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Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal!

Currently a large number of Web sites are driven by Content Management Systems (CMS) which manage textual and multimedia content but also - inherently - carry valuable information about a site's structure and content model. Exposing this structured information to the Web of Data has so far required considerable expertise in RDF and OWL modelling and additional programming effort. In this paper we tackle one of the most popular CMS: Drupal. We enable site administrators to export their site content model and data to the Web of Data without requiring extensive knowledge on Semantic Web technologies. Our modules create RDFa annotations and - optionally - a SPARQL endpoint for any Drupal site out of the box. Likewise, we add the means to map the site data to existing ontologies on the Web with a search interface to find commonly used ontology terms. We also allow a Drupal site administrator to include existing RDF data from remote SPARQL endpoints on the Web in the site. When brought together, these features allow networked RDF Drupal sites that reuse and enrich Linked Data. We finally discuss the adoption of our modules and report on a use case in the biomedical field and the current status of its deployment.

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Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                      www.deri.ie




                   Produce and Consume Linked Data
                             with Drupal!
                               Stéphane Corlosquet, Renaud Delbru, Tim Clark,
                                      Axel Polleres and Stefan Decker
                                                 ISWC 2009




 scorlosquet@gmail.com
 DERI NUI Galway, MGH
 October 27th, 2009
                                                                             Chapter   1
Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
Loads of Data on the Web in CMS...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute       www.deri.ie




                                        2
Some Motivations...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie



  Status           of the current web
         Data contained in millions of documents
         Disparate platforms and systems
         Wide range of topics (personal blogs, news, etc.)
         Various types of resources (text, pictures, video, etc.)
         Note: Lots of Structured data in Content Management Systems


  Problem
         Not possible to reuse this data outside the CMS (except RSS)
         Not available as unified machine readable format




                                        3
So, here’s our idea of CMS:
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                www.deri.ie

                        PROJECT BLOGS




                                                                       DBLP




                                                                          SPARQL
                                                                          endpoint



                           SPARQL                                      REMOTE DRUPAL SITE
                           endpoint




                        SELECT ?name ?title                                          Tim
                        WHERE {                                                      .........
                          ?person foaf:made ?pub.
                          ?person rdfs:label ?name.
                          ?pub dc:title ?title.                           SPARQL
                          FILTER regex(?title, "knowledge", "i")          endpoint
                        }




                                 Figure 3.5: Extended example in a typical Linked Data eco-system.
                                                                   4
Approach
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie


 Our         Goal
      Integrate           "any" CMS site to the Web of Data


A      challenging task
      Little     incentive for users to annotate their data manually
      Site     owners do not have the resources to convert their data to RDF
      Per-siteschema: each site is different and its structure cannot be
        predefined


 Solutions
      Expose         the CMS site structure in a unified format AUTOMATICALLY!
      Use      Semantic Web standards (RDFa, SPARQL)



                                            5
Approach
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie



        Implementation                  in Drupal
             Why?        One of the most popular CMS out there
             Modules            to take the burden off the site users

        What          our modules allow:
             1.    Automatic site vocabulary generation
             2.    Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies
             3.    Data endpoint for SPARQL querying
             4.    Lazy loading of external data (data import)




                                                6
Pre-Existing work
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie



        “Semantic                 Content Management Systems”



             Ontology-based            CMS:
                 – Semantic community Web portals (2000)
                 – OntoWebber: Model-Driven Ontology-Based Web Site Management
                   (2001)


             Our  approach is reverse: from existing CMS structure to
               ontologies




                                               7
The Drupal CMS
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie



        Drupal*
             Easy      to use
             Large        community
             Popularon the Web
             Hundreds of thousands of sites
             Modular           design
        Drupal            site workflow
             Site  administrator: set up the site and install modules they
               like/need
             Site editors: create the content of the site following the
               schema defined by the site administrator

                                                                   * http://drupal.org/


                                          8
Drupal: Content Construction Kit
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie



        Content              Construction Kit (CCK) module
             GUI      for extending the internal schema of a Drupal site
             Used       on many Drupal sites
             Can  build new types of pages, known as content types
             Can create fields for each content types. Fields can be of
              various types: plain text fields, dates, email addresses, file
              uploads, reference to other pages




                                           9
Drupal: Content Construction Kit
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                                                    www.deri.ie



