Father of Sport PsychologyScott R. FurtwenglerEPSY 8351 History & Philosophy of Psychological SystemsTuesday, June 26, 2012
History of sport psychology Coleman Griffith Relation to my research interests
The Early Years (1895-1920) The Griffith Era (1920-1938) Preparation for the Future (1938-1965) The Establishment of Academic Sport Psychology (1966-1977) Multidisciplinary Science & Practice in Sport and Exercise Psychology (1978-2000) Contemporary Sport and Exercise Psychology (2000-present)
Born May 22, 1893 in Iowa 1915 A. B., Greenville College 1920 Ph.D., University of Illinois 1925-1932 Research in Athletics lab 1932-1944 Bureau of Institutional Research 1944-1953 Provost 1956 NEA’s Office of Statistical Information 1962 Oregon State System of Higher Ed 1966 Dies at age 72
William Wundt University of Leipzig Harry Wolfe Edward TitchenerPhD Leipzig (1886) PhD Leipzig (1892) Madison Bentley PhD Cornell (1898) Coleman Griffith PhD Illinois (1920)
“Psychology and Its Relation to Athletic Competition” (1925) To teach young and inexperienced coaches Adapt information already gained in the field of psychology to sport Use the scientific method & experimental lab to discover new facts and principles that would aid the practitioner in the field
Four Types of systematic observation & research The gathering, compiling, and interpreting of records from different practice fields The observations of shifting moods and temperaments of athletes when apparatus failed to do so The surveying of athletic aptitude and athletic talent The solving of special psychological and physiological problems
Examples of experimental research Effect of physical exercise on rate of learning Effects of emotions and anxiety on learning Psychological hunches and jinxes Effect of will power on performance The psychology of pep sessions Relation between exercise, learning, and resistance to disease
Griffith’s Legacy Delineation of functions of the field Receptivity to multiple ways of studying sport psychology Contributions to psychology and to sport Positive, realistic, expectations for the field Focus on performance enhancement and personal growth Recognition that knowledge knows no international borders Advancing both research and practice
Background Robert Furtwengler’s martial arts school: Zen and Maxwell Maltz Maurice Merleau-Ponty: Mind-Body problem Played and coached basketball and volleyball Sport Psychology at University of Tennessee- Knoxville Honors program administrator Beliefs and their effect on learning & performance
Personal epistemology: beliefs about knowledge and knowing Mindset (Dweck) Placebo effect Belief formation Self-theories/Implicit Theories Belief bias Naïve theories
Can we modify long-held beliefs to improve learning and performance? Is attribution retraining possible? Can successful instruction ever effectively eliminate early, erroneous intuitions or will they persist of the comprehensiveness or systematicity of the newly acquired theory? Are beliefs habituated thoughts? What are the neural correlates of belief?
Mangels, J. A., Butterfield, B., Lamb, J., Good, C., & Dweck, C. S. (2006). Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 1, 75-86. doi:10.1093/scan/nsl013 Shtulman, A. and Valcarcel, J. (2012). Scientific knowledge suppresses but does not supplant earlier intuitions. Cognition, 124, 209-215.
Boring, E.G. (1950). A history of experimental psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Griffith, C. R. (1925). Psychology and its relations to athletic competition. American Physical Education Review, 30, 193-199. Kroll, W. & Lewis, G. (1970). Americas First Sport Psychologist. Quest (00336297), 131-4. Weinberg, R. S. & Gould, D. (2007). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.