www.scmuslim.com The Prequisites of salat (All images contained in this document are designed in a manner that is not intended to recreate the creation of Allah!)PREREQUISITES FOR SALAT: Islam An individual does not have to be a Muslim inorder to participate in a congregational salat; however, thenon-Muslim in question will only be regarded as one who isemulating the actions of the Muslims performing salat, and notconsidered as literally performing the actual salat in question.The reason being, one must have the intention to perform salatin order to receive the reward for it. Furthermore, oneintending to perform salat also has the intention to say theshahada (declaration of faith) during the first tashahud(Tashahud: At-tahiy-yatu lil-lahi was sala-watu wat-tay yibatuAs-salamu alayka ay-yuhan-nabiy-yu wa rahma tullahi wa bara-katuhu As-salamu alayna waala ibadil-la his-sali-heen Ashhadu al-la ilaha il-lal lahu wa ash hadu an-na Muhammadan ab-duhu wa rasuluh; which translates into English as "All worshipsare for Allah. Allahs peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Hismercy and blessings. Peace be on us and on all righteous
servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is none worthy ofworship except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is Hisservant and messenger."), which would make one a Muslim; whichdoes not apply to the non-Muslim in this scanerio; because, theindividual does not believe in Allah or Mohammed as Allahsmessenger, according to the standards set by Allah. The evidencethat the individual in question will only be regarded as one whois simply imitating the Muslims and will not receive the rewardof actually performing salat as a form of worship is a hadithcollected by Bukhari wherein Umar Ibn Al-Khattab narrated: "Iheard Allahs Apostle (P.B.U.H.) saying, Deeds (theircorrectness and rewards) depend upon intentions, and everyperson gets but what he has intended. So whoever emigrated forworldly benefits, or for a woman to marry, his emigration is forwhat he emigrated for." With this being said, despite the fact that the Muslimthis hadith is referring to migrated with the Muhajirun, wholeft all that they had for the sake of Allah and are regarded asthe best of the Muaslim ummah, he will not share the honor ofbeing counted among them; because, his true intention was tomigrate to be with a woman he desired to marry. What is more,since the non-Muslim in the scenario is intending to perform thesalat without having the desire to believe in Allah and his
final messenger Mohammed (P.B.U.H.), the individual cannotreceive the reward for performing salat; because, Muslims arethe only worshipers who perform salat, due to the fact that thefirst two pillars of Islam are exhibited during the actualsalat; i.e., testifying during the tashahud that there is no godbut Allah and that Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) is His Messenger, andperforming the obligatory salat as a form of submission toAllah. The evidence for this position is a hadith collected byBukhari wherein Abu Abd al-Rahman Abdullah bin Umar bin al-Khattab, narrated: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.)say, Islam has been built upon five things - on testifying thatthere is no god save Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger;on performing salat; on giving the zakah; on Hajj to the House;and on fasting during Ramadan." Time The Time of a particular salat must be in in order for aMuslim to be able to perform it. The evidence for this ruling is foundin Surah 4:103 (Al-Nisa) of the Quran which reads: "Fa-itha qadaytumualssalatafaothkuroo Allaha qiyaman waquAAoodanwaAAala junoobikum fa-itha itma/nantumfaaqeemoo alssalata inna alssalatakanat AAalaalmu/mineena kitaban mawqootan; which translates into English as:"When ye pass (Congregational) prayers, celebrate Allahs praises,standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides; but when ye arefree from danger, set up Regular Prayers: For such prayers areenjoined on believers at stated times."
The time when each of the five obligatory (fard)salat begins and ends: According to Sunan at-Tirmidhi Hadith no: 151 which wasnarrated by Abu Huraira who reported that Allahs Messenge(P.B.U.H.) said: "There is for every Salah, its initial andfinal time. The initial time for Zuhr is when the sun declinesand its final time is when Asr commences. The initial time ofAsr is when it sets in till when the sun turns yellow. Theinitial time of Maghrib is with sunset and its last is whenredness on the horizons disappears. The initial time of Isha isfrom then and its final time is at midnight. The initial time ofFajr is from true dawn till sunrise." Also, a hadith collected byBukhari that was narrated by Jaber bin Abdullah reports: "The angelJibrael came to Prophet Mohammed (P.B.U.H.) and said to him, Stand upand pray Thuhr. So Allahs Messenger (P.B.U.H.) prayed Thuhr when thesun had declined from its zenith. Then the angel Jibrael came again atthe time of Asr and said Stand up and pray Asr. Then ProphetMuhammad (P.B.U.H.) prayed Asr when the shadow of everything was equalto itself. Then Jibrael came the next day to Prophet Muhammad(P.B.U.H.) and said, (after praying 10 Salat with Prophet Muhammad(P.B.U.H.) in two consecutive days) The time of Salat (prayer) is inbetween these two times." A more detailed narration is found in thecollection of Abu Dawud wherein Ibn Abbas narrated: "The Prophet(PBUH) said, Jibril led me in (in Salat) twice at the House (the
Kaaba). So he prayed Zuhr the first time when the shadow was similarto (the length of) the strap of a sandal. Then he prayed Asr wheneverything was similar (to the length of) its shadow. Then he prayedMaghrib when the sun had set and the fasting person breaks fast. Thenhe prayed Isha when the twilight had vanished. Then he prayed Fajrwhen fajr (the dawn) began, and when eating is prohibited for thefasting person. The second time he prayed Zuhr when the shadow ofeverything was similar to (the length of) it, at the time of Asr theday before. Then he prayed Asr when the shadow of everything was abouttwice as long as it. Then he prayed Maghrib at the same time as he didthe first time. Then he prayed Isha, the later one, when a third ofthe night had gone. Then he prayed Subh (Fajr) when the land glowed.Then Jibril turned towards me and said: O Muhammad (PBUH)! These arethe times of the Prophets before you, and the time is what is betweenthese two times." This hadith explicitly shows the Angel Jabrildirecting the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in salat at the earliest and latestpossible times to observe each of the obligatory five daily salat. Further evidence is found in a hadith collected by ImamMuslim wherein Abdullah bin Amr reported that Allahs Messenger(P.B.U.H.) said: "The time of Zuhr prayer remains till the sundeclines and the shadow of a man becomes double his length andso long as the Asr prayer does not come; and the time of Asrprayer remains so long as the sun does not become yellow; andthe time of Maghrib prayer remains so long as the red hue doesnot disappear; and the time for Isha prayers remains up to the
midnight; and the time for Fajr prayer runs from the appearanceof dawn till the sun does not rise; but when the sun rises, keepaway from prayer; because, it rises between two horns of thedevil." Another hadith in the collection of Bukhari, narrated bySalama reports: "We used to pray the Maghrib prayer with theProphet (P.B.U.H.) when the sun disappeared from the horizon."Lastly, a hadith collected by Bukhari narrated by Abu Al-Minhalreports: "Abu Barza said, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to offerthe Fajr (prayer) when one could recognize the person sitting byhim (after the prayer) and he used to recite between 60 to 100Ayat (verses) of the Quran. He used to offer the Zuhr prayer assoon as the sun declined (at noon) and the Asr at a time when aman might go and return from the farthest place in Medina andfind the sun still hot. (The sub-narrator forgot what was saidabout the Maghrib). He did not mind delaying the Isha prayer toone third of the night or the middle of the night." Fajr: The initial time of Fajr is from true dawn tillsunrise." The Quran further states in Surah Baqarah (2:187):"...Eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to youfrom the black thread of dawn...." Therefore, it is clear thatthe initial time for fajr is when one can clearly distinguish adistinct white horizontal line separating the darkness of thesky.
True dawn (horizontal white light): Further evidence supporting the fact that Fajr salat beginswith the "true dawn" which appears horizontally (right to left)across the sky is a hadith in the collection of Abu Dawudwherein the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said: "Do not let theadhan of Bilal stop you from eating suhoor, or the vertical dawn
(false dawn), but the dawn which appears along the horizon (truedawn)." In light of this evidence, one intending to perform Fajrsalat should actually base the time of Fajr on a clearobservation of true dawn (white line across the horizon whichseparates the sky) and not on astronomical calculations or ontimetables whose authors are often not knowledgeable with regardto discerning the true time of Fajr from the false dawn.True dawn (horizontal white light):
False dawn (zodiacal light - vertical white light):False dawn: (vertical white light)
False dawn: (vertical white light) Lastly, it is important to note from the images above thatthe images of the false dawn clearly show a vertical white lineascending into the sky instead of a clear white horizontal linewhich appears at true dawn.The latest one can perform salatul Fajr: According to a hadith collected by Bukhari that wasnarrated by Hishams father: "Ibn Umar reportedly said,Allahs Apostle (P.B.U.H.) said, Do not pray at the time ofsunrise and at the time of sunset. Ibn Umar said, AllahsApostle (P.B.U.H.) said, If the edge of the sun appears (abovethe horizon) delay the prayer till it becomes high, and if theedge of the sun disappears, delay the prayer till it sets
(disappears completely)." However, if one is able to performone rakah before the sun rises, they are permitted to completethe entire salat and they will receive the full reward of thesalat in question. The evidence for this position is a hadithcollected by Bukhari wherein Abu Huraira reported: "AllahsApostle (P.B.U.H.) said, ...If any of you can get one Raka ofthe Fajr prayer before sunrise, he should complete his prayer."