        Demo             use case: project blogs site*
             Community                 site
                                                    PROJECT BLOGS


             Various         content:
                 – People                                                                          DBLP

                 – Organizations
                 – Projects                                                                            SPARQL
                                                                                                       endpoint


                 – Blogs                                SPARQL                                      REMOTE DRUPAL SITE
                                                        endpoint




                                                     SELECT ?name ?title                                          Tim
                                                     WHERE {                                                      .........
                                                       ?person foaf:made ?pub.
                                                       ?person rdfs:label ?name.
                                                       ?pub dc:title ?title.                           SPARQL
                                                       FILTER regex(?title, "knowledge", "i")          endpoint
                                                     }




                                                              Figure 3.5: Extended example in a typical Linked Data eco-system.


                                                  one for bridging the DBLP SPARQL endpoint to the project blogs website, and a sec-
                                                  ond for bridging the Science Collaboration Framework website. When visiting Tim’s
                                                  profile page, the relevant publication information will be fetched from both DBLP and
    * http://drupal.deri.ie/projectblogs/         SCF websites, and either new nodes will be created on the site or older ones will be
                                                  updated if necessary.


                                               10 3.4 Neologism: Easy RDFS vocabulary publishing
                                                  Neologism11 is a web-based vocabulary editor and publishing platform designed to
Drupal: Content Construction Kit
Digital Enterprise Research Institute        www.deri.ie



        CCK          User Interface




                                        11
Drupal: the Person contentConstruction KitThis form
  The fields form for
                     Content type is displayed on Figure 2.11.
llows to easily reorder the fields by a “drag and drop” technique, add new fields,
  Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                            www.deri.ie

emove existing fields or access the configuration form for a field.
          CCK User Interface




      Figure 2.12: Defining constraints on the gender field in Drupal’s CCK.
                                        12
Figures 2.9, 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12 show the typical look and feelKit
         Drupal: Content Construction of a Drupal page and
administrative interface for the Person content type, without our extensions installed.
 Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                           www.deri.ie
This content type offers fields such as name, homepage, email, colleagues, blog url,
current project,User Interface
         CCK past projects, publications, contributions.




                Figure 2.9: User profile page built with Drupal’s CCK.
                                        13
   An example of node (page) of the type Person is depicted on Figure 2.9 where all
What do we add?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute               www.deri.ie




                                        1, 2




                                               14
1. Site Vocabulary
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie



        Automatic                  site vocabulary in RDFS/OWL from CCK
             Describes            the content types and fields
             Content          type <=> RDF class
             Field
                  <=> RDF property
             RDFa output on site
             http://siteurl/ns#




                                                15
1. Site Vocabulary
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie



        Automatic                  site vocabulary in RDFS/OWL
             Field      constraints
             Example           with cardinalities:
                 – the name of a Person is required
                 – max. 5 projects per person




                                               16
Search examples are shown in Figure 3.2. Details on improving the ran
       2.search algorithm can be found in [45].
          Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie

           3.2.3 Mapping process
        Mapping                Content Models to Existing Ontologies
           The terms suggested by both of the import service and the ontology search
             Import of any vocabulary published online
           be mapped to each content type and their fields. For mapping content ty
           choose among the classes of service
             External ontology search
                                             the imported ontologies and for fields, one
             Local terms are subclasses/subproperties of public terms
           among the properties. The local terms will be linked with rdfs:subCl
           rdfs:subPropertyOf statements, e.g.
           site:Person rdfs:subClassOf foaf:Person to the mapped
           site vocabulary; wherever a mapping is definined, extra triples using the m
           are exposed in the RDFa of the page.
             Ensure “safe” vocabulary re-use:
               – only subclassing/subproperty avoids “redefinition” properties. E.g., ass
               Additionally, we allow inverse reuse of existing
           administrator imports amight introduce inconsistencies a relation between C
               – adding cardinalities vocabulary ex: that defines still, possible to
           gions and goods user interface
                 avoid in the that this region/coutry produces via the property ex:prod
           user interface also allows to relate fields to the inverse of imported proper
           stance, the origin field could be related to ex:produces in such an inve
           resulting in
                                           17
           site:origin rdfs:subPropertyOf
2. Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                           www.deri.ie



        RDF         mappings page




                                        18
                    Figure 3.2: RDF mappings management through the Dru
2. Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies
 Digital Enterprise Research Institute                     www.deri.ie



