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An overview of how the Schools Catalogue Information Service (SCIS) is implementing Resource Description and Access (RDA) for school library catalogues.
It addresses questions for schools: What is RDA? What problems does RDA solve? What are the basic differences between AACR2 and RDA? What do schools need to do about RDA in their library system?

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  • Session scope: This is not a training session on how to catalogue in RDA – which would require a 2-3 day course for very experienced cataloguers, but is an overview of:What is RDA?What problems does RDA solve?What are the basic differences between AACR2 and RDA?What is SCIS doing about RDA?And the question most of you are here for: What do I need to do about RDA?
  • Here are some statistics on what SCIS provides in terms of its database of catalogue and authority records, and its significant user base.Some things to note:Obviously with a user base of most Australian schools and a large proportion of New Zealand and English-speaking international schools, SCIS is careful not to make changes that are going to upset or disrupt large numbers of users for no reason.Obviously with a database of 1.6 million records, growing at a rate of 480,000 items a year, we are also not likely to make changes on any scale retrospectively. We just can’t!
  • SCIS has a distributed cataloguing team model with partner organisations New South Wales Department of Education and Communities, and the Western Australian Department of Education cataloguing on behalf of their states, the ALS agency cataloguing books for South Australian schools and Education Services Australia contracting cataloguers to serve Queensland and New Zealand. The SCIS office in Melbourne manages the service.
  • SCIS (Schools Catalogue Information Service) was created with the aim of providing schools with access to a database of consistent catalogue records created according to agreed national standards, in order to reduce the cost and duplication of effort of cataloguing resources in schools. Since its inception, SCIS has been responsible for improving the quality and consistency of cataloguing materials for schools.Subscribing to SCIS ensures library staff have more time to work directly to assist teaching staff and students as time spent cataloguingis minimised.
  • Student learning is what it’s all about. Sometimes it is difficult to remember this when there are so many steps between our receipt of a learning resource and its use in teaching and learning. Every time you save a teacher or a student time, every time your catalogue and shelving systems mean a teacher or student finds a resource that matches their learning or reading need you are making a direct impact on learning.SCIS exists to help streamline efficiency of the workflow from identification of a resource (or selection) to describing the resource on the school’s resource management system (Library system) in a way that maximises finding and retrieving and use of that resource by the school community.
  • Discuss in small groups why you think we might need to change cataloguing standards now.Think about what changes have occurred in technology, in libraries, in education or in metadata (aka catalogue records) since 1978, ie 35 years ago.Start by introducing yourself and sharing where you were in 1978.Appoint a spokesperson to report back on your chosen area.
  • The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules were first published in 1967. The very poor quality photo here is of a well-used/(loved?) copy of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules Second edition known as AACR2 - originally brought out in 1978.As we have discussed, plenty has changed since then, and the new standards are trying to address some of the identified issues for areas that AACR2 is not addressing successfully any longer in the 21st century.Just being old is not the issue, there are 4 significant issues with AACR2 that are being addressed by RDA.RDA is made for the automated library universe – no longer constrained by the size of a catalogue card.RDA is made for machine-readable catalogue data – no longer do we humans spend time copying catalogue records. We do things once and let the machines do the laborious work of populating our catalogue while we get on with the things humans do best: communicating with the humans we serve in our libraries.RDA starts with the CONTENT of a resource NOT with the Format or the CONTAINER. AACR2 started with a set of General Rules for Description, then launched into sections on cataloguing Books and then other formats, eg Maps, Music etc. Fitting in new formats as they came along became increasingly difficult.RDA is made for the web – and it is published on the web.
  • So that was a very long lead in to Resource Description and Access (RDA) but it sets some of the scene to where we are heading.2 big things to noteFormat neutral: RDA is not organised according to format; it gives greater emphasis to intellectual content than physical format. Content standard: AACR2 tells us what to record, how to arrange the data and structure the record. RDA does not prescribe any of these things. For those of us who use ISBD presentation it is included in appendix D). For example RDA doesn’t tell us that information from outside the preferred source must be enclosed in square brackets. It says “indicate that fact either by means of a note or some other means”.