Zuhr: The time of Zuhr prayer begins when the sun declinespast midday when ones shadow is very small, until the shadow ofa man becomes equal its size; with the latest possible time ofzuhr being when the shadow of a man is double his length and solong as the Asr prayer does not begin. The evidence for thisruling is a hadith in the collection of Abu Dawud wherein IbnAbbas narrated: "The Prophet (PBUH) said, Jibril led me in (inSalat) twice at the House (the Kaaba). So he prayed Zuhr thefirst time when the shadow was similar to (the length of) thestrap of a sandal... The second time he prayed Zuhr when theshadow of everything was similar to (the length of) it, at thetime of Asr the day before...."Beginning time of Zuhr:
At midday, when the sun reaches its zenith, which is anunlawful time for a Muslim to perform any salat, the sun is atits highest point. Therefore, the suns rays fall vertically onones body; consequently, ones shadow will appear very short. Aconvenient technique used for determining when the zenith of thesun has been passed and the actual time for Zuhr has commencedis to insert a stick or pole in an open area; so that when thesun rises from the East, the shadow of the object will descendtowards the West. Theoretically, the higher the sun rises, the shorter theshadow of an object will appear. Therefore, so long as theshadow of the object keeps growing shorter, the sun has yet toreach its zenith. The shadow of the object will continue to growshorter until the sun reaches its zenith and could appear not toeven cast a shadow. Then, after the sun exceeds its zenith anddescends westward, the shadow of an object will slowly start toincrease, falling towards the East; known as the time of zawal.Finally, once the shadow of an object begins to increase by evena small amount, after the sun exceeds its zenith at the time ofzawal, the time for Zuhr has begun. The evidense for this rulingis a hadith in the collection of Tirmidhi wherein Hasan ibn AliHalwani reported that Abdur Razzaq reported to him and Mumar tohim and Zuhri to him: "Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik told me that
Allahs Messenger (P.B.U.H.) offered the Salah of zuhr when itwas time of zawal (declination of the sun)." Regarding the explicit statements from ahadith pertainingto the time when the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and Sahaba observed theZuhr salat, a hadith in the collection of Abu Dawud reports thatIbn Abbas narrated: "The Prophet (PBUH) said, Jibril led me in(in Salat) twice at the House (the Kaaba). So he prayed Zuhr thefirst time when the shadow was similar to (the length of) thestrap of a sandal... The second time he prayed Zuhr when theshadow of everything was similar to (the length of) it (at theend time of Zuhr), at the time of Asr the day before...." Whatis more, the Muwatta of Imam Malik- Book 1, Number 1.1.6 reportsthat Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from the mawla ofAbdullah ibn Umar that Umar ibn al-Khattab wrote to hisgovernors, saying:"...Pray Dhuhr any time from when theafternoon shade is the length of your forearm until the lengthof your shadow matches your height. Pray Asr when the sun isstill pure white, so that a rider can travel two or threefarsakhs before the sun sets..." In another hadith collected byAbu Dawud Abdullah ibn Masud narrated:"The extent of the shadowwhen the Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) prayed (the noon prayer)was three to five feet in summer and five to seven feet inwinter."
Based on the preponderance of the evidence from theahadith pertaining to the time of Zuhr salat, the actual prayershould be observed when ones shadow is small; particularly,waiting until ones shadow is the size of the thong of a sandal(in order to be certain that the sun has passed its zenith),until ones shadow becomes equal to their actual height or ifusing another object, until the height of this object becomesequal to the height of its shadow for the prayer in question.Furthermore, regarding the hadith of Ahmed and Abu Dawudwherein: "Ibn Abbas, reported that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said,Jibril led me in Salah twice near Bayt Allah. The first time,we offered the Salah of Zuhr when the shadow was like the thongof a shoe. Then, we offered Asr when the shadow of everythingwas equal to it, and maghrib after sunset when the fasting mantakes iftar (breaks his fast), and Isha when the twilightdisappeared, and fair when one who fasts is forbidden food anddrink. The second time, we offered Zuhr when the shadow ofeverything was like it in length at the time of Asr on theprevious day (Asr when the shadow of everything was equal toit.). Then we offered the Asr when the shadow of everything wastwice as long. We prayed Maghrib at the same time as theprevious day; we prayed Isha when one-third of the night wasover and Fajr when the earth was well-lit. Then Jibril turned tome and said; O Muhammad! This was the time observed by Prophets
(SAW) before you, and the time (of five Salah) is between thesetwo times;" it is therefore clear that the height of onesshadow at the time of Zuhr is equal to ones actual height.However, there is a hadith in the collection of Imam Muslimnarrated by Hadrat Abdullah bin Amr wherein it is reported thatAllahs Messenger (P.B.U.H.) said: "The time of Zuhr prayerremains till the sun declines and the shadow of a man becomesdouble his length and so long as the Asr prayer does not come,and the time of Asr prayer remains so long as the sun does notbecome yellow: and the time of Maghrib prayer remains so long asthe red hue does not disappear; and the time for Isha prayersremains up to the midnight, and the time for Fajr prayer runsfrom the appearance of dawn till the sun does not rise, but whenthe sun rises, keep away from prayer because it rises betweentwo horns of the devil." Thus, this hadith clearly shows thatthe shadow of an individual at the time of Zuhr salat canactually grow as tall as ones shadow generally appears duringthe time of Asr salat (twice its usual height); however, cautionis advised to those who postpone their Zuhr prayer to the latestpossible time allowed to perform this act of worship not toallow the actual Asr prayer to commence; since, ones shadowgenerally grows to twice its actual size during the Asr salat.
The evidence that ones shadow during the Zuhr salat canactually appear taller at different seasons of a particular yearis the hadith of Abu Dawud wherein Abdullah ibn Masud narrated:"The extent of the shadow when the Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.)prayed (the noon prayer) was three to five feet in summer andfive to seven feet in winter." Now, in view of this hadith it isimportant to note that Prophet Mohammed (P.B.U.H.) was describedas being average height (around 5 10" - 6 feet tall), yet theabove hadith of Abu Dawud describes his shadow as being 7 feettall in the winter. The hadith of Tirmidhi narrated by Baraa binAazib confirms that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was of average heightwhen it says: "I never saw someone more handsome thanRasullullah (P.B.U.H.). His hair reached his shoulders. Theportion between his two shoulders was wide. He was neither verytall nor very short." Lastly, it is also important to note thatthe sun is lower in the sky during the winter months, whichresults in one having a taller shadow. Moreover, during thesummer the sun is higher in the sky, and in the spring andautumn, the sun is right in the middle.Middle and general ending time of Zuhr: As the sun travels from its highest point towards itssetting course, ones shadow should begins to appear as a largerimage as the sun descends and begins to set in the West. As a
result, during the middle timeframe of Zuhr ones shadow willappear to be approximately half their actual height.The last possible time of Zuhr: At the latest possible time to perform zuhr salat, which ismoments prior to the commencement of the Asr prayer; onesshadow, which should generally be to equal their actual height,can at certain times of the year appear to be approximatelytwice the size of their actual height. Therefore, if anindividuals shadow is 6 feet tall, and their actual height is 6feet tall, the time for Zuhr will have ended according to thenorm. Furthermore, in rare instances, once ones 6 feet tall
shadow becomes approximately 12 feet tall, the time forperforming Zuhr salat will have expired.
With this being said, a simple method to use fordetermining when the time for Zuhr salat has expired is to usethe height of an object, such as a 6 feet tall man or a stick(about 3 feet long), and position the object in question in anopen area prior to the sun reaching its zenith (or document thesize of the objects shadow prior to the time of Zuhr). If usinga stick, no mark is necessary; because, the base of the stickwill serve as the measuring point. If using ones body (Height)as a measuring tool, simply use a stick that is long enough toenable you to mark the ground at the base of your foot and atthe top of your head on your shadow. Use the stick and lay it onthe ground between the foot and head marks of your shadow.Starting from the foot mark, lift the stick beginning at thefoot mark, ensuring that the other end remains on the ground andflip it over in order to place the foot end of the stick on theground closer to the head of the shadow. Flip the other enduntil the full length of the shadow is covered. Document howmany times you had to flip the stick in order to measure theentire length of the shadow. As the sun approaches its zenith, the shadow will shrinkas it travels from the East towards the zenith (shadow should befacing West). After the sun passes its zenith and descendswestward towards its destination of setting in the West, as thesun travels this course, one will notice that their shadow will
appear to increase in size from the East. Once this happens,Zuhr prayer will have begun. The shadow of the object willcontinue to increase, declining towards the East until thelength of the shadow is equal to the length of the objectitself, i.e., it will be 6 feet long; equal to the height of the6 feet tall individual, starting from the point marked at thezenith (The base of the object being measured). Moreover, whenyou decide to check the height of your shadow at the time youconsider to be the end of Zuhr, simply use your stick and placeit at the foot mark and measure up to the head of your shadow.At this point if the shadow is at least equal to ones height,the time for Zuhr has expired and the time for Asr will havecommenced. It is also important to note that the Maliki, Shafii, andHanbali schools of thought and even some Hanafis such asMuhamamd b. Hasan, Abu Yusuf, Zafar, and al-Tahawi all share theopinion that the time of Zuhr ends when an objects shadow isequal to its length. Lastly, to reiterate the importance ofascertaining the official end of Zuhr and start of Asr, oneshould generally pray Zuhr prior to their shadow becoming equalto their actual height; because, ones shadow will rarely growto twice the size of their actual height at the end time ofZuhr; which is the opinion of Abu Hanifah and is the officialposition of the Hanafi school of thought.
