French Revolution

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This is the French Revolution lecture for Nilsen's World History class.

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  • Pick a King – he’s the cause of the national debt
  • Pick a rep for each estate Ask the King which one he’s going to tax Graphs are on p. 330 of textbook
  • Ask each estate how they would vote Ask the King what he wants to do
  • Set up budget scenario and mob reaction
  • Get mob reactions for both
  • Leopold II of Austria was Marie Antoinette’s brother Marie Antoinette executed a couple few months later
  • Right vs. Left is same as today! Declaration has no effect, just like Declaration of Independence Constitutional Monarchy – separation of powers!
  • Concept will be useful for trial
  • Ask mob if anything’s changed
  • French Revolution

    1. 1. The French Revolution
    2. 2. France in 1789 <ul><li>Crippling National Debt </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread malnutrition and starvation </li></ul>
    3. 4. Three Estates <ul><li>First Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.5% of population, 10% of land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5% of population, 25% of land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>98% of population, 65% of land </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Estates General <ul><li>King convenes to raise taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Needed money because of Seven Years’ War and American Revolution </li></ul>
    5. 6. How should they vote? Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate 1 1 1
    6. 7. How should they vote? Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate 300 300 648
    7. 8. Royal Response <ul><li>King locks out Estates General </li></ul><ul><li>Meet anyway as the National Assembly – Third Estate only </li></ul><ul><li>Tennis Court Oath – vow to meet until they have a constitution </li></ul>
    8. 9. Bastille <ul><li>King fires financial advisor </li></ul><ul><li>Parisian crowds riot, storm Bastille prison </li></ul><ul><li>July 14, 1789 – French Independence Day </li></ul>
    9. 10. National Assembly Exercises Power <ul><li>August 1789 – Assembly abolishes feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>December 1789 – Assembly takes over property of church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished church’s ability to tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confiscated church property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made clergy state employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced church with the “Cult of Reason” </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. More National Assembly Actions <ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (Brotherhood) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventually establish a constitutional monarchy </li></ul>
    11. 12. War <ul><li>Austria and Prussia declare war on France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated by nationalist French army </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to execution of Louis XVI </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy abolished, Republic established </li></ul>
    12. 13. Dissent in the National Assembly <ul><li>Split between conservatives and radical liberals </li></ul>Jacobins Montagnards (“The Mountain”) Girondists Monarchíen (Royalists) 1790s: The Plain (swing votes)
    13. 14. Factions Turn on Each Other <ul><li>Conservatives – Girondins </li></ul><ul><li>Radicals – Jacobins </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Maximilien Robespierre </li></ul>
    14. 15. Jean-Paul Marat <ul><li>Jacobin who used his newspapers to influence public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Whipped up public opinion against Girondins </li></ul><ul><li>Killed in his bathtub by Girondin assassin </li></ul>
    15. 16. Reign of Terror <ul><li>Robespierre seizes opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Cracks down on enemies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girondins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone who disagreed with him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 18,000 executed from 1793 to 1794 </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually runs out of political support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loses power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is executed himself in 1794 </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. After the Reign of Terror <ul><li>Girondins take over and take revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Write a new constitution, but nothing changes </li></ul><ul><li>Very little control from the government </li></ul><ul><li>Much social unrest and riots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military called upon to put them down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon very skilled at doing so </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Napoleon takes over in 1799 coup d’etat </li></ul>
    17. 18. Big Picture Takeaway <ul><li>French Revolution was a political failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded a King for an Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elimination of Feudalism and church control had long-term effects </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary ideals had far-reaching appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Unified France </li></ul><ul><li>Set the stage for nationalism </li></ul>

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