  • This is a practical example of the 4 user tasks: to find resources relating to their needs to identify the particular resource they are looking for. to select a version of that resource that best meets their needs, And to actually obtain a copy of itThis diagram and plenty more information on User tasks available from: Teaching RDA: Train-the-trainer course RDA: Resource Description and Accesspresented by the National Library of Australia in 2012 and made available under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License
  • These are important and fundamental concepts and terms that you will come across when reading or learning about RDA.What are they and how do you pronounce FRBR? Terminology: There is some different terminology in RDA from AACR2. Much of this comes from FRBR and FRAD models. To assist with the transition RDA has a full glossary of terms. For example ‘uniform title’ is now known as ‘preferred title’ (except in MARC it is still referred to as uniform title).We will look further at these later in the presentation (if time) but first let’s see what RDA is going to mean for you in the immediate short term.
  • There are many elements that come together to realise the full cataloguing workflow.RDA changes only some elements. Nothing is changing in Dewey or subject classification, and neither is SCIS implementing all the possible changes associated with full RDA implementation at this stage. The MARC21 encoding system that allows systems to transmit electronic catalogue records is changing only to the extent required to implement RDA. But bigger changes are being discussed, ieBibframeThe Library of Congress has launched a review of the bibliographic framework to better accommodate future needs. A major focus of the initiative will be to determine a transition path for the MARC 21 exchange format in order to reap the benefits of newer technology while preserving a robust data exchange that has supported resource sharing and cataloguing cost savings in recent decades.
  • Another way of showing this. Only the top part of the catalogue record as it displays in the SCIS Catalogue will change, that is the descriptive part of the record, not the subject classification or Dewey classification.This record is at: http://opac.scis.curriculum.edu.au/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1557095
  • This is what a catalogue record looks like in the cataloguer’s view – working in MARC view. Most school library management systems do not require users to be familiar or work in MARC but if your data must remain compatible with MARC.The red parts show the major differences that RDA will mean for cataloguersMarc and ISBD changes: Although RDA is compatible with MARC and ISBD it is independent of these. This means RDA’s element structure is designed so that data can be encoded in other formats. The advantage of this:Changing or replacing MARC will not require changes to RDANon-library communities can potentially use RDA to describe their resources GMD change: We will no longer use the AACR2 GMD terms. There are three new elements instead – we will look at them more later. 
  • Core elements: With AACR2 we had three levels of description; RDA has core and non core elementsThe core elements are those elements that RDA considers to be “core”, in order to fulfil the most basic of the user tasks defined in FRBR. RDA states that “as a minimum” a resource description should contain all the Core elements that are applicable to that resource or entity and readily ascertainable. Other, non-core elements can be added if they are required in particular situations to assist in performing the basic user tasks.
  • Institutional policy decisions on Core elementsSome institutions may identify additional elements, beyond the RDA Core elements that they consider mandatory for their cataloguers to include. For instance, records contributed to Libraries Australia will be required to meet the minimum record standard (required data elements) available on the Libraries Australia website.The core elements for SCIS records will be defined in the SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry currently being updated.The following slides discuss the major changes that SCIS will or will not be making.
  • The biggest issue we see for school libraries in the short term is that RDA does not use the General Material Designation [GMD] – currently included as part of the Title (246 MARC field)This is the current list of General Material Designation terms from the SCIS standards.As an exercise what GMD should you use for:A map on CD-ROM? A movie?Printed text?Note that the current AACR2 rules state "Do not use 'text' because resources are assumed to be text unless otherwise specified.“The type of material being catalogued was a primary consideration in 1978 but many of these material types are no longer standard in school collections, and in some cases these terms are too general to accurately describe the range of resources being catalogued today. While there is some benefit in seeing early on in the record that this is a [videorecording] or a [sound recording] version of a particular title, there is usually a need to go deeper into a record to determine whether that videorecording is in a format that is convenient to the user. Is it a DVD or MPEG file? Is that [electronic resource] a CD-ROM or an app (and for which brand of device)?