ASR: The time of the Asr salat commences immediately afterthe Zuhr salat ends.Beginning time of Asr salat: Regarding the time of the Asr salat, the consensus among theMaliki, Shafii, and Hanbali schools is that Asr commences at atime when the length of an objects shadow equals the length ofthe object itself plus the length of that objects shadow atnoon (which is either impossible to detect or really small).Therefore, the Zuhr salat will generally be deemed expired onceone is certain that an objects shadow is at least equal to itsactual height.
However, the dominant opinion of the Hanafi school is that Asrbegins when the length of an objects shadow is twice the lengthof the object plus the length of that objects shadow at noon.Both opinions are based on ahadith. However, it should be notedthat a hadith collected by Bukhari that was narrated by AbuDharr, adds clarity to this matter when it reported: "TheMuadhdhin (call-maker) of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) pronounced theAdhan (call) for the Zuhr prayer but the Prophet said, Let itbe cooler, let it be cooler. Or said, Wait, wait, because theseverity of heat is from the raging of the Hell-fire. In severehot weather, pray when it becomes (a bit) cooler and the shadowsof hillocks appear." From this hadith of Bukhari, it is clear that the timefor Zuhr was established; yet, the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) orderedthe believers to delay the salat until it was cooler. Now, atthis cooler time of the day the sun was lower in the sky; thus,the shadows of the hillocks became noticeable; meaning the salatwas delayed until a time in which the shadow of an object wouldappear significantly larger that it would typically be at thetime of Zuhr. Furthermore, other versions of this hadith depictthe believers as being on a journey during this incident.Therefore, they were likely faced with even greater exposure tothe sun, due to absence of their usual masjid rooftop; i.e.,justifying their delay of praying the salat. Allah know best!
In view of these facts, it is important to note that onceone can clearly establish that the time of Asr salat hascommenced due to the sighting of a shadow that is equal to theiractual height, which is generally the norm, there is more rewardto be earned by performing the salat at this time versusintentionally postponing it until ones shadow becomes twice thesize of their actual height. The evidence for thisrecommendation is a hadith in the collection of Bukhari whereinAbu Al-Mahh reports: "We were with Buraida in a battle on acloudy day and he said, Offer the Asr prayer early as the
Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said, Whoever leaves the Asr prayer, all his(good) deeds will be annulled." Also, a hadith in thecollection of Abu Dawud that was narrated by Umm Farwah reports:"The Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) was asked: Which of the actionsis best? He replied: Observing prayer early in itsperiod....." Lastly, and most importantly, Surah Al-Baqarah ofthe Quran (2:238) says: "Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers,especially the Middle Prayer and stand before Allah in a devout(frame of mind)." It is also worth mentioning that one is not sinful forobserving the ending of Zuhr and commencement of Asr when theirshadow is twice its normal size; however, the problem ariseswhenever one says that another is deviant for engaging in apractice which is documented in a hadith of the Prophet(P.B.U.H.); i.e., electing to make their salat at its earlierstages versus postponing the salat until its latest stages oftime. Therefore, if one prefers to delay the Asr salat untiltheir shadow increases to twice its normal size, even when it isclear that Zuhr prayer actually ended when their shadow wasequal to their actual height, they may do so. The fact that someof the companions of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) observed their Zuhrand Asr salat at different times of the permissible timeframe isa hadith in the collection of Sunan An-Nasai, narrated by AbuSalamah who reported: "We prayed at the time of Umar bin Abdul-
Aziz, then we went to Anas bin Malik and found him praying. Whenhe finished he said to us: Have you prayed? We said: Weprayed Zuhr. He said: I prayed Asr. They said: You haveprayed early. He said: Rather I prayed as I saw my companionspray." With this being said, one must be aware that the rewardof the salat will be less when observed at the delayed time. Itis no different than one performing salat on time standing whileanother does it sitting in a chair, even though both methods aredetailed in ahadith, the preponderance of the evidence showsthat the one performing the act standing will receive twice thereward of the person sitting. In summary, the point intended is to advise the Muslimummah to reap the full benefits of slat and avoid delaying theobligatory act of worship to an extent that the actual salatmight either be missed or expire due to forgetfulness. Theseriousness of the matter is detailed in a hadith collected byBukhari wherein Ibn Umar narrated: "Allah’s Apostle (P.B.U.H.)said, Whoever misses the Asr prayer (intentionally), then it isas if he lost his family and property." We Muslims should also observe the advice of the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) and not become divided; as evident from the hadith ofAl-Hakim wherein he reported that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said:"Allah will never let my Ummah agree upon misguidance, and the
hand of Allah is over the group (Jamaah), so follow the greatmass of believers (Sawad ul-Azam), and whoever dissents fromthem departs to hell." Therefore, it is only practical that weshould not become divided over a matter which is documented inahadith of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.); wherein both methods aresupported. The reason being, the instruction of the Messenger ofAllah (P.B.U.H.) is to refer a matter to the Quran and sunnahwhenever we disagree. Thus, since both methods are supported inthe sunnah, we Muslims must refrain from becoming so emotionalthat we resort to insulting the Imams of the four schools ofthought; may Allah reward them all with the highest level ofParadise (Jannah Al-Firdous).Middle and general ending time of Asr: The first of the two times for Asr salat, referred to asthe preferred time, is when the sun is clear and white until itturns yellow.
This fact is evident from the hadith in the collection of AbuDawud wherein Ali ibn Shayban narrated: "We came upon theApostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) in Medina. He would postpone theafternoon (Asr) prayer as long as the sun remained white andclear." Therefore, once the sun becomes yellow, the time for Asrsalat is generally considered expired. The evidence for thisruling is the hadith of Imam Muslim wherein the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) reportedly said: "The time for Asr is so long as thesun has not turned yellow."
It is also important to note that it is a disliked act tointentionally delay Asr until the second of the two times forwhich it is permitted, known as the time of necessity, which isright up until the time of sunset. The evidence for this rulingis a hadith in the collection of Abu dawud wherein Al-Alanarrated that he entered upon Anas bin Malik in his house in Al-Basrah, when he had finished Zuhr, and his house was beside theMasjid: "When we entered upon him, he said: Have you prayed
Asr? We said: No, we have just finished Zuhr. He said: PrayAsr. So we got up and prayed, and when we finished he said: Iheard the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) say: That is the prayerof the hypocrite: he sits and delays Asr prayer until (the sun)is between the horns of the Shaitan, then he gets up and pecksfour (Rakahs) in which he only remembers Allah a little."Furthermore, a hadith in the collection of Bukhari that wasnarrated by Anas bin Malik provides clear evidence that thecommencement of Asr is at an early enough stage of the afternoonthat one can travel four miles with the sun high in the sky andreach their destination before the sun turns yellow. The hadithin question reads: "Allahs Apostle (P.B.U.H.) used to offer theAsr prayer at a time when the sun was still hot and high and ifa person went to Al-Awali (a place) of Medina, he would reachthere when the sun was still high. Some of Al-Awali of Medinawere about four miles or so from the town." Another hadith inthe Muwatta of Imam Malik (1.1.6 in the book of the Times ofPrayer)that was narrated by Yahya reported: ".... a rider couldtravel a distance of 2 or 3 farsakhs during the Asr salat....." In view of the above mentioned hadith, the time ofnecessity which would exempt one from being regarded as ahypocrite for intentionally delaying their Asr salat pertains toan individual with some essential and unavoidable work, such asa doctor performing a surgery who is unable to pray before the
sun turns yellow due to the severity of the operation. In thisinstance, the individual in question is permitted to pray theAsr salat during the time of necessity just prior to sunset, andwill be deemed as one who has prayed on time and has not sinned;because, this is the time of necessity. The evidence for thepermissibility of praying during the time of necessity is ahadith in the collection of Bukhari, wherein Abu Hurairanarrated: "Allahs Apostle (P.B.U.H.) said, If anyone of youcan get one rakah of the Asr prayer before sunset, he shouldcomplete his prayer. If any of you can get one Raka of the Fajrprayer before sunrise, he should complete his prayer." According to Islamtoday.net: Al-Nawawis comments on thehadith under discussion in his commentary on Sahih Muslim(2/394), is reported to have said: "Our scholars have determinedthat the overall timeframe for `Asr prayer can be divided intofive time periods:1. Ideal time.2. Preferential time.3. Permitted time.4. Disliked postponed time.5. Time only for those who has a serious excuse. The ideal time for offering the `Asr prayer is as soon assoon as the prayer comes in. The preferential time continues onup until the shadow of an object reaches double the object’s
height. The permitted time continues on until the Sun turns ayellow color. It is disliked to postpone offering the `Asrprayer until after the Sun turns yellow but before the Sun sets. As for the time for those who have a serious excuse, thatis the time of the Zuhr prayer. It is for those who have theright to offer the Zuhr and `Asr prayer together at the time ofZuhr, like during a journey or because of rain. At all of these times, the person offering the `Asrprayer is considered as offering the prayer on time. The prayeris only considered as being made up if it its time elapses bythe occurrence of sunset. And Allah knows best." In summary, "The ideal time for offering the `Asr prayeris as soon as soon as the prayer comes in. The preferential timecontinues on up until the shadow of an object reaches double theobject’s height. The permitted time continues on until the Sunturns a yellow color. It is disliked to postpone offering the`Asr prayer until after the Sun turns yellow but before the Sunsets."The end time of Asr: The end time of Asr is when the sun begins to set. Theevidence for this ruling is found in Surah TaHa of the Quran(20:130) which reads: "... and celebrate (constantly) thepraises of thy Lord, before the rising of the sun, and before
its setting ..." Also, a hadith in the collection of Bukharinarrated by Ibn Umar reports: "Allahs Apostle (P.B.U.H.) said,None of you should try to pray at sunrise or sunset." Maghrib: The time for Maghrib salat officially beginsafter the sun completely sets. The evidence for this position isa hadith in the collection of Imam Muslim wherein Uqbah ibn Amirnarrated: "There were three times at which Allahs Messenger(P.B.U.H.) forbade us to pray, or bury our dead: When the sunbegins to rise till it is fully up, when the sun is at itsheight at midday till it passes over the meridian, and when thesun draws near to setting till it sets."
