Principles of Smart Home Control

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Seeking to be sensitive to users, smart home researchers have focused on the concept of control. They attempt to allow users to gain control over their lives by framing the problem as one of end-user programming. But families are not users as we typically conceive them, and a large body of ethnographic research shows how their activities and routines do not map well to programming tasks. End-user programming ultimately provides control of devices. But families want more control of their lives. In this paper, we explore this disconnect. Using grounded contextual fieldwork with dual-income families, we describe the control that families want, and suggest seven design principles that will help end-user programming systems deliver that control. By Scott Davidoff, Min Kyung Lee, Charles Yiu, John Zimmerman + Anind K. Dey.

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  • Principles of Smart Home Control

    1. 2. CURRENT RESEARCH <ul><li>Smart home control systems </li></ul><ul><li>provide control of devices </li></ul>Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP
    2. 3. CURRENT RESEARCH <ul><li>CAMP (Truong et al, 04) </li></ul>DISCIPLINARY GAP microCommander (Jahnke et al, 02) Speakeasy (Newman et al, 02) Jigsaw (Humble et al, 03)
    3. 4. CURRENT RESEARCH <ul><li>Smart home control systems </li></ul><ul><li>provide control of devices </li></ul>Families are struggling to gain control of their lives Anthropological Perspective Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP
    4. 5. CURRENT RESEARCH <ul><li>Smart home control systems </li></ul><ul><li>provide control of devices </li></ul>Families are struggling to gain control of their lives Anthropological Perspective Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP How can smart home control systems help users regain control of their devices
    5. 6. CURRENT RESEARCH <ul><li>Smart home control systems </li></ul><ul><li>provide control of devices </li></ul>Families are struggling to gain control of their lives Anthropological Perspective Technical Perspective DISCIPLINARY GAP How can smart home control systems help users regain control of their devices families lives
    6. 7. <ul><li>Recast the problem of smart home control </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest new evaluation metrics for smart home control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rich description of nuanced notion of control </li></ul><ul><li>Produce design principles to serve as signposts </li></ul>CONTRIBUTIONS
    7. 8. <ul><li>Increased obligations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Multi-contexting” across roles </li></ul><ul><li>A skill parents want to gracefully master </li></ul><ul><li>Parents want to pass this skill on </li></ul>Darrah 2000, 2002 RELATED WORK BUSYNESS AS A MORAL GOOD
    8. 9. <ul><li>A “house of cards” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The rush hour of life” </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of the sick child </li></ul>Beech 2004, Frissen 2000, Darrah 2002 RELATED WORK LESS THAN IDEAL CONTROL
    9. 10. <ul><li>Systems for family life control will have to co-exist with busyness </li></ul>RELATED WORK IMPLICATIONS
    10. 11. <ul><li>Goal: develop an opportunity map for technology to aid families </li></ul><ul><li>12 dual-income families </li></ul><ul><li>Large audience, lots of needs, early adopters </li></ul>FIELDWORK SUMMARY
    11. 12. <ul><li>“ Wicked problem” of activity management </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility as a coping strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between control and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Activities construct identity </li></ul>SUMMARY OF FINDINGS * Rittel 1973
    12. 13. FINDINGS “ WICKED” PROBLEM OF ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT
    13. 14. EXAMPLE GAME OR PRACTICE? HOME OR AWAY? WHAT TIME?
    14. 15. EXAMPLE WHO PICKS UP? WHO DROPS OFF? WHERE?
    15. 16. EXAMPLE SHIN GUARDS, KNEE PADS. CLEATS OR FLATS?
    16. 17. EXAMPLE PRACTICE UNIFORM? HOME OR AWAY UNIFORM?
    17. 18. EXAMPLE CLEAN CLOTHES THE NIGHT BEFORE
    18. 19. EXAMPLE JUICE BEFORE OR AFTER? ORANGES AT HALFTIME?
    19. 20. EXAMPLE LOST ON THE CALENDAR
    20. 21. BREAKDOWNS LAST MINUTE CARPOOL DECISIONS
    21. 22. BREAKDOWNS MOM’S OUT OF TOWN SO DAD’S IN CHARGE
    22. 23. BREAKDOWNS MOM’S OUT OF TOWN SO DAD’S IN CHARGE
    23. 24. BREAKDOWNS MOM’S OUT OF TOWN SO DAD’S IN CHARGE
    24. 25. BREAKDOWNS CREEPING RESPONSIBILITY
    25. 26. BREAKDOWNS CREEPING RESPONSIBILITY
    26. 27. BREAKDOWNS UNPREDICTABLE ORANGES
    27. 28. BREAKDOWNS SICK CHILD
    28. 29. BREAKDOWNS CASCADE EFFECTS