         RDF         mappings page




agement through the Drupal interface: RDF class map-
                             19
What do we add?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute               www.deri.ie




                                        1, 2
                                  3




                                               20
3. Data endpoint for complex querying
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie



        Local          RDF data exposed in a SPARQL endpoint
             Enables          interoperability across sites
             Built      on the PHP ARC2 library
             AllRDF data indexed in the endpoint
             Each page stored as graph and kept up to date




               Figure 3.6: A list of SPARQL results (left) and an RDF SPARQL Proxy
                                        21
3. Data endpoint for complex querying
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                           www.deri.ie



        Local          RDF data exposed in a SPARQL endpoint
             enable         interoperability across sites
             built      on the PHP ARC2 library
             allRDF data indexed in the endpoint
             Each page stored as graph and kept up to date




                                              22
What do we add?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




                                                    4




                                        1, 2
                               3




                                               23
4. Lazy loading of external data
 Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                 www.deri.ie



         Lazy         loading (caching) of distant RDF resources
              Enables          interoperability across sites
              Built      on the PHP ARC2 library
              CONSTRUCT                 query to map distant schema to local schema




A list of SPARQL results (left) and an RDF SPARQL Proxy profile form
                                     24
4. Lazy loading of external data
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie



        Lazy         loading of distant RDF resources




                                        25
Digital Enterprise Research Institute        www.deri.ie




                     Where is it used?




                                        26
Science Collaboration Framework
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                 www.deri.ie



        Web          application toolkit based on Drupal
             Enables          online scientific collaboration
                 – publishing, annotating, sharing and discussing any content
                 – articles, papers, reviews, perspectives, interviews, news, biographies
                 – profile information on community members
             Targets          biomedecine communities, but generic in essence


        Networked                      sites producing Linked Data




                                                 27
SCF collaborating sites
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie



             Stembook             (Stem Cell articles and reviews)
                 – http://www.stembook.org/




                                                28
SCF collaborating sites
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie



             Michael          J Fox Foundation (Parkinson disease)
                 – http://www.pdonlineresearch.org/




                                              29
Digital Enterprise Research Institute        www.deri.ie




                     Conclusion




                                        30
Conclusion
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                  www.deri.ie



        Structureof CMS sites contain valuable schema
         information
        Our suggested “workflow”:
             site     vocabulary from the local structure (RDF CCK)
             enables out-of-the-box RDF export: expose your Drupal site
              to the Web of Data without any additional effort from site
              admin or content editors (RDF CCK)
             mapping to existing RDF vocabularies improves integration in
              the LOD cloud (evoc)
             SPARQL           endpoint
             Lazy       loading of RDF resources (RDF Proxy)




                                           31
Conclusion
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie



        Drupal            6 modules available for download
                 – http://drupal.org/project/rdfcck
                 – http://drupal.org/project/evoc
                 – http://drupal.org/project/sparql_ep
                 – http://drupal.org/project/rdfproxy
        Online            prototype
                 – http://drupal.deri.ie/projectblogs/




                                            32
Good news from Drupal 7:
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                           www.deri.ie



        RDF         mapping feature committed to Drupal 7 core
             RDFa  output by default (blogs, forums, comments, etc.)
               using FOAF, SIOC, DC, SKOS.
             Download             development snapshot
                      – http://ftp.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-7.x-dev.tar.gz
        Currently               more than 200.000* sites on Drupal 6
             waiting to make the switch to Drupal 7
             waiting to massively increase the amount of RDF data
              on the Web
        Discussion
             http://groups.drupal.org/semantic-web


                                                                * http://drupal.org/project/usage/drupal


                                               33

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Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal!