  • RDA seeks to address these issues by replacing the AACR2 GMD with three elements, each with a detailed list of terms.Content type in new MARC field 336 www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/rdacontent.htmlMedia type in new MARC field 337 www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/rdamedia.htmlCarrier type in new MARC field 338 www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/rdacarrier.htmlRDA 3.3Carrier for digital photograph could be computer card, computer disc or online resourceCarrier for audio book could be audio cassette, audio disc or online resource.The carrier terminology still does not deal well with resources such as downloadable audiobooks.
  • Content, media and carrier exercise – if timeThere is a value list for these new fields at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/index.htmlIf you are online spend some time investigating the new terms, and try to assign them to the resources you have brought with you.Note they are repeatable fields, unlike GMDMany library systems will not display these new fields, but they may use them to filter searches or display icon types in results lists
  • Some library systems report that they may use other information besides GMD to determine the icon displayed in catalogue records but for other systems that may not be able to display the new replacement fields
  • This shows how one library system looked when experimenting with new SCIS test RDA records – attempting to ‘map’ the new RDA Media type to the old GMD.For most libraries it seems unlikely that users will want to view this information – particularly for works with the media type of unmediated.There is some more work to be done in this area before July 2014.
  • There is another set of new characteristics trying to deal further with this issue of non-print type resources. This is less important than the 33X fields, and at this stage only the digital one seems to be particularly useful for schools.None of the elements are core elements.SCIS will consider using the new MARC fields and has documented them in the standards so library system providers can prepare to accommodate them.
  • Two areas beyond description that will affect schools is the change to the access points for parts of the Bible, and the spelling of Qur’an.Access point in RDA,is the broader term to cover all terms that are used to represent entities in what we have often referred to up until now as “headings”. In the context of RDA access points represent names, terms, codes, etc. used to represent works and expressions. These roughly equate to what we have been used to calling “Uniform titles” in AACR2, and we construct the access point using the preferred title of the work, and where applicable, preceding that with the authorised access point for the person, family or corporate body responsible for the work.
  • Another access point example where abbreviations changes things is with Bible Headings, where O.T and N.T. are now spelt out. However, another change, that we will cover in Module 7, means that the Testament will only be included in the heading when the resource is the WHOLE of the stipulated Testament. Individual books will be recorded directly under “Bible” rather than as a subset of one of the Testaments.
  • We have discussed this field with library system providers and asked them to indicate their readiness for SCIS switching from 260 to 264.The reason RDA has introduced this change is to partly to accommodate the need to put multiple dates in the bibliographic record, to distinguish between publication date, copyright date etc. This is important to many libraries, particularly collecting organisations but is less relevant to most school libraries. SCIS could decide not to change, but our goal is to adhere to standards wherever possible, and as we don’t know what else this might affect in future technologies and data transfers we would like to change when library systems are ready.So decision will bea. implement in SCIS records in place of 260 as of 1 July 2013, orb. implement in SCIS records in place of 260 as of 1 July 2014
  • Some screenshots follow. Mostly you will notice how little change you notice – and your users may well notice nothing in this first stage.Under the hood changes first to set up bigger things as the developers and library systems start doing more adventurous things – and changing the library catalogue from its uncanny resemblance to a catalogue card layout.
  • These test records are available for downloading – library system vendors and trainers at this stage, but eventually useful for library staff testing.They do not include ISBN so that users cannot accidentally download RDA records.You can also search SCIS Catalogue for rda test
  • This is what the SCIS cataloguer sees in MARC view when creating RDA records
  • How this translates to the MARC View in SCIS Catalogue
  • Which of these versions of Desire the album by Bob Dylan is the RDA record?#1 has no GMD of [sound recording]. How do you tell it is a sound recording?
