Incident ?• An abnormal event, not wanted, that result from an abrupt, unexpected and accidental form that interrupts the normal continuity of the work (Baselga 1984).• Standard UNE 81900 explains an incident as undesired or unwanted that given rise to losses in the health of injuries of the worker.• An incident could have resulted in a serious accident or injury (Senecal & Burke).• An incident could result in damage to property or equipment and it could result in an employee needing first aid.
• Krause & Hidley (1992) found that the difference between inccident and accident:1. needing only first aid verses a major medicalintervention.2. owed in a certain way, to the factor of luck ‘nearmiss’. • Conclusion : Incident is a fact or event not planned nor wanted that will occasionally result in an unintentional injury or health related problems, will occasionally result in damages to property, products or to the enviroment, loss of production and/or an increase in legal responsibilities.
Types Of IncidentType 5• The incident can be handled with one or two single resources with up to six personnel.• Command and General Staff positions (other than the Incident Commander) are not activated.• No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required.• The incident is contained within the first operational period and often within an hour to a few hours after resources arrive on scene.• Examples include a vehicle fire, an injured person, or a police traffic stop.
Type 4 • Command staff and general staff functions are activated only if needed. • Several resources are required to mitigate the incident. • The incident is usually limited to one operational period in the control phase. • The agency administrator may have briefings, and ensure the complexity analysis and delegation of authority are updated. • No written Incident Action Plan (IAP) is required but a documented operational • briefing will be completed for all incoming resources. • The role of the agency administrator includes operational plans including objectives and priorities.
Type 3 • When capabilities exceed initial attack, the appropriate ICS positions should be added to match the complexity of the incident. • Some or all of the Command and General Staff positions may be activated, as well as Division/Group Supervisor and/or Unit Leader level positions. • A Type 3 Incident Management Team (IMT) or incident command organization manages initial action incidents with a significant number of resources, an extended attack incident until containment/control is achieved, or an expanding incident until transition to a Type 1 or 2 team. • The incident may extend into multiple operational periods. • A written IAP may be required for each operational period.
Type 2 • This type of incident extends beyond the capabilities for local control and is expected to go into multiple operational periods. A Type 2 incident may require the response of resources out of area, including regional and/or national resources, to effectively manage the operations, command, and general staffing. • Most or all of the Command and General Staff positions are filled. • A written IAP is required for each operational period. • Many of the functional units are needed and staffed. • Operations personnel normally do not exceed 200 per operational period and total • incident personnel do not exceed 500 (guidelines only). • The agency administrator is responsible for the incident complexity analysis, agency administrator briefings, and the written delegation of authority.
Type 1 • This type of incident is the most complex, requiring national resources to safely and effectively manage and operate. • All Command and General Staff positions are activated. • Operations personnel often exceed 500 per operational period and total personnel will usually exceed 1,000. • Branches need to be established. • The agency administrator will have briefings, and ensure that the complexity analysis and delegation of authority are updated. • Use of resource advisors at the incident base is recommended. • There is a high impact on the local jurisdiction, requiring additional staff for office administrative and support functions.
Unsafe ActPerformance of a task or other activity that isconducted in a manner that may threaten the healthand/or safety of workers. Examples are : • Operating without qualification or authorization. • Operating equipment at unsafe . • Failure to warn. • Using defective equipment • Working in hazardous locations without adequate protection or warning. • Wearing unsafe clothing. • Taking an unsafe position.
Unsafe ConditionsA condition in the work place that is likely to causeproperty damage or injury. Examples are : • Defective tools, equipment, or supplies. • Fire and explosion hazards. • Inadequate supports or guards. • Poor housekeeping. • Hazardous atmospheric condition. • Excessive noise. • Poor ventilation.
Hazard ? • HazardA source or a situation with a potential for harm tohumans, property and damage of environment or acombination of these. • DangerRelative exposure to hazard. • RiskA combination of likelihood of occurrence and severityof injury or damage.
Classification & Potential Sources of HazardsClassification Example of Hazards• Mechanical - Sharp points & edges, overload.• Electrical - Insulation damaged or cover broken• Biological - Exposed, airborne/blood borne• microorganism.• Chemical - Expose to carcinogens chemical• Ergonomics - Expose to unnatural postures• Psychological- Stress or violent at workplace.
Hazard Identification • To keep workplace safe and healthy.-employers should make sure there are no hazards towhich employees could be exposed. • Employers should look for hazards in advanceas part of their risk management plan to preventpotential hazards.
The Process of RiskManagement Classify Activities (Work, Product, Services) Identify Hazard Assess The Risk Risk Control Review Risk Control
Identify Hazards1. Walk around your workplace and look at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm.2. Ask your employees or their representatives what they think. They may have noticed things that are not immediately obvious to you.3. Check manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazards and putting them in their true perspective.4. Have a look back at your accident and ill-health records – these often help to identify the less obvious hazards.5. Remember to think about long-term hazards to health (eg high levels of noise or exposure to harmful substances) as well as safety hazards.
Risk Assessment • Is the process of evaluating the risk to safety & health from hazards at work Types • Qualitative • Semi-quantitative • Quantitative
How To Assess Risk 1) Look for the Hazards 2) Decide who might be harmed & how 3) Evaluate the risk and check what is done to prevent it from happening • 4) Record finding • 5) Review assessment and revise it if necessary
Types of Risk Assessment • Qualitative - (Use Risk Matrix)-table scales for likelihood and severity • Fatality • Major injuries • Minor injuries • First aid or near misses
Types of Risk Assessment • Based on statisticLikelihood • Very likely • Likely • Unlikely • Highly Unlikely
Qualitative Risk Table LikelihoodSeverity V/Likely Likely Unlikely H/UnlikelyFatality High High High MediumMajor High High Medium MediumInjuriesMinor High Medium Medium LowInjuriesFirst Aid/ Medium Medium Low LowN/misses
Semi-Quantitative RiskAssessment • Severity Categories1. First Aid2. Less than 4 days M/C3. More than 4 days M/C4. Fatality & Permanent Disability
Semi-Quantitative Risk Table LIKELIHOODS Yearly Monthly Weekly DailyE 1 2 3 4V First Aid 1 1 2 3 4ER < 4 Days MC 2 2 4 6 8I > 4 Days MC 3 3 6 9 12Ty Fatality & 4 4 8 12 16 Permanent Disability
Quantitative RiskAssessment • In cases where hazards are numerous and complexeg; Chemical process plantShould have Job Safety Analysis (JSA) • describe job in less than 10 steps • List things that can go wrong o eg; Changing a Car Wheel
Actions & Recommendations • EL- Eliminate • SL- Substitute • IS- Isolation • EC- Engineering Control • AC - Administration Control • PPE- Personal Protection Equipment
Actions & Recommendations Eg; EL - stop work, cover hazard… SL - use other route, other material.. IS - put up temporary barrier,… EC - construct permanent wall,.. AC - put up notice, job rotation,… PPE - gloves, respirator,……