  • 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! Stéphane Corlosquet, Renaud Delbru, Tim Clark, Axel Polleres and Stefan Decker ISWC 2009 scorlosquet@gmail.com DERI NUI Galway, MGH October 27th, 2009 Chapter 1 Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Loads of Data on the Web in CMS... Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2
  • 3. Some Motivations... Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Status of the current web  Data contained in millions of documents  Disparate platforms and systems  Wide range of topics (personal blogs, news, etc.)  Various types of resources (text, pictures, video, etc.)  Note: Lots of Structured data in Content Management Systems  Problem  Not possible to reuse this data outside the CMS (except RSS)  Not available as unified machine readable format 3
  • 4. So, here’s our idea of CMS: Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie PROJECT BLOGS DBLP SPARQL endpoint SPARQL REMOTE DRUPAL SITE endpoint SELECT ?name ?title Tim WHERE { ......... ?person foaf:made ?pub. ?person rdfs:label ?name. ?pub dc:title ?title. SPARQL FILTER regex(?title, "knowledge", "i") endpoint } Figure 3.5: Extended example in a typical Linked Data eco-system. 4
  • 5. Approach Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Our Goal  Integrate "any" CMS site to the Web of Data A challenging task  Little incentive for users to annotate their data manually  Site owners do not have the resources to convert their data to RDF  Per-siteschema: each site is different and its structure cannot be predefined  Solutions  Expose the CMS site structure in a unified format AUTOMATICALLY!  Use Semantic Web standards (RDFa, SPARQL) 5
  • 6. Approach Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Implementation in Drupal  Why? One of the most popular CMS out there  Modules to take the burden off the site users  What our modules allow:  1. Automatic site vocabulary generation  2. Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies  3. Data endpoint for SPARQL querying  4. Lazy loading of external data (data import) 6
  • 7. Pre-Existing work Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  “Semantic Content Management Systems”  Ontology-based CMS: – Semantic community Web portals (2000) – OntoWebber: Model-Driven Ontology-Based Web Site Management (2001)  Our approach is reverse: from existing CMS structure to ontologies 7
  • 8. The Drupal CMS Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Drupal*  Easy to use  Large community  Popularon the Web  Hundreds of thousands of sites  Modular design  Drupal site workflow  Site administrator: set up the site and install modules they like/need  Site editors: create the content of the site following the schema defined by the site administrator * http://drupal.org/ 8
  • 9. Drupal: Content Construction Kit Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Content Construction Kit (CCK) module  GUI for extending the internal schema of a Drupal site  Used on many Drupal sites  Can build new types of pages, known as content types  Can create fields for each content types. Fields can be of various types: plain text fields, dates, email addresses, file uploads, reference to other pages 9
  • 10. Drupal: Content Construction Kit Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Demo use case: project blogs site*  Community site PROJECT BLOGS  Various content: – People DBLP – Organizations – Projects SPARQL endpoint – Blogs SPARQL REMOTE DRUPAL SITE endpoint SELECT ?name ?title Tim WHERE { ......... ?person foaf:made ?pub. ?person rdfs:label ?name. ?pub dc:title ?title. SPARQL FILTER regex(?title, "knowledge", "i") endpoint } Figure 3.5: Extended example in a typical Linked Data eco-system. one for bridging the DBLP SPARQL endpoint to the project blogs website, and a sec- ond for bridging the Science Collaboration Framework website. When visiting Tim’s profile page, the relevant publication information will be fetched from both DBLP and * http://drupal.deri.ie/projectblogs/ SCF websites, and either new nodes will be created on the site or older ones will be updated if necessary. 10 3.4 Neologism: Easy RDFS vocabulary publishing Neologism11 is a web-based vocabulary editor and publishing platform designed to
  • 11. Drupal: Content Construction Kit Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  CCK User Interface 11
  • 12. Drupal: the Person contentConstruction KitThis form The fields form for Content type is displayed on Figure 2.11. llows to easily reorder the fields by a “drag and drop” technique, add new fields, Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie emove existing fields or access the configuration form for a field.  CCK User Interface Figure 2.12: Defining constraints on the gender field in Drupal’s CCK. 12
  • 13. Figures 2.9, 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12 show the typical look and feelKit Drupal: Content Construction of a Drupal page and administrative interface for the Person content type, without our extensions installed. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie This content type offers fields such as name, homepage, email, colleagues, blog url, current project,User Interface  CCK past projects, publications, contributions. Figure 2.9: User profile page built with Drupal’s CCK. 13 An example of node (page) of the type Person is depicted on Figure 2.9 where all
  • 14. What do we add? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 1, 2 14
  • 15. 1. Site Vocabulary Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Automatic site vocabulary in RDFS/OWL from CCK  Describes the content types and fields  Content type <=> RDF class  Field <=> RDF property  RDFa output on site  http://siteurl/ns# 15
