The cultural identity and the ethnic structure of the Romanian people
The cultural identity and the ethnic structureof the Romanian people
• The Romanian people was formed in the geographical space between the Carpathian Mountains, the Danube river and the west shore of the Black Sea from the 1st century B.C. to the 5th century A.C., through the merging of the native civilization of the Geto-Dacians with the Roman civilization and the civilizations of the migratory people: Slavic, Goth, Visigoth, Ostrogoth, Hun.
• Situated at the crossroads of the Western and Eastern civilizations, the Romanian culture accumulates in time different influences: Slavic, Hungarian, Byzantine, Turkish, German and English.
The elements of the cultural identity:• the Romanian language• literature• folklore• religion• science and technique• music, painting and sculpture
• The Romanian language belongs to the group of Roman languages together with: Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian languages. Other: Hungarian, Turkish, German, French, English, etc.• The Romanian language is spoken by 90% of the population of the country.
Literature• The first writing in Romanian language dates from the 16th century, initially being used Slavonic letters.• The most valuable literary works were written during the 19th and the 20th century, when became known:- The prose writers: Liviu Rebreanu, Mihail Sadoveanu, Ion Slavici,- The poets: Mihai Eminescu, George Cosbuc, Lucian Blaga,- The playwrights: Ion Luca Caragiale, Eugen Ionescu, Marin Sorescu.• In the 20th century, because of the Communist regime, some writers like Mircea Eliade and Emil Cioran finished their work in exile.
Folklore• It sums up the Romanian spiritual creations.• The folklore and its tradition are linked with the main events of the Romanians’ life: birth, wedding, death and religious celebrations: Saint Andrew, Saint Nicholas, Christmas, Easter, etc.
• The popular culture is specific to each geographical region and is made up of the popular literature, the folk music and dances, the weavings, the popular costumes and painting.
Religion• The Romanians are a Christian people. The process of Christianization was accomplished from the 1st to the 6th century A.C.• From the total of the population, 87% are Christian orthodox, 6% belongs to reformed cult and 5,4% are Catholics.• Also, there are communities of Muslim and Jewish.
The worship places The Orthodox cult The Catholic cult Putna Monastery Voronet Monastery ‘Saint Michael’ Cathedral, Cluj-Napoca The reformed cult The Muslim cult The mosaic cultThe Black Chuch, Brasov The mosque from Constanta The Coral Temple, Bucuresti
Science and technique• They made progress from the second half of the 19th century after the foundation of the Romanian modern state.• There were distinguished:- In aviation: Traian Vuia (the first man who flew with an airplane harder than air, equipped with its own system of take off, propulsion and landing), Aurel Vlaicu and Henri Coanda (the inventor of the jet engine). Traian Vuia
- In spelaeology: Emil Racovita laid the foundation of this science.- In medicine: Nicolae Paulescu Emil Racovita (discovered the insulin), Victor Babes (accomplished studies in microbiology) and Gheorghe Marinescu (studied the neuron). Victor Babes Nicolae Paulescu
Music, painting and sculpture• Composers: Ciprian Porumbescu, George Enescu, “Ballad for violin and orchestra” “The Romanian rhapsody”• Painters: Nicolae Grigorescu “The cart with oxen” “The girl with the red kerchief”
Nicolae Tonitza “The forester’s girl” “The Garden from Valeni”Stefan Luchian “The yellow chrysanthemums” “Anemone”
• In sculpture, Constantin Brancusi is the most remarkable artist. The kiss gateBird in space The Column of Infinite
• According to the census achieved in 2002, the population of Romania counts 21.680.974 inhabitants. The ethnic structure of the population
The geographical repartition of the national minorities The Roma are evenly Polish spread all over the country. Czech Hungarian Serbian German Italian Croatian Ukrainian Russian Turk Tatar Greek
• Over time, the national minorities have deeply influenced the culture and the tradition of the Romanian people. Realized by the pupils of School number 1, Bicaz, Romania, for the Comenius Project “Different cultures, common dreams” This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This presentation reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.