  • The issue here is that even though we saw in the MARC View that this has been catalogued as an RDA test record you cannot see these additional fields in the SCIS OPAC because it has not yet been configured to display these fields.So, it is not just the catalogue record DATA that must be changed, but everywhere that data needs to be displayed. Do you currently have publisher information displaying in Circulation? Then ensure that the 264 field data is displayed.
  • Needs more research. This is the type of testing library systems will be doing, and which you will want to do in your own catalogues with some test records.Things to check when importing RDA test records:What collection icon is returned for this music sound recording record now there is no GMD? If it is not as you expect then check:a. the mapping of the MARC record from SCISb. whether your library system is ready to receive this type of data from SCISc. the local configuration of this particular library system’s media typesIs publication/production detail displaying – ieis the new 264 field coming into your systemAre the new fields for Content type, carrier type and media type displaying (you may decide not to display them). Certainly many libraries are not making them searchable.Are you losing any data because fields are not long enough to display the full content?
  • The National Library has experimented with FRBR-ising its Trove interface and provides an example of the difference in OPAC display that may be possible once we have RDA data to work with.The difference?All editions (or manifestations) of a work are collated and displayed under one Work record.Unlike most current Catalogues which list each edition or version separately. Discuss with your library system provider what their plans are for displaying works in OPAC.
  • Other examples to look at latereXtensibleCataloghttp://www.extensiblecatalog.orgLibrary Thing http://www.librarything.comIndiana University’s Scherzohttp://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/scherzoOpen Libraryhttp://openlibrary.org
  • SCIS plans to start cataloguing with RDA on 1 July 2013Full implementation is scheduled for 1 July 2014 There is no plan for retrospective change of existing records (except parts of Bible and Qur’an)Library systems will need to cope with both AACR2 and RDA records
  • RDA is a resource for the online world – the rules are produced as an online toolkitPurchasable though http://www.rdatoolkit.org/ http://access.rdatoolkit.orgIf your school currently has and uses a copy of AACR2 regularly then you will probably want to organise a subscription. Otherwise you can use SCIS as your cataloguing authority, and ask us questions as they arise via the scisinfo@esa.edu.au email contact, or the website form at the bottom of every page of the SCIS website
  • The full-text print version of RDA offers an offline access point to help solo and part-time cataloguers evaluate and use RDA. It can also support training and classroom use. An index is included. The online RDA Toolkit is the preferred option as it will always be the most up to date, and also offers access to companion tools such as LC and JSC Policy Decisions, the full text of AACR2, Mapping to MARC and user workflows
  • http://scis.edublogs.org/tag/scis-asks
  • Library system providers, cataloguers and school library staff are encouraged to contact SCIS with questions, concerns and feedback.
  • RDA in SCIS

    1. 1. SCIS cataloguing update June 2013 RDA in school libraries
    2. 2. 1.6 million+ catalogue records 530,000+ authority records 200,000+ records with ScOT terms 10,000+ educational websites records 9,000+ records for e-books book cover images for 10,500+ subscribers who download 8 million+ catalogue records p.a. plus 1,000+ Z39.50 users What does SCIS provide? 1 March 2013 statistics
    3. 3. SCIS cataloguing team QLD ESA SCIS cataloguer NSW Dept of Education WA Dept of Education SA ALS New Zealand ESA SCIS cataloguers VIC ESA SCIS office
    4. 4. • scope: Australian/NZ K-12 education • standards: national agreement • quality: standards-based & consistent • terminology: subject headings appropriate • classification: relevant to schools • efficiency: savings on cost and effort Why does SCIS exist?
    5. 5. Why SCIS? Library staff out of the back room More time with staff and students
    6. 6. Why change? – Changes in technology – Changes in libraries – Changes in education – Changes in metadata So, what’s changed since 1978?