  • 16. 1. Site Vocabulary Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Automatic site vocabulary in RDFS/OWL  Field constraints  Example with cardinalities: – the name of a Person is required – max. 5 projects per person 16
  • 17. Search examples are shown in Figure 3.2. Details on improving the ran 2.search algorithm can be found in [45]. Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 3.2.3 Mapping process  Mapping Content Models to Existing Ontologies The terms suggested by both of the import service and the ontology search  Import of any vocabulary published online be mapped to each content type and their fields. For mapping content ty choose among the classes of service  External ontology search the imported ontologies and for fields, one  Local terms are subclasses/subproperties of public terms among the properties. The local terms will be linked with rdfs:subCl rdfs:subPropertyOf statements, e.g. site:Person rdfs:subClassOf foaf:Person to the mapped site vocabulary; wherever a mapping is definined, extra triples using the m are exposed in the RDFa of the page.  Ensure “safe” vocabulary re-use: – only subclassing/subproperty avoids “redefinition” properties. E.g., ass Additionally, we allow inverse reuse of existing administrator imports amight introduce inconsistencies a relation between C – adding cardinalities vocabulary ex: that defines still, possible to gions and goods user interface avoid in the that this region/coutry produces via the property ex:prod user interface also allows to relate fields to the inverse of imported proper stance, the origin field could be related to ex:produces in such an inve resulting in 17 site:origin rdfs:subPropertyOf
  • 18. 2. Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  RDF mappings page 18 Figure 3.2: RDF mappings management through the Dru
  • 19. 2. Mapping Content Models to existing ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  RDF mappings page agement through the Drupal interface: RDF class map- 19
  • 20. What do we add? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 1, 2 3 20
  • 21. 3. Data endpoint for complex querying Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Local RDF data exposed in a SPARQL endpoint  Enables interoperability across sites  Built on the PHP ARC2 library  AllRDF data indexed in the endpoint  Each page stored as graph and kept up to date Figure 3.6: A list of SPARQL results (left) and an RDF SPARQL Proxy 21
  • 22. 3. Data endpoint for complex querying Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Local RDF data exposed in a SPARQL endpoint  enable interoperability across sites  built on the PHP ARC2 library  allRDF data indexed in the endpoint  Each page stored as graph and kept up to date 22
  • 23. What do we add? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 4 1, 2 3 23
  • 24. 4. Lazy loading of external data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Lazy loading (caching) of distant RDF resources  Enables interoperability across sites  Built on the PHP ARC2 library  CONSTRUCT query to map distant schema to local schema A list of SPARQL results (left) and an RDF SPARQL Proxy profile form 24
  • 25. 4. Lazy loading of external data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Lazy loading of distant RDF resources 25
  • 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Where is it used? 26
  • 27. Science Collaboration Framework Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Web application toolkit based on Drupal  Enables online scientific collaboration – publishing, annotating, sharing and discussing any content – articles, papers, reviews, perspectives, interviews, news, biographies – profile information on community members  Targets biomedecine communities, but generic in essence  Networked sites producing Linked Data 27
  • 28. SCF collaborating sites Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Stembook (Stem Cell articles and reviews) – http://www.stembook.org/ 28
  • 29. SCF collaborating sites Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Michael J Fox Foundation (Parkinson disease) – http://www.pdonlineresearch.org/ 29
  • 30. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Conclusion 30
  • 31. Conclusion Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Structureof CMS sites contain valuable schema information  Our suggested “workflow”:  site vocabulary from the local structure (RDF CCK)  enables out-of-the-box RDF export: expose your Drupal site to the Web of Data without any additional effort from site admin or content editors (RDF CCK)  mapping to existing RDF vocabularies improves integration in the LOD cloud (evoc)  SPARQL endpoint  Lazy loading of RDF resources (RDF Proxy) 31
  • 32. Conclusion Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Drupal 6 modules available for download – http://drupal.org/project/rdfcck – http://drupal.org/project/evoc – http://drupal.org/project/sparql_ep – http://drupal.org/project/rdfproxy  Online prototype – http://drupal.deri.ie/projectblogs/ 32
  • 33. Good news from Drupal 7: Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  RDF mapping feature committed to Drupal 7 core  RDFa output by default (blogs, forums, comments, etc.) using FOAF, SIOC, DC, SKOS.  Download development snapshot – http://ftp.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-7.x-dev.tar.gz  Currently more than 200.000* sites on Drupal 6  waiting to make the switch to Drupal 7  waiting to massively increase the amount of RDF data on the Web  Discussion  http://groups.drupal.org/semantic-web * http://drupal.org/project/usage/drupal 33