    29. 30. <ul><li>Incremental precision </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Technological infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle choices </li></ul>FINDINGS FLEXIBILITY AS A COPING STRATEGY
    30. 31. FINDINGS CONTROL AND FLEXIBILITY
    31. 32. FINDINGS ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCT FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Activities mean more than the work behind them People derive meaning from their participation
    32. 33. <ul><li>Now what? </li></ul>RELATED WORK
    33. 34. DESIGN PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Allow for the organic evolution of routines and plans </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in the construction of family identity </li></ul><ul><li>The home is more than a location </li></ul><ul><li>Understand periodic changes, exceptions and improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Design for breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Easily construct new plans and routines, and modify existing ones </li></ul><ul><li>Account for multiple, overlapping and occasionally conflicting goals </li></ul>
    34. 35. PRINCIPLE ALLOW FOR THE ORGANIC EVOLUTION OF ROUTINES AND PLANS Hard to specify a priori Incremental precision Many routines are “unremarkable” * Tolmie 2002
    35. 36. PRINCIPLE PARTICIPATE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY IDENTITY Some tasks are more than work They constitute how we interpret who we are
    36. 37. PRINCIPLE THE HOME IS MORE THAN A LOCATION Opportunistic planning occurs in many locations A smart home is more than a physical space Also includes “information space”
    37. 38. PRINCIPLE UNDERSTAND PERIODIC CHANGES, EXCEPTIONS AND IMPROV Routines are often not routine Vary by season Routines change with exceptions Rigid model of routines would not fit observation
    38. 39. CONCLUSIONS Family is a place of busyness where identity and life control collide Opportunity for technology to improve quality of family life Design principles help address this space Evaluate smart home technology in terms of life control
    39. 40. FUTURE WORK Develop an activity manager system Evaluate system in terms of identity and control Develop end-user programming method
    40. 41. <ul><li>smarthome.cs.cmu.edu </li></ul>Scott Davidoff Min Kyung Lee John Zimmerman Anind Dey PROJECT ON FAMILIES, CONTROL AND THE SMART HOME
    41. 42. PRINCIPLE EASILY CONSTRUCT AND MODIFY PLANS AND ROUTINES Sheer frequency should merit attention Input should be low-cost
    42. 43. PRINCIPLE DESIGN FOR BREAKDOWNS Exceptions happen frequently Complete solution is impossible
    43. 44. PRINCIPLE DESIGN FOR BREAKDOWNS
    44. 45. PRINCIPLE ACCOUNT FOR MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING AND CONFLICTING GOALS More than one person May not agree on task performance metrics “ Thermostat Predicament” Support v. Independence
    45. 46. METHOD Directed storytelling Shadowing Artifact walkthrough Role-playing: Fictitious school field trip Predictable days Predictable exceptions Unpredictable days: miss-the-bus days CONTEXTUAL FIELDWORK
    46. 47. METHOD <ul><li>Stimuli questions </li></ul><ul><li>Free response text </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Stressors and pleasures of waking up and arriving home </li></ul><ul><li>What makes parents feel like good parents </li></ul>CULTURAL PROBES
    47. 48. METHOD <ul><li>Stress and rush levels </li></ul><ul><li>Principal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate needs </li></ul><ul><li>Preoccupations </li></ul>ACTIVITY LOGS
    48. 49. RELATED WORK <ul><li>iCAP </li></ul><ul><li>aCAPpella </li></ul><ul><li>CAMP </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred </li></ul><ul><li>microCommander </li></ul><ul><li>Speakeasy </li></ul>Dey et al 2006 Dey et al 2004 Truong et al 2004 Humble et al 2003 Gajos et al 2002 Jahnke et al 2002 Newman et al 2002 END-USER PROGRAMMING SYSTEMS
    49. 50. RELATED WORK <ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Task specialization </li></ul>Refrigerator magnets Meaning of place ICT’S Technology use Darrah 2001 Beech et al 2004 Crabtree + Rodden 2003 Tolmie et al 2002 Rode et al 2005 Taylor + Swan 2005 Elliott et al 2005 Frissen 2000 Venkatesh et al 2000 STUDIES OF HOME LIFE
    50. 51. PRINCIPLE ACCOUNT FOR MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING AND CONFLICTING GOALS
    51. 52. PRINCIPLE ACCOUNT FOR MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING AND CONFLICTING GOALS
    52. 53. PRINCIPLE ALLOW FOR THE ORGANIC EVOLUTION OF ROUTINES AND PLANS
    53. 54. PRINCIPLE PARTICIPATE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY IDENTITY
    54. 55. PRINCIPLE PARTICIPATE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY IDENTITY
    55. 56. PRINCIPLE UNDERSTAND PERIODIC CHANGES, EXCEPTIONS AND IMPROV
    56. 57. PRINCIPLE THE HOME IS MORE THAN A LOCATION

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