    7. 7. • new and shiny in 1978 • intended for card catalogues • intended to be read by humans • organised by format of resources • not web-friendly After AACR2
    8. 8. JUDY O’CONNELL The library catalogue has been a silo Etranges silos@Laura, 2009, by raguy, CC-by-nc-sa • RDA allows it to move beyond bibliographic and authority records • RDA encourages the recording of sufficient data to support more precise collocation
    9. 9. JUDY O’CONNELL • RDA emphasises the importance of relationships • RDA adds precision to access points • RDA provides greater internationalisation • RDA builds a display of results that conveys meaningful information to the user Getting data out of the library
    10. 10. RDA first principles
    11. 11. Principle #1 Convenience of the user RDA focuses on users Find Identify Select Obtain Statement of International Cataloguing Principles, 2009 IFLA www.ifla.org/publications/statement-of-international-cataloguing-principles
    12. 12. User tasks From: Teaching RDA: Train-the-trainer course RDA: Resource Description and Access presented by the National Library of Australia in 2012 and made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License
    13. 13. Functional requirements for bibliographic records : final report / IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, 2008, p. 14, “Group 1 entities and primary relationships”, Figure 3.1 WORK EXPRESSION MANIFESTATION ITEM is realised through is embodied in is exemplified by Work – Expression - Manifestation - Item Text; Illustrations Print run; Edition Library’s copy Romeo and Juliet
    14. 14. • FRBR: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records • FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data What the FRBR and FRAD?
    15. 15. What will RDA change? Cataloguing element Changing 2013? Notes Description (AACR2) RDA SCIS 1 July 2013 Stage 2 2014 ISBD Punctuation Some changes, not all RDA Classification (Dewey) X Subject authorities (SCIS) X Future work for RDA Name authorities (SCIS) X SCIS standards not changing MARC21 New RDA fields Bibframe in conceptual stage Library system/OPAC ? Check with/test your system
    16. 16. Example record ISBN 9780734412249 Title Tom the outback mailman / written by Kristin Weidenbach ; illustrated by Timothy Ide Main author Weidenbach , Kristin Contributors Ide, Timothy Publisher Sydney : Hachette Australia, 2013 Description 32 p. : col. ill. Subjects Postal services – Australia - Biography. scisshl Outback life - Biography. scisshl Australian stories. scisshl Birdsville Track (S. Aust. and Qld.) scisshl Rural areas. scot Biographies. scot Call nos. 383 KRU a15 383.492 KRU 23 Image used by permission
    17. 17. Key differences from AACR2 100 1 $a Shakespeare, William, $d 1564-1616,$e author 245 10 $a Romeo and Juliet /$c by William Shakespeare. 250 $a Green room edition. 264 1 $a New York ; $a Boston :$b H.M. Caldwell Company,$c [1900] 264 4 $c ©1900 300 $a 1 online resource. 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a computer $2 rdamedia 338 $a online resource $2 rdacarrier
    18. 18. RDA core elements
    19. 19. SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry updated partially for RDA May-June 2013 www.esa.edu.au/scis/help.html Further transition July 2014 Libraries Australia Required Data Elements www.nla.gov.au/librariesaustralia/services/cataloguing/ standards/required-data-elements Institutional policy on core elements
    20. 20. activity card art original art reproduction braille chart diorama electronic resource filmstrip flash card game globe kit manuscript map microform microscope slide model motion picture music picture realia slide sound recording technical drawing toy transparency videorecording Goodbye GMD The castle [videorecording] Tech tools [kit] Romeo and Juliet [electronic resource]
    21. 21. RDA provides better coverage of resource types From Renate Beilharz SCIS Asks 2012
    22. 22. Content, Media, Carrier types Material Content type Media type Carrier type book with text and pictures text; still image unmediated volume digital photograph still image computer computer disc? online resource? sheet music notated music unmediated volume globe cartographic three- dimensional form unmediated object audio book spoken word audio audio disc? online resource? RDA toolkit text computer online resource
    23. 23. Coding Content, Media, Carrier types 245 04 $a The castle 300 ## $a 1 DVD 336 # # $a two-dimensional moving image $2 rdacontent 337 # # $a video $2 rdamedia 338 # # $a videodisc $2 rdacarrier www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/index.html
    24. 24. SCIS will phase out GMD in records (July 2014) Library systems may – strip the GMD – map media type to GMD – use collection types Phasing out the GMD
    25. 25. Mapping GMD?
