Making curriculum connections

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Using education metadata to align school libraries to the curriculum. This October 2013 VALA presentation by Pru Mitchell and David Feighan looks at how school libraries are working in partnership with Education Services Australia to rebuild their catalogue metadata so that print and online collections are aligned to the curriculum. This includes mass clean up of existing SCIS subject headings, retrospective import of ScOT thesaurus terms, the introduction of new controlled vocabularies, and the creation of curriculum-specific themed collections.

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  • The presentation will look at how schools are working in partnerships with Education Services Australia to rebuild their catalogue metadata so print and online collections are aligned to the curriculum. This includes mass clean up of existing subject headings, the introduction of new controlled metadata, and the creation of curriculum specific themed collections.
  • “Disintermediation” is the removal of intermediaries in a supply chain – cutting out the middleman. Increasingly, libraries are viewed as irrelevant to the research process, leaving them vulnerable to being cut, both financially and from the mind of the end user.Changes in the higher education sector include discovery layers with faceted searching and federated searching that searches beyond the title level metadata.
  • Research indicates that students do not use library collections as their first port of call when doing research.
  • Adequately remuneration – UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport “Independent Review into E-Lending in Public Libraries in England “Section 4 How should the industry move forward 4th recommendation “that digital copies of books should be deemed to deteriorate, ensuring their repurchase after a certain number of loans. Their printed counterparts naturally deteriorate, forcing popular books to be repurchased. This principal therefore should be applied to digital books; otherwise publishers would be unfairly discriminated against.”https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/an-independent-review-of-e-lending-in-public-libraries-in-englandhttp://www.cilip.org.uk/cilip/advocacy-campaigns-awards/advocacy-campaigns/ebooks/consultation-