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Yoga Sutra - Pranayama part 1


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Part 1 of the presentation on Pranayama, based on Patanajali's yoga sutra, Hatha Yoga Pradeepika and other existing practices.

Yoga Sutra - Pranayama part 1

  1. 1. Eight Limbs of Yoga (Yoga Sutras of Patanjali) (Yoga Sutras of Patanjali) Pranayama (Breathing Techniques) ( g q ) (Part 1) Subhash Mittal Integral Yoga Studio ♦ 919 926 9717 ♦ i t l t di 919‐926‐9717 ♦ bh h itt l@ il 1
  2. 2. Invocation to Sage Patanjali Invocation to Sage Patanjali योगेन िचत्तःय पदे न वाचां | मलं शरीरःय च वैद्यकन || े योऽपाकरोत्तंं ूवरंं मुनीनांं | पतञ्जिलंं ूाञ्जिलरानतोऽिःम || ो ो ि ि ो ि yogena chittasya padena vAchAM | malaM sharIrasya cha  vaidyakena || y || yo.apAkarottaM pravaraM munInAM | pata~njaliM  prA~njalirAnato.asmi || "I respectfully bow down with folded hands and offer my  salutations to Sage Patanjali, the highest among the Munis  (sages), who has presented the remedies for removing the  impurities of the body through his treatise on Ayurveda, of  impurities of the body through his treatise on Ayurveda of language through his treatise on grammar (Patanjala  Mahabhashya) and the impurities of the Chitta (mind field)  through his treatise on Yoga (Yoga Sutras of Patanjali). through his treatise on Yoga (Yoga Sutras of Patanjali)." 2
  3. 3. Outline • Why talk about breath? • Physiology of breathing • Components of breathing – I h l ti Inhalation, exhalation, breath retention h l ti b th t ti • Practice pranayama • Mechanics of breathingg • Breathing habits • Nasal Function and Energy • Five sheaths • Practice pranayama • Five main pranas and five minor pranas Five main pranas and five minor pranas
  4. 4. Why Talk about Breath? Why Talk about Breath? • Emotions control breathing ‐ breathing can control  g g emotions • Only physiological process both voluntary and  involuntary • Physical body and mind need "energy" for functioning • Energy and matter are interconvertible • Prana is the link between mind and body • Voluntary changes in breathing can bring about change  in energy patterns in energy patterns • Cosmic inhalation and exhalation ‐ creation and  dissolution • Involuntary breath controlled by primitive parts of the  l b h ll d b f h brain
  5. 5. What is Pranayama? What is Pranayama? • Fourth of the eight limbs of yoga g y g • Compound word – “prana” + “ayama” • Prana = pra (prefix) + an (to breathe, to live) • “prana” is life‐force, the cosmic vital energy • “ayama” means to stretch, expand, control • Pranayama is to expand and control prana • Breath is a gross manifestation of prana, usually  equated with prana equated with prana • Breathing techniques help control prana in  different waysy
  6. 6. Physiology of Breathing Physiology of Breathing • Nose, windpipe, lungs,  circulatory system and  i l t t d associated muscles transport  O2 • Bl d d it hi h Blood density higher at lower  tl part of the lungs • Shallow breathing inefficient in  carrying O2 in blood to cells i O2 i bl d t ll • Hemoglobin carries O2 to cells  and CO2 back from the cell to  the heart the heart • Gas exchange (O2 ‐ CO2) ‐ respiration‐ happens at the  cell level cell level
  7. 7. Components of Breathing Components of Breathing • Inhalation • Exhalation • Breath Retention h i – External retention – Internal retention
  8. 8. Pranayama Practice • Ujjayi breathing • Sectional deep breathing – Cl i l ( Clavicle (upper part of lungs)  t fl ) – Thoracic (middle part of lungs) – Diaphragmatic (lower part of lungs) ( ) – Full 3‐part (yogic) breathing • Kapalabhati p g • Rapid breathing
  9. 9. Mechanics of Breathin Mechanics of Breathin • Diaphragm separates the thoracic  area from the abdominal area f th bd i l • When diaphragm moves down,  chest and ribcage expand,  bringing in air into the lungs • When diaphragm returns to the  resting position, air expelled from  lungs • Three phases of breathing:  Three phases of breathing: diaphragmatic, thoracic,  clavicular • Diaphragmatic breathing most  efficient ‐ infants use it naturally efficient infants use it naturally • Yogic, complete breath exercises  all three areas of lungs • p Compression of abdominal  muscles can empty the lungs  further
  10. 10. Breathing Habits Breathing Habits • Shallow breathing is most common  g • A sob of grief, anger, anxiety etc. can dramatically  effect breathing • Anxiety associated with shallow chest breathing Anxiety associated with shallow chest breathing • Unfortunately, tummy tucked in is fashionable • Autonomic nervous system ‐ sympathetic and  y y p parasympathetic • Under "fight or flight" ‐ sympathetic takes over ‐ chest  breathing • Holding breath beyond capacity prevented by ANS  regulation
  11. 11. Nasal Function and Energy Nasal Function and Energy • Filters, moisturizes, directs air flow, warms the air • Provides a sense of smell, brings in O2, creates mucus • Drains sinuses, impacts the nervous system • Mucus collects dust, bacteria, viruses, fungi etc. M ll d b i i f i • Mucus finally cleaned out through digestive system • Diet plays a big role in the quality of mucus Diet plays a big role in the quality of mucus • Tonsillitis and sinusitis common nose‐related problems  • "Nasal Wash" or "Jala Neti" with a neti pot highly  helpful h l f l • For serious mucus problems, "gaja karani" or  "shankhaprakshalana" (colon cleansing) may be used p ( g) y
  12. 12. Five Sheaths (Koshas) Five Sheaths (Koshas) • Annamaya Kosha: physical sheath sustained Kosha: physical sheath sustained  by food (anna) • Pranamaya kosha: Vital sheath sustained by kosha: Vital sheath sustained by  breath (prana) • Manomaya kosha: Mental sheath ‐ cognition, kosha: Mental sheath  cognition,  willing, desires etc • Vijnanamaya kosha: intellectual and intuitive kosha: intellectual and intuitive  sheath • Anandamaya kosha: Bliss sheath kosha: Bliss sheath
  13. 13. Pranayama Practice • Kapalabhati (breath of fire) • Bhramari (bumble bee breath) – Index finger in the ear – Shanmukhi mudra (closting the  six gates) six gates) • Nadi shuddhi (alternate nostril  breathing) – Ujjayi breaths using Vishnu  jj y g mudra – 1:2 ratio between  inhale/exhale durations – Deep soft (soundless) Deep, soft (soundless)  breathing – Switching nostril at the end of  inhalation
  14. 14. Five Pranas Five Pranas • Prana: head to navel; all intakes ‐ food, water, air,  sensory impressions • Apana: navel to root chakra;  Elimination (stool, urine,  all fluids, CO2), reproduction; also negative feelings  all fluids CO2) reproduction; also negative feelings and emotions; basis for all immune functions • Udana: navel to head; growth of body, speech,  enthusiasm and will enthusiasm and will • Samana: periphery to navel; digestion, absorbing O2,  homogenize mental impressions • Vyana: navel to periphery; all circulations ‐ nutrients;  helps all other pranas • More details here: More details here:
  15. 15. Five upa_pranas (minor pranas) Five upa pranas (minor pranas) • Naga: burping, throwing, stretching, Naga: burping, throwing, stretching,  salivation, hiccups • Kurma: movement of the eyelids and size of Kurma: movement of the eyelids and size of  iris to control intensity of light • Krikara: sneezing, coughing, reactions to pain, Krikara: sneezing, coughing, reactions to pain,  hunger, thirst • Devdatta: yawning, sleep Devdatta: yawning, sleep • Dhananjaya: produce phlegm, provides  nourishment, inflates the body after death nourishment, inflates the body after death