Beginning time of Maghrib salat: The Maghrib salat commences once one is absolutelycertain that the sun has completely set; because, Islam strictlyforbids one from praying while the sun is setting; in additionto when the sun is rising and at its zenith. The evidence forthis ruling is a hadith in the collection of Bukhari whereinSalama narrated: "We used to pray the Maghrib prayer with theProphet (P.B.U.H.) when the sun disappeared from the horizon."
Furthermore, another hadith collected by Bukhari, narrated byRafi bin Khadij maintains that the Maghrib salat was performedat a time when the sun had completely set; yet, there was stillenough visibility for one to recognize objects at a distance.The hadith in question reads: "We used to offer the Maghribprayer with the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and after finishing theprayer one of us may go away and could still see as far as thespots where ones arrow might reach when shot by a bow."Middle time of Maghrib salat: The timeframe between the Maghrib and Isha salat is veryshort in comparison to other prayers; which is evident from thehadith of Bukhari wherein Anas bin Malik narrated: "When theMuadhdhin pronounced the Adhan, some of the companions of theProphet (P.B.U.H.) would proceed to the pillars of the mosque(for the prayer) till the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) arrived and in thisway they used to pray two Rakat before the Maghrib prayer. Thereused to be a little time between the Adhan and the Iqama. Shubasaid, There used to be a very short interval between the two(Adhan and Iqama)." What is more, the actual duration of theMaghrib salat can be as long as it takes one to recite a longSurah such as Al Araf of the Quran, which consists of 206 ayat(verses). This fact is evident from the hadith of Bukhariwherein Marwan bin Al-Hakam narrated: "Zaid bin Thabit said to
me, Why do you recite very short Surahs in the Maghrib prayerwhile I heard the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) reciting the longer of thetwo long Surahs?" Furthermore, a hadith in the Muwatta of ImamMalik reads: "Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihabfrom Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utba ibn Masud from Abdullahibn Abbas that Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith heard him reciting alMursalat (sura 77) and she said to him, My son, you havereminded me by reciting this Surah that it was what I last heardthe Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) recite in the Maghribprayer." It is also important to note that according to ShaykhMuhammad S Al-Munajjids Fatwa No. 135415 taken from Islamqa.com(http://islamqa.info/en/ref/135415), Shaykh al-‘Uthaymeen in aMajmoo‘ Fataawa 7/338, declared: "... The time between sunsetand the beginning of Isha (duration of Maghrib) may in fact beone and a quarter hours, one hour and 20 minutes, one hour and25 minutes, and occasionally one hour and 30 minutes. Thetimeframe for Maghrib varies, and as a result, cannot possiblybe the same in every season." The midpoint of Maghrib remains as long as there areremnants of twilight in the atmosphere in the form of colors,wherein the sky neither appears completely light nor dark; andthe stars do not become bright and visible.
The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collection ofImam Muslim wherein Abd-Allah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas narratedthat the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said: "... Thetime for Maghrib lasts until the twilight has faded...."
The end time of Maghrib salat: The Maghrib salat ends once all color leaves the skygiving it a black appearance wherein one can clearly see thestars in the sky.
The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collection ofBukhari that was narrated by Abu Ayyub wherein he reported:"Marthad ibn Abdullah said: When Abu Ayyub came upon us tofight the infidels and in those days Uqbah ibn Amir was theGovernor of Egypt, he (Uqbah) delayed the sunset prayer. HenceAbu Ayyub stood and said: What kind of prayer is this, Uqbah?He said: We were busy. He said: Did you not hear the Apostleof Allah (P.B.U.H.) say: My community will remain well, or hesaid: will remain on its natural condition, so long as it wouldnot delay the evening prayer until the stars shine brightly justlike a network." It is also important to note that according to Imam AbuHaneefa, the time for Maghrib ends when the whitenessdisappears. (Maghrib does not end when the redness ends.)Whereas, Imam Shafii in his old madhhab, which was establishedin Iraq, declared that Maghrib lasted until the disappearance ofthe red twilight; which is the official relied upon opinion ofthe Shafii school of thought. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal of theHanbali school of thought is also aligned with this position.Therefore, the length of Maghrib should vary from place toplace, with the Maghrib salat lasting about an hour in mostlocations, for most of the year. Furthermore, according to thenew Shafii madhab which was established in Egypt, Maghrib onlylasts the amount of time it takes for one to purify themselves,
cover their awrah, call the azan and iqamah, and pray the fiverakahs of the Maghrib salat (3 fard and 2 sunnah). Imam Malik isalso aligned with this opinion. Therefore, according to thisposition, Maghrib lasts about one-half hour. With this beingsaid, regardless of which opinion one decides to follow, theconsensus of the shafii madhab is that the Maghrib salat willalways remain until the beginning of Isha (with thedisappearance of the red twilight and appearance of the stars).Determining the times of salat in areas whereinnight and day does not occur within a twenty-four hour timeframe: In a Majmoo‘ Fataawa (12/197, 198) pertaining to placesin which the night and day does not occur within twenty-fourhours, either throughout the year or only for a few days, ShaykhUthaymeen reportedly said: "If it is only for a few days, suchas if it is a place in which night and day occur within twenty-four hours throughout the seasons of the year, but during someperiods there may be twenty-four hours or more of either nightor day, in that case if there is a phenomenon on the horizon bymeans of which you can work out the time, such as if the lightstarts to increase or when it disappears completely, thendeciding the time may be connected to this phenomenon; or if
there is no such phenomenon, one can work out the times of salatas they were on the last day before the phenomenon of night/daylasting for an entire twenty-four hour or more period. However,if the phenomenon in question occurs in a place wherein nightand day does not occur within twenty-four hours throughout theyear or for an entire season, then the times for salat should becarefully worked out; which is evident from the hadith narratedby Imam Muslim wherein an-Nawwaas ibn Sam‘aan reported: TheProphet (P.B.U.H.) mentioned the Dajjaal will appear at the endof time. They asked him how long he would stay on earth and hesaid: Forty days: one day like a year, one day like a month,one day like a week, and the rest of his days will be like yourdays. They said: O Messenger of Allah, on that day which willbe like a year, will the prayers of one day be sufficient forus? He said: No, work it out...." So it is apparent that the day which will be like a yearshould not be regarded as one day in which only five prayerswill be sufficient; rather, one must offer the five dailyprayers within twenty-four hour intervals. With this being said,how then does one work out the times for salat without the aidof the occurrence of night and day? Shaykh Uthaymeen declared,"...Some scholars believe that the matter should be worked outaccording to the average timeframe of a complete day. Therefore,
the night is to be estimated as being twelve hours, and the sameapplies for the day; because, whenever it is not possible towork out the times of salat while residing in a particularcountry, it should be worked out on the basis of a place wherenight and day are equal. A similar scenario applies to the caseof a woman who is suffering istihaadah (prolonged non-menstrualvaginal bleeding) and does not have a period as such and cannotdistinguish between menstrual and non-menstrual bleeding." Shewill therefore distinguish her actual menstrual cycle based onthe trend it followed during earlier months of the year. Thus,if her period usually lasts for seven days, then any bleedingafter that period would be regarded as being non-menstrual. Furthermore, regarding the matter of determining thetimes of salat in the absence of night and day, others maintainthat it should be worked out in accordance with the nearest landwherein night and day is still occurring throughout the year;because when it is not possible to work it out with regard tothe land itself, then it should be worked out in accordance withthe land that most closely resembles it; which is the nearestland to it in which night and day occur within twenty-fourhours. With this being said, this view is deemed more correct;because, it is based on a stronger argument and is morepractical.
Islam q&a provides the following summary: In countries where night and day occur in twenty-four hours, it is obligatory to pray at the times prescribed in shariah, no matter how long or short the night. In countries where night and day do not occur in twenty- four hours, it is obligatory to follow the times of prayer in the closest land in which there is night and day. In countries where the twilight overlaps with the dawn, or it disappears but there is not sufficient time to pray ‘Isha’, it is obligatory to follow the closest place where there is enough time to offer the prayer. It is permissible for people who have legitimate excuses to put together Maghrib and ‘Isha’ if they are unable to wait until the time of ‘Isha’. Isha:The beginning time of Isha salat: Isha salat commences after twilight has disappeared andthe stars clearly appear in the sky at night. This position isbased on the hadith of Bukhari wherein Ibn Shihab narrated fromUrwa: "Aisha said, Once Allahs Apostle (P.B.U.H.) delayed theIsha prayer till Umar reminded him by saying, The prayer! Thewomen and children have slept. Then the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) cameout and said, None amongst the dwellers of the earth has been
waiting for it (the prayer) except you. Urwa said, Nowhereexcept in Medina the prayer used to be offered (in those days).He further said, The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used to offer the Ishaprayer in the period between the disappearance of the twilightand the end of the first third of the night."
According to www.as-sidq.org, "The beginning of Isha timebegins when Shafaq (twilight) is set in. All Islamic scholarsagree on this point. Two different interpretations areexpressed in describing the word shafaq in the books of hadith.These are commonly referred to as Shafaqe Ahmar and ShafaqeAbyadh. Both these phenomena occur one after the other andrepresent two distinct levels of illumination in the westernsky. Shafaqe Ahmar occurs before Shafaqe Abyadh. 1. Shafaqe Ahmar: under clear-sky, when disappearance (sun’s red afterglow) of redness in the western sky.(Shafaqe Ahmar – roughly correspondence to Nautical twilight)It is believed that this method was accepted by Syedna IbnAbbas, Umar bin khatab, Ali Talib, Ibadah Bin Thamit, MoosaAshari and Ibn Umar (Radiallahu Anhum) including Imam Malik,Imam Shafi‘i, and Imam Ahmad and Sahibayn -Imam Mohammed andImam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullah Alaihi) well respected students ofImam Abu Hanifah. This phenomena (i.e. disappearance of rednessroughly correspondence to nautical twilight between 12°and 15°)is difficult to identify, quantify, and may fluctuates throughthe seasons, latitudes and atmospheric conditions, furthermore,lately the artificial light pollution is a major problem.
2. Shafaqe Abyadh: under clear sky, when western sky begins to darkens into one colour and when almost darkness occurs or there is no trace of light left in the sky (Shafaqe Abyad - roughly correspondence to Astronomical twilight).It is believed that this method was accepted by Syedna Abu Bakr,Muadh Bin Jabal, Ubay Ibn Kab, Abdullah Bin Zubair, Anas, AbuHurairah, and Aisha (Radiallahu Anhum) also leading jurist ImamAbu Hanifah (Rahmatullah Alaihi). It is generally estimatedwhen sun approaches 17.5° to 18° below the horizon. Generallythere are no significant time differences between two phenomena(10 to 15 minutes) in most cases. As a matter of conveniencemost Islamic prayer tables use Isha timing when completedarkness (shafaqe Abyadh) occurs. The difference in time couldbe significant in summer and could be as much as 45 to 120minutes in northern regions." www.as-sidq.org further adds, "It is worth noting thatthe the Islamic scholars of Hanfi school of jurisprudencestrictly fix Isha after Shafaqe Abyadh , but in certaincircumstances, it is permitted, (based on rulings of theSahibayn) to offer Isha after Shafaqe Ahmar where thecircumstances in which the Isha is so late e.g. in somenorthern regions especially in summer months and if Muslimslikely to encounter considerable hardship. No Hanafi scholar
however is likely to permit Isha any earlier than Shafaqe Ahmarexcept in extreme northern regions." Lastly, www.as-sidq.org states, "Globally the beginningof Isha time (based on Shafaqe Abyadh complete darkness) isfixed by leading Islamic organizations, such as, Umm Al-Qura ofSaudi Arabia - 90 minutes after sunset which approximate 20°throughout the year, University of Islamic Sciences, Karachi18°, Egyptian General Authority of Survey 17.5°, and MuslimWorld League 17° and several Islamic groups in the west 15°. Thehigher degree correspondences (i.e. 18°) to slightly late Ishaand lower number (i.e. 14°) correspondences to slightly earlyIsha."The middle time of Isha salat: In an article taken fromhttps://theauthenticbase.wordpress.com/tag/isha/, titled, "TimeLimit For The ‘Isha’ Prayer" it is reported: "There is theopinion deduced from taking the apparent (dhahir) meaning ofthe hadith about the middle of the night that was held by IbnHazm, ash-Shawkani, al-Albani, and others that the permissibletime is till the middle of the night, beyond which it isforbidden to delay Isha. Consider also what the major scholarsof the four madhahib said: Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi (Hambali)said in ‘al-Mughni: "What is more befitting – if Allah Wills –
is that one does not delay it past the first third of the night.If he delays it past the middle of the night, this ispermissible. What is beyond this is allowed only for necessity,and its ruling is the same as praying Asr in the time ofnecessity (in the last portion of its allotted time)...beyondthis, the time of Isha extends till the emergence of thesecond (true) Fajr." The article further stated, "Al-Kasani (Hanafi) saidin ‘Badai as-Sanai: As for the last time for Isha, it iswhen the true time of Fajr comes in, according to us. MuhammadAlish (Maliki) said in Manh al-Jalil: And the preferred timeto pray Isha ends with the first third of the night. An-Nawawi (Shafi’i) said in Al-Majmu: What is preferred is topray by the first third of the night. If this preferred timepasses, we are left with the permissible time, which is till thetime of the second (true) Fajr. This is the madhhab that hasbeen narrated from ash-Shafii, and it is what has been clear-cut from our companions, past and present. At-Tahawi (Hanafi)said in Mushkil al-Athar: So, the authenticity of thesenarrations has been established: that the time in which one canpray Isha is from when the Sun sets, till the end of thenight. However, this is divided into three categories:
a) from when it enters, to the first third of the night, and this is the best time in which to pray it, b) as for what is beyond this – till the middle of the night – this is less preferable than the first choice, and c) as for what is beyond the middle of the night, this is less preferable than the times before it.So, the four madhahib interpreted the relevant ahadith to meanthat the time in which it is permissible to pray Isha is tillthe time of Fajr, with the strong discouragement from delayingit past the first third of the night, let alone the middle ofthe night, unless one has a good excuse (such as illness,preoccupation with a task, etc.)." The article concludes by maintaining: "There is adifference of opinion as to whether the time limit is a matterof strict forbiddance, or merely one of preference. In any case,the safest thing to do is to not delay it past the middle of thenight, as much as you are able. And Allah Knows best."The end time of Isha salat: The end time for Isha salat is generally when a third orat most a half of the night has elapsed. The evidence for thisruling is a hadith in the collection of Tirmidhi wherein AbuHurairah reported: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, Ifit were not to be a hardship on the Ummah, I would have ordered
them to delay the Isha Salah until a third or half of the nighthad passed." Furthermore, in a hadith collected by Bukhari, thatwas narrated by Anas: "The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) delayed the Ishaprayer till midnight and then he offered the prayer and said,The people prayed and slept but you have been in prayer as longas you have been waiting for it (the prayer). Anas added: Asif I am looking now at the glitter of the ring of the Prophet onthat night." Therefore, to be specific, the Isha salat cangenerally be delayed until the middle point of the night; whichis calculated by taking the time of sunset and sunrise of aparticular day and dividing them in half. The halfway point inbetween those two times constitutes the end time for praying theIsha salat. Sanity Sanity is a perquisite for salat because inorder to perform salat one must be in a position wherein theyare able fully aware of their actions or deeds. The evidence forthis ruling is a hadith recorded by Ahmad wherein Aishareported: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, The pen israised for three (meaning: there is no obligation upon three):one who is sleeping until he wakens, the child until he becomesan adult, and one who is insane until he becomes sane."
Qibla The Muslim performing salat should stand in thedirection of the Qibla, which is Northeast for South Carolinaresidents.
The proof for this practice is found in Surah Al-Baqara (2:144)of the Quran which reads: "We see the turning of thy face (forguidance to the heavens: now Shall We turn thee to a Qibla thatshall please thee. Turn then Thy face in the direction of thesacred Mosque (Makkah): Wherever ye are, turn your faces in thatdirection..." Make the Niyyah (intention) to make salat:The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslim,wherein the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said,"Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyoneonly what he intended..." SUTRA The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in thecollection of Ahmad wherein Abu Hurairah related that the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) said: "When one of you prays, he should place something infront of him..."The Sutra of the one who performs salat: A hadith in the collection of Abu Dawud narrated by AbūSa‘īd Al-Khudrī reports: "Allāh’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) said,When you do your Salāt, do it towards a Sutrah and come closeto it. And never let any one pass between you and your Sutra,even if you have to fight him for the Devil is with him."
The objects one can use as a sutra must be equalto the size of a camels saddle (about 12 incheshigh - give or take a few inches):The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collection ofImam Muslim wherein Musa b. Talha reported on the authority ofhis father: "We used to say prayer and the animals moved infront of us. We mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) and he said: If anything equal to the back of asaddle is in front of you, then what walks in front, no harmwould come to him. Ibn Numair said: No harm would come whosoeverwalks in front."
The Imam, the Imams sutra, or the row ofMuslims performing congregational salat in frontof an individual is sufficient as a sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Imam Muslim wherein Ibn Umar reported: "When the Messenger ofAllah (P.B.U.H.) went out on the Id day, he ordered to carry aspear-and it was fixed in front of him (sutra for the Imam), andhe said prayer towards its (direction), and the people werebehind him (he served as their sutra). And he did it in thejourney, and that is the reason why the Amirs carried it."
A spear (short or long) is sufficient for asutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein it is related from Awn ibn Abi Juhayfa whoreportedly said: "I heard my father say, The Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) came out to us at midday and was brought wudu waterand did wudu. Then he led us in the Dhuhr and Asr prayers witha short spear in set up front of him. Women and donkeys werepassing behind it."
The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein It is related from Abdullah: "The Prophet(P.B.U.H.) used to have a spear set up for him and would prayfacing it."
The use of an arrow as a sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Ahmad wherein It is related from Sabrah ibn Muabid whoreported: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said:When one of you prays, he should make a partition for hissalah, even if it is an arrow."The use of a bed as a sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein it is related from Aiesha: "...The Prophet(P.B.U.H.) would come and pray facing the middle of the bed...."
The use of a pillar as a sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein it is related from Umar who said: "Those whoare praying are more entitled to the pillars than thoseconversing." Umar saw a man praying between two pillars andmoved him up to a pillar and said, "Pray towards it."
Furthermore, it is related in another hadith collected byBukhari that Yazid ibn Ubayd said: "I used to come with Salamaibn al-Akwa and he would pray behind the pillar where theQuran was kept. I said, Abu Muslim, I see that you are keen topray by this pillar. He said, I saw that the Prophet(P.B.U.H.)was keen to pray there."The use of a camel as a sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein it is related from Nafi: "I saw Ibn Umarpraying while taking his camel as a Sutra in front of him and hesaid, I saw the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) doing the same."
The use of a bed as a sutra with someone asleepatop of it (even if they are menstruating): The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein it is related from Aisha who reportedlysaid: "Do you equate us with dogs and donkeys? I once foundmyself lying on the bed when the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) came andfaced the middle of the bed and started praying. I dislikedbeing in front of him, so I eased myself down towards the footof the bed until I had slipped out from under my bedcover."
Furthermore, in a hadith collected by Bukhari it is relatedthat Maymuna reportedly said: "The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) used topray with me sleeping beside him. When he prostrated, hisgarment touched me and I was menstruating."The use of a line on the ground as a sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Abu Dawud wherein Abu Hurairah related that the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) said: "When one of you prays, he should placesomething in front of him. If he cannot find anything, he shouldprop up his staff (in front of him). If he does not have astaff, he should draw a line (on the ground in front of him),then nothing that passes in front of him will harm him."
The preferred distance between the personintending to perform salat and their sutra: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein it is related from Nafi: "Whenever Abdullahentered the Kaaba, he would walk straight ahead with the doordirectly behind him. He walked on until there was about threecubits (54 inches or 4 1/2 feet) between him and the wall infront of him where he prayed, seeking the place where Bilal toldhim that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) had prayed. He said, There isno harm in anyone praying in any part of the House he likes."
The distance the sutra should be from the placeof prostration (where the forehead of the personperforming salat comes into contact with theground surface): It is related in a hadith collected by Bukhari whereinSahl reportedly said: "Between the place where the Messenger ofAllah (P.B.U.H.) prayed and the wall (sutra), there was room fora sheep to walk past (about 18 - 24 inches)."
The adequate distance one should stand away fromanothers sutra in a Masjid, and the etiquetteof one intending to make sunnah(voluntary/supererogatory) salat to find alocation wherein others will not violate theirsutra by walking in front of them: The evidence for this ruling is a hadith in the collectionof Bukhari wherein Uthman reportedly said: "I disliked facinganother man when he was praying if that distracted him. However,if he is not distracted by it, Zayd ibn Thabit said, It doesnot matter. The man does not invalidate the other mansprayer."
Awrah It is a prerequisite of salat for a Muslim tocover their awrah; which includes the area between the navel andthe knees for a man and the entire body, except the face andhands for a woman.
The evidence for this ruling is found in Surah Al-Araf (7:31) ofthe Quran which reads: " O Children of Adam! wear your beautifulapparel at every time and place of prayer..." Furthermore, ahadith in the collection of Imam Muslim that was narrated by AbuSa’eed al-Khudri declares: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.)said: No man should look at the awrah of another man and nowoman should look at the awrah of another woman. No man shouldbe with another man under one cover and no woman should be withanother woman under one cover." Thus, indicating that thegarment being worn must cover the entire awrah. Regarding what constitutes the awrah of a man, a hadithof Ahmad reports: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, Whatis between navel and knee is Awrah." Thus indicating that themale garment must at least cover the area between the navel andknees. This fact is further supported by a hadith of Bukhariwherein Said bin Al Harith narrated: "I asked Jabir binAbdullah about praying in a single garment. He said, Itraveled with the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) during some of hisjourneys, and I came to him at night for some purpose and Ifound him praying. At that time, I was wearing a single garmentwith which I covered my shoulders and prayed by his side. Whenhe finished the prayer, he asked, O Jabir! What has brought youhere? I told him what I wanted. When I finished, he asked, O
Jabir! What is this garment which I have seen and with which youcovered your shoulders? I replied, It is a (tight) garment.He said, If the garment is large enough, wrap it round the body(covering the shoulders) and if it is tight (too short) then useit as an Izar (to be tied around ones waist, which hangs downbelow the knees)."
Regarding the awrah of a woman, the Quran in Suran Al-Ahzab(33:59) reads "O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and thebelieving women, that they should cast their outer garments overtheir persons (when abroad): that is most convenient, that theyshould be known (as such) and not molested. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." More explicit details are also foundin a hadith in the collection of Abu Dawud wherein Aisha,declared: "The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: Allah does not acceptthe prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears akhimar (headscarf covering the hair, ears neck and bosom)."
Furthermore, another hadith in the collection of Abu Dawud thatwas narrated by Aisha serves as evidence that only the face andhands are permitted to be exposed. The hadith in questionmaintains: "Asma, daughter of AbuBakr, entered upon the Apostleof Allah (P.B.U.H.) wearing thin clothes. The Apostle of Allah(P.B.U.H.) turned his attention from her. He said: O Asma, whena woman reaches the age of menstruation, it is not fitting thatany part of her should be seen except this, and he pointed toher face and hands." Thus, it becomes clear that the awrah of a woman consistsof everything except her face and hands. It is also important tonote that the garments covering the awrah must not be form-fitting or transparent. These points are verified by thefollowing hadith: Abu Hurayrah reported in a hadith collected byImam Muslim that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: "There are twotypes of people of Hell that I have never seen; people withwhips like the tails of cattle, with which they strike thepeople, and women who are dressed but appear naked, walking withan enticing gait, with their heads looking like the humps ofcamels, leaning to one side. They will never enter Paradise, noreven smell its fragrance, although its fragrance can bediscerned from such and such a distance."
Taharah (purity of body, clothes, andlocation)Purity constitutes another prerequisite of salat.One must ensure that their body, garments, and prayer area arefree from all impurities. The evidence for this ruling is ahadith in the collection of Abu Dawud wherein Abu Saeed al-Khudri reportedly said: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.)prayed with us one day. Whilst he was engaged in the prayer hetook off his shoes and placed them on his left. When the peoplesaw this, they took off their shoes. When he finished his prayerhe said, Why did you take your shoes off? They said, We saw youtaking your shoes off, so we took our shoes off. He said,Verily Jibreel came to me and informed me that there was dirt -or he said: something harmful - (in another narration: filth) onmy shoes, so I took them off. Therefore, when one of you goes tothe mosque, he should look at his shoes; if he sees in them dirt- or he said: something harmful - (in another narration: filth)he should wipe them and pray in them." In instances wherein one is unable to perform salat due tominor impurities, then wudu should be made as a means ofpurification. However, is one is impure due to major impurities,as in the case of post sexual intercourse, then a complete ghusl(ritual bath/shower) must be performed.
THE STEPS OF WUDU (ABLUTION)Entering a wudu station that contains a toilet;i.e., bathroom, left foot first and say: In thename of Allah. O Allah! I seek refuge in youfrom male and female noxious beings (devils). It is a recommended practice that one enters the bathroom withtheir left foot and exits with the right; i.e., contrary to the wayone enters the masjid; as evident from the hadith of Bukhari whichreads: "Ibn Umar put his right foot first, and then when he left, heput his left foot first." Moreover, the evidence for saying: "In thename of Allah and seeking protection against the male and femaledevils," is found in the hadith of Bukhari, wherein Anas reported"Whenever the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) entered the privy he wouldsay, Bismillah; Allah-humma inni audhu bika minal khubuthi walkhabaith; i.e., In the name of Allah. O Allah, I seek Refuge with Youfrom the male and female unclean spirits (devils)."
Remove all impurities from one’s clothes andbody: One should purify themselves if an impure substance fallsupon them such as semen, feces, urine, or vomit by washingthemselves and their garment with water until the impurity is nolonger present. If the stain is difficult to remove despiterepetitive cleaning, then it may be overlooked. If the impurityis not visible, then one washing is sufficient. The bottom ofone’s clothes is also cleaned by default whenever one walksacross the dirt of the ground. A hadith narrated by Abū Hurairahreported: "If one of you steps in some filth while wearingshoes, the dirt will purify them." Also, a hadith in thecollection of Imam Muslim narrated by Ayesha reports: "I used toscratch the sperm from the Messenger’s clothes if it was dry,and washed if off if it was still wet, then he would pray inthose clothes." However, it is important to note that the urineof a male baby that has not been weaned can be overlooked andpardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water over thisurine. The evidence for this ruling is the hadith in thecollection of Bukhari, narrated by Umm Qais; wherein it wasreported: "She came to the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) withher un-weaned son. After a while, the baby urinated on theMessenger of Allah’s (P.B.U.H.) lap. The Messenger of Allah
(P.B.U.H.) called for some water, which he sprinkled over hisclothes, and did not give them a complete washing." Moreover,the hadith of Abu Dawud reports: "Ali narrated that theMessenger of Allah said, The urine of a baby boy should havewater sprinkled upon it. The urine of a baby girl is to bewashed off. Qatadah says: This refers to a male baby that hasnot yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then the garment is tobe washed." Lastly, a hadith collected by Abu Dawud reports: "Awoman came to the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) and said OMessenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.), I do not have but one outfit andI have my monthly period when I am wearing it, and sometimes Isee blood on it. What should I do? The Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) replied: After the menstrual cycle is over, wash theblood stained area and then you can pray with it. The womansaid O Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.), what if the blood tracesdon’t come out? He replied: It suffices for you to clean itwith water, and the traces of blood will not harm you. If theimpurity is not visible, such as urine, it is sufficient to washit once."Make the Niyyah (intention) to make wudu: The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslim, whereinthe Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said, "Verily the actionsare by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended..."
Call upon Allah at the start of Wudu by sayingBismillah (silently or aloud): The proof for this practice is the hadith of Abu Dawud,wherein the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said, "There is nowudu for him who does not mention Allahs name upon it."Use one Mudd to perform wudu: The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslim, whereinAnas reportedly said: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) used to makewudu with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa (four Mudds) orup to five mudds."
For the purpose of conveinence, a 25 ounce container can bepurchased in order to ensure that one uses the correct amount of waterto perform wudu. Each foot can also be placed into a large bowl during the washingprocess to ensure that water covers the entire foot.
Begin the wudu process on the right-side ofone’s body: The evidence for this practice is the hadith collected by Bukhariwherein Ayesha related: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) used tolike to start with the right side when putting on his sandals, combinghis hair, engaging in his ritual purifications, and in all of hisactivities."
STEP 1: Wash the hands 1 to 3 times up to thewrists with water, allowing water to run betweenthe fingers:
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Bukhari,wherein Humran narrated: "Uthman called for water to make wuduand washed his hands three times... then said, I saw theMessenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) make wudu just as I have madewudu." It is also important to note that the obligation (fard)
of wudu is to wash each part at least once, but not more thanthree times in order to comply with the sunnah of the prophet(P.B.U.H.). The proof for this ruling is the hadith of Bukhariwherein Ibn Abbas reportedly said, "The Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) performed wudu washing each part once only." Inaddition, a hadith from Bukhari narrated by Abdullah ibn Zaydreported: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) performed wuduwashing each of the parts twice."STEP 2: Rinse the mouth and nose with a singlehandful of water, three times (once is fard):
The proof for this instruction is the hadith collected by Bukhariwherein Abd Allah b. Zayd, while describing the Prophets (P.B.U.H.)wudu, related: "...the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) would rinse hismouth and nose with a single handful of water, and he would do sothrice."
SPECIFIC DETAILS: Pour water into right hand andsuck water into the mouth and sniff it into thenose using the same handful of water. Then spitwater out of mouth and pinch nostrils with theleft thumb and index finger in order to blow thewater out of the nose. The proof for this practice is the hadith of Bukhari,wherein the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said, "When
one of you makes wudu then let him enter water into his nose,then expel it." In addition, a hadith in the collection of Sunanal-Darimi, narrated by Abd Khair, adds further detail regardingcleaning the mouth and nose, wherein it related: "We weresitting, looking towards Ali as he made Wudu, and he enteredinto his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washedhis mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his lefthand. He did that three times, then said, whoever would like tosee the way of purification of the Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.), then this is his purification."STEP 3: Pour water into right hand. then joinboth hands together and wash the entire face 1to 3 times, including running the fingers of theright hand through the beard. The proof for this practice is the hadith of Bukhari,wherein Humran ibn Abaan narrated that Uthman called for waterto make wudu and so mentioned the way in which the Messenger ofAllah (P.B.U.H.) made wudu. Humran said, "Then he, the Messengerof Allah (P.B.U.H.) washed his face three times."
In addition, it is related that Ibn Abbas in another hadithcollected by Bukhari narrated: "The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) performedwudu, washing each part once only." Lastly, Bukhari presented ahadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Zayd wherein it was reported:"The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) performed wudu washing the parts twice.”SPECIFIC DETAILS: Run water through the beardwith the fingers of the right hand. Take a handful of water into the right hand and enter itbelow the chin and rub it through the beard making sure to getall the way down to the roots of the hair. The proof for thispractice is the hadith of Abu Dawud, wherein Anas narrated: "The
Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.), when he made wudu, used to take ahandful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it throughhis beard and said, This is what my Lord, the Great andExalted, has ordered me to do."STEP 4: Pour water into the right hand and raisethe hand with the palm facing upward so that thewater runs down the length of the forearm. Thenuse the left hand and wash the right forearm 3times, from the wrists up to the elbow. Thenpour water into the left hand and raise the handwith the palm facing upward so that the waterruns down the length of the forearm. Next usethe right hand and wash the left forearm 1 to 3times, from the wrists up to the elbow.
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslimwherein Nuaim ibn Mijmar reportedly said, "I saw Abu Hurairahmake wudu. He washed his face and completed the wudu, thenwashed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then hisleft hand till he reached the upper arm." Then in the end of theHadith he said: "...this is how I saw the Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) make wudu." In addition, Yahya Al-Mazini narrated ina hadith in the collection of Bukhari: "A person asked Abdullahbin Zaid who was the grandfather of Amr bin Yahya, Can you showme how Allahs Apostle used to perform ablution? Abdullah binZaid replied in the affirmative and asked for water...he washedhis forearms up to the elbows twice ..." Lastly, Humran (thefreed slave of Uthman bin Affan) narrated in another hadith ofBukhari: "I saw Uthman bin Affan asking (for a tumbler ofwater) to perform ablution (and when it was brought) he pouredwater from it over his hands and washed...forearms up to theelbows thrice,..."STEP 5: Wet both hands and pass them once overthe head; beginning at the forehead (front ofthe hairline) and ending at the nape of the neck(back of the hairline), and from there back tothe forehead where the process began.
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslimwherein, "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) wiped his head withhis two hands, moving them forwards and backwards; beginningwith the front of the head and (wiping) them up to his nape, andthen he returned them to the place from which he began."STEP 6: Using the same wet hands from the head,wipe the earlobes/inner ear with the indexfingers cleaning the inside of the ears and usethe thumbs to clean the external section of theears by starting at the back of the earlobes,dragging the tip of the thumbs forward.
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Abu Dawud,wherein the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said, "Thetwo ears are a part of the head." Therefore, they are to bewiped with the same wet hands immediately after wiping the hair(without applying additional water); which is evident fromanother hadith of Abu Dawud wherein "Ar-Rabee bint Muawwidhreported that the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.), Wiped his headwith water remaining in his hand." Moreover, a third hadith byAbu Dawud, regarding the method of performing wudu, Abdullah ibnAmr reportedly said, "Then he, the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.)wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears andwiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs."STEP 7: Beginning with the right foot, use theleft hand to wash both feet up to the anklesthree times, ensuring to wipe between the toes.One should avoid wiping between the toes withtheir right hand.
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Abu Dawud whereinHafsah reported, "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reserved his righthand for eating, drinking, putting on his clothes, taking and giving.He used his left hand for other actions." Another hadith in thecollection of Abu Dawud narrated by Ayesha reports: "The Messenger ofAllah (P.B.U.H.) used his right hand for purification and eating, andhis left for the lavatory and whatever was offensive." Thus, the morepractical method of wiping between the toes should be to use one’sleft hand instead of the right since the left hand, unlike the rightis reserved for the lavatory (toilet) and whatever is deemed offensivein the eyes of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.).
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslim, whereinHumran, the freed slave of Uthman reportedly said: "Uthman b. Affancalled for ablution water and this is how he performed the ablution.He...washed his right foot up to the ankle three times, then washedhis left foot like that, and then said: I saw the Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) perform ablution like this ablution of mine ..." Inaddition, a hadith collected by Tirmidhi reported: "Ibn Abbasreportedly said that when the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) performedablution, he would run his fingers through his fingers and toes."Lastly, a hadith collected by Imam Muslim reported: "Umar bin Al-Khattab said that a man once performed wudu and left a dry spot thesize of a fingernail on his foot. The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.)saw that and he said to him, go back and perform proper Wudu."Wiping over Khuffain (leather socks) can beperformed instead of removing them to wash theFeet.
If one were to put on socks, shoes, or sandals (only those thatcover most of the foot) while still in wudu, it is not necessary toremove them if the need arose to renew a wudu. One is permitted toleave on the socks, shoes, or sandals and simply wipe the top of thefootwear once with wet hands in place of washing the entire foot. Oneis also permitted to wipe over the footwear for a period twenty-fourhours or for three consecutive days if one meets the criteria of beingdeemed a traveler. The proofs for these practices are found in anumber of ahadith. Firstly, in a hadith of Bukhari, it is related fromUrwa ibn al-Mughira that his father said, "I was with the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) on a journey and I went to remove his leather socks then hesaid, Leave them. I was in a state of purity when I put them on.’Then he wiped them." Also, a hadith in the collection of Abu Dawudnarrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri reported: "While the Apostle of Allah(P.B.U.H.) was leading his Companions in prayer, he took off hissandals and laid them on his left side; so when the people saw this,they removed their sandals. When the Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.)finished his prayer, he asked: What made you remove your sandals?They replied: We saw you remove your sandals, so we removed oursandals. The Apostle of Allah (P.B.U.H.) then said: Gabriel came tome and informed me that there was filth on them. When any of you comesto the mosque, he should see if he finds filth on his sandals; if so,he should wipe it off and pray in them." Thus, indicating that it isnot acceptable to wear footwear that has some impurities on them;i.e., because when the wiper wipes over the filth on their footwear itnullifies their state of purity. In addition, a hadith in the
collection of Tirmidhi narrated by Said Safwan ibn Assal reported:"We were ordered (by the Prophet) to wipe over the socks if we were ina state of purity when we put them on, for three days if we weretravelers, and for one day and night if we were residents. We did notremove them unless we were in post-sex impurity." Thus, it is clearthat the condition for wiping pertains only to minor impurities.After completing the wudu process recite: "Ash-hadu an la ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharikalahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu waRasuluhu (I bear witness that none has the right
to be worshipped but Allah alone, Who has nopartner; and I bear witness that Muhammad is Hisslave and His Messenger)." The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslim whereinUmar reported: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, If onecompletes (and perfects) the ablution and then says, I testify thatthere is no god except Allah, the One Who has no partner, and thatMuhammad (P.B.U.H.) is His slave and Messenger, the eight gates ofparadise will be opened for him and he may enter any of them that hewishes."Acts that nullify ablution: Passing urine, feces, or gas Sexual discharge from the penis or vagina Deep sleep that makes a person completely unaware of his surroundings Loss of consciousness Touching the sexual organ with the bare handThe evidence for this belief includes the following Quranic verses andahadith: Ablution is nullified by urinating and defecating because SurahAl-Ma’idah of the Quran states: "...But if ye are ill, or on a
journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature (urinating anddefecating), or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find nowater, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewithyour faces and hands ..." Moreover, the evidence supporting the needto perform wudu after releasing gas from the anus is the hadith ofBukhari that was narrated by Abu Hurairah wherein he reported: "TheMessenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, Allah does not accept the prayerof a person who has released gas until he makes a new ablution. Aperson from Hazhramaut asked Abu Hurairah, What does releasing gasmean? He answered, Wind with or without sound." The fact that ablution is nullified by Sexual discharge from thepenis or vagina is also evident from verse 5:6 of Surah Al-Ma’idah ofthe Quran which states: "...or ye have been in contact with women, andye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, andrub therewith your faces and hands ..." Also, regarding semen or mani,Sunan Al-Baihaqi cites Ibn Abbas as having said: "Semen or manirequires ghusl (because it ceremonially impurifies the body) and madhiand wadi (a thick white secretion discharged by some people afterurination) requires one to wash their sex organs and perform wudu." The fact that ablution is nullified by deep sleep (lying down forthe purpose of sleeping) that renders one completely unaware of hissurroundings is the hadith of Imam Muslim wherein Anas narrated, "TheCompanions of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) were waiting for the late nightPrayer until their heads began nodding up and down (from drowsinessand sleep). They would then pray without performing ablution (they did
not lose consciousness from intentionally lying in a manner thataccommodates sleeping)." The fact that ablution is nullified by Loss of consciousness dueto being in a state of insanity, fainting, drunkenness, medicated,etc., is due to the consensus of the scholars; which Fiqh-us Sunnah1:36 Loss of Consciousness states, "This nullifies the ablutionregardless of whether it was owing to insanity, fainting, drunkenness,or some medicine. It also does not matter if one was unconscious for ashort or long period of time, or if one was sitting, or fell to theearth, and so on. The aspect of unawareness here is greater than thatof sleeping. The scholars are agreed on this point." Lastly, the fact that ablution is nullified by touching thesexual organ with one’s bare hand is the hadith of Bukhari whereinBusrah bint Safwan narrated that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) reportedlysaid, "Whoever touches his sexual organ cannot pray until he performsablution." However, it is important to note that according to theHanifi scholars, touching one’s sexual organ does not nullify theirablution. Their opinion is based on the hadith of Bukhari wherein: "Aman asked the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) if touching the penis necessitatesperforming ablution. The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said: ‘No, it is just apart of you." According to Fiqh-us Sunnah, this hadith is reported by"the five scholars of Hadith." Moreover, Ibn Hibban classified it assahih, and Ibn al-Madini reportedly said, "It is better than theHadith of Busrah."
It is advantageous to make two rakats afterperforming wudu. The evidence for this recommendation is the hadith of AbuHurairah in the collection of Bukhari, wherein it was reported: "TheMessenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said: O Bilal, tell me whatgood deed you have done in Islam that I hear the sound of yourfootsteps in Paradise? Bilal said, That after I purify myself duringthe day or night, I pray with that purification as much as Allah hasdestined for me." Also, in a hadith collected by Imam Muslim, Uqbahibn Aamr related: "The Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) said, If oneperforms and perfects his ablution and prays two rakats with his heartand face (completely on his prayer), Paradise becomes his."Practices such as protecting the eyes and wrinkles, removing any rings, wiping the neck, and so on have not been addressed; because, the validly regarding these matters is questionable!
THE TWO TYPES OF GHUSLThere are two types of ghusl that one is permitted to perform. Thefirst type involves the act of simply immersing one’s entire body,including the mouth and nose, into water. The second type however,involves the sunnah method; i.e., performing ghusl as instructed bythe Messenger of Allah; primarily for one in a state of janaba (majorimpurity).FATWA PERTAINING TO THE TWO TYPES OF GHUSLType #1: Type one involves performing only the obligatory parts ofghusl; namely, ensuring that water reaches every part of the body(full shower or bath), including rinsing the mouth and nose.Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen is reported to have said, "If a personmakes the water reach all parts of his body, by whatever means, thenhe has removed the major impurity and purified himself properly,because Allah says in Surah Al-Maidah (5:6) [interpretation of themeaning]: "If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe yourwhole body."
Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr reportedly said: "The one who does ghusl to purifyhimself from janabah, if he does not do wudu but he makes water reachevery part of his body, he has done what is required of him, becauseAllah has enjoined upon the one who is in a state of janabah to doghusl, not wudu; when He says, "… if you are in a state of janabah(i.e., had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your wholebody)." [Al-Ma’idah 5:6]. This is the consensus of the scholars andthere is no dispute among them; they are agreed that it is mustahab todo wudu before doing ghusl, in emulation of the Messenger of Allah(P.B.U.H.) and because this reinforces and perfects ghusl."There is a consensus among all Imams that it is a must to wet thewhole body thoroughly.Type #2: The second type two of ghusl according to Fatawa Arkan al-Islam, p. 248: The complete way, "Involves performing ghusl as theProphet (P.B.U.H.) did. When he wanted to do ghusl in the case ofjanabah, he would wash his hands; then wash his private parts andanywhere else that the impurity had reached, then he would do completewudu; then he would wash his head three times with water, then hewould wash the rest of his body. This is how complete ghusl is done."
BEGINNING THE GHUSL PROCESS: Upon entering a washroom for ghusl that contains a toilet; i.e.,bathroom, enter with the left foot first and say: "In the name ofAllah. O Allah! I seek refuge in you from male and female noxiousbeings (devils among the Jinn)."It is also recommended that one intending to perform ghusl in a showeror bathtub positioned inside a bathroom should enter with their leftfoot and exits with the right; i.e., contrary to the way one entersthe masjid; as evident from the hadith of Bukhari which reads: "IbnUmar put his right foot first (upon entering the masjid), and thenwhen he exited, he put his left foot first." Moreover, the evidence
for saying: "In the name of Allah and seeking protection against themale and female devils," is found in the hadith of Bukhari, whereinAnas reported "Whenever the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) entered theprivy he would say, Bismillah; Allah-humma inni audhu bika minalkhubuthi wal khabaith; i.e., In the name of Allah. O Allah, I seekRefuge with You from the male and female unclean spirits (devils)."REMOVE ALL CLOTHING AND ENTER SHOWER/BATHTUB.HOWEVER, IF IN A PUBLIC AREA ENSURE THAT ONESAWRAH REMAINS COVERED.
The proof for this practice is the hadith of Abu Salama,collected by Bukhari, wherein Abu Salama reportedly said: "I and thebrother of Ayesha went to visit her. Her brother asked her about theghusl of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). She called for a vessel containingabout a sa. She washed and poured it over her head. There was acurtain between her and us."TASMIYYAH (SAYING BISMILLAH) IS NOT OBLIGATORY. It is important to note that there is no text concerning ghuslwhich states that saying bismillah (Tasmiyyah) is required in order tomake the act valid in the eyes of Allah. FATWA PERTAINING TO SAYING BISMILLAH (TASMIYYAH) UPON PERFORMING GHUSLwww.Islam-qa.com cites Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen as issuing the followingfatwa: "The opinion which is deemed to be the most correct is thatsaying ‘Bismillah’ upon performing both Ghusl and ablution is notobligatory. Rather it is recommended.""During the course of performing Ghusl in the bathroom, a personshould say In the Name of Allah in his heart and should not to utterit aloud. So if you are in a similar situation, you have to followthis rule."
Step 1: MAKE THE NIYYAH (INTENTION) TO PERFORMGHUSL TO PURIFY ONES BODY The proof for this practice is the hadith of Imam Muslim, whereinthe Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H.) reportedly said, "Verily the actionsare by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended..."Step 2: COLLECT ONE SAA OF WATER TO PERFORMGHUSL The proof for this practice is the hadith of Bukhari, whereinAisha narrated: "The Prophet and I used to take a bath from a singlepot called Faraq." Also in another hadith collected by Bukhari,narrated by Abu Salama: "Aishas brother and I went to Aisha and heasked her about the bath of the Prophet. She brought a pot containingabout a Sa of water and took a bath and poured it over her head andat that time there was a screen between her and us." What is more,another hadith collected by Bukhari, narrated by Abu Jafar reports:"While I and my father were with Jabir bin Abdullah, some People asked