
Longleaf pinePinus palustris             Photograph: tinkerbrad
Species range for longleaf pine
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
Class 2, What are tree rings?
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Class 2, What are tree rings?

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  • I believe that angiosperm and gymnosperm are confused here. Angiosperms are the enclosed seeds while gymnosperms are "naked" seeds. -UofM student
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Class 2, What are tree rings?

  1. 1. W H AT A R E T R E E R I N G S ?
  2. 2. slides
  3. 3. Photograph: dylancantwell
  4. 4. Lecture 2 - What are tree rings?
  5. 5. Lecture 2 - What are tree rings?Definition of trees
  6. 6. Lecture 2 - What are tree rings? Tree anatomy
  7. 7. Lecture 2 - What are tree rings? Tree-ring terminology
  8. 8. Lecture 2 - What are tree rings? Trees without rings
  9. 9. What are trees?
  10. 10. Trees are not limited to a single orderor even division of plants.“Tree-ness” is defined by aspecific growth form.
  11. 11. Trees are woody plants (a category thatalso includes shrubs and some vines).
  12. 12. Trees are perennial plants, which are plants that live for more than two years.Photograph: Sco Butner
  13. 13. Trees have a single main stem(or trunk).
  14. 14. Shrubs have multiple stems (and are not trees).Photograph: daryl_mitchell
  15. 15. Plants are often required to attain a minimum height at maturity to qualify as trees (usually between 3 and 6 meters tall).Photograph: Chris Mullins
  16. 16. secondary thickening Woody plants are capable of secondary thickening, adding new yearly growth layers of cells onto the accumulated growth of previous years.
  17. 17. Basic tree anatomy
  18. 18. Heartwood SapwoodCambium Bark
  19. 19. tissue containing plant ‘stem’ cellsvascular cambium 1 a lateral meristem in the vascular tissue of plants. 2 the source of both the secondary xylem (inwards, towards the pith) and the secondary phloem (outwards), and located between these tissues in the stem and root.
  20. 20. Photograph: easagor
  21. 21. Photograph: Crossroads Foundation Photos
  22. 22. Most recent growthOldest wood
  23. 23. Cross-sectional (or transverse) planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
  24. 24. Radial planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
  25. 25. Tangential planeSource: Hoadley, Identifying Wood
  26. 26. Cross-sectional plane
  27. 27. BarkPith Cambium
  28. 28. pith 1 the small core of so spongey tissue that forms the central longitudinal axis of a tree stem, branch or twig. 2 the center of the tree.
  29. 29. Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  30. 30. Common beech Fagus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  31. 31. Heartwood Sapwood
  32. 32. Photograph: sonykus
  33. 33. Photosynthetic wastes
  34. 34. Photograph: Dave_Gray
  35. 35. Tree-ring terminology
  36. 36. Gymnosperms (coniferous)
  37. 37. Gymnosperms haveencapsulated seeds. Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii
  38. 38. Red pinePinus resinosa
  39. 39. Red pinePinus resinosa
  40. 40. Eastern hemlockTsuga canadensis
  41. 41. Earlywood Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis
  42. 42. Latewood Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis
  43. 43. Total ring-width Eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis
  44. 44. Tracheids Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  45. 45. tracheids 1 elongated cells that function in food conduction and structural support. 2 most common type of cell in conifers. Much less frequent in deciduous trees.
  46. 46. large cells thin cell walls small cells thick cell walls Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  47. 47. Ray Scots pine Pinus sylvestrisPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  48. 48. rays 1 fla ened bands of tissue that extend horizontally in a radial plane through the tree stem. 2 transport sap and wastes produced by photosynthesis.
  49. 49. Angiosperms(deciduous)
  50. 50. Angiosperms (like oak) haveexposed seeds.
  51. 51. Palm Cocos spp.Photograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  52. 52. White oak Quercus albaPhotograph: Tie Guy II
  53. 53. Bur oakQuercus macrocarpa
  54. 54. English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  55. 55. Earlywood vessels English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  56. 56. English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  57. 57. Latewood vessels English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  58. 58. vessel element 1 a type of hardwood cell that has a relatively large diameter, thick cell wall and perforate (open) ends. 2 combines to form ‘vessels’, long passageways used to conduct water and soluble nutrients.
  59. 59. ring porous a hardwood with (1) relatively large vessels in the earlywood and (2) distinctly smaller pores in the latewood.
  60. 60. Fibre English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  61. 61. fibre an elongated hardwood cell with thick walls that contributes greatly to the material strength of wood.
  62. 62. Ray English oak Quercus roburPhotograph: Fri sSchweingruber Fritz Schweingruber
  63. 63. American elm Ulmus americanaPhotograph: daryl_mitchell
  64. 64. diffuse porous a hardwood with vessels that are approximately the same size and distributed (fairly) evenly throughout the growth ring.
  65. 65. Sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanusPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  66. 66. European beech Fagus sylvaticaPhotograph: Fritz Schweingruber
  67. 67. Trees without rings
  68. 68. Photograph: joanna8555
  69. 69. Photograph: stephenk1977
  70. 70. Trees without rings (approximate)
  71. 71. Mangrove spp.Photograph: Kevin Hutchinson
  72. 72. Mangrove spp.
  73. 73. Mangrove spp.
  74. 74. Longleaf pinePinus palustris Photograph: tinkerbrad
  75. 75. Species range for longleaf pine

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