    26. 26. 344 Sound Characteristics 345 Projection Characteristics of Moving Image 346 Video Characteristics 347 Digital Characteristics Characteristics
    27. 27. • Parts of the Bible • Qur’an (from Koran) SCIS plans to make global changes prior to SCIS Authority Files release 2, 2013 Access points / Uniform titles
    28. 28. Bible Source: Changes from AACR2 to RDA: A comparison of examples / Adam L. Schiff
    29. 29. 264 Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd264.html Example: 264 #1 $a New York ;$a Boston :$b H.M. Caldwell Company, $c [1900] 264 #4 $c ©1900 New MARC field for publication information SCIS will delay using 264 until library systems are ready
    30. 30. SCIS will implement RDA guideline that bibliographic information is to be recorded without abbreviations unless they appear on the item 250 $a Second edition 260 $a Washington, District of Columbia 300 $a 44 pages : $b colour illustrations Library systems may need to allow for an increased number of characters in some fields Abbreviations and field lengths
    31. 31. • in cataloguing module • in MARC view • in SCIS Catalogue • in school library systems • in the ideal world What will RDA look like?
    32. 32. SCIS RDA test records SCIS no Title Tests 1607780 The call of the wild / online audiobook with multiple 007 1588970 Desire / sound recording on CD 1588961 Eraserhead / video recording on DVD 1585707 Saint Paul's letters to the Corinthians in the Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate / book 1581096 100 healthy desserts : delicious recipes for healthy living / e-book
    33. 33. SCIS cataloguing module
    34. 34. What does RDA look like in MARC view?
    35. 35. What does RDA look like in SCIS OPAC?
    36. 36. Full item record in SCIS OPAC
    37. 37. What will RDA look like in your OPAC?
    38. 38. OPAC Stage 2 trove.nla.gov.au
    39. 39. eXtensible Catalog http://www.extensiblecatalog.org Library Thing http://www.librarything.com Indiana University’s “Scherzo” http://webapp1.dlib.indiana.edu/scherzo Open Library http://openlibrary.org Examples of FRBR in action
    40. 40. • SCIS plans to start cataloguing with RDA on 1 July 2013 but retain GMD for 12 months while systems change • Full implementation is scheduled for 1 July 2014 • There is no plan for retrospective change of existing records (except parts of Bible and Qur’an) • Library systems will need to cope with both AACR2 and RDA records SCIS timelines
    41. 41. RDA toolkit Screen image from the RDA Toolkit used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)
    42. 42. RDA options • RDA Toolkit http://www.rdatoolkit.org • Cataloger’s Desktop (Library of Congress) http://www.loc.gov/cds/desktop • Print version (Facet Publishing UK) http://www.facetpublishing.co.uk
    43. 43. • Leonie Bourke, SCIS RDA consultant 2013 • Renate Beilharz and Judy O’Connell presentation slides used at the SCIS asks consultation in December 2012 • National Library of Australia training materials • RDA logos used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals) • Screen images from the RDA Toolkit www.rdatoolkit.org used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA Acknowledgements
    44. 44. RDA questions and discussion Further resources • Australian RDA information and training materials www.nla.gov.au/acoc/resource-description-and-access-rda-in- australia • Labore, L 2012, RDA for the non-cataloger www.library.illinois.edu/cam/rda/files/RDA_for_the_Non- Cataloger.pdf • SCIS asks consultation slides http://scis.edublogs.org/tag/rda
    45. 45. scisinfo@esa.edu.au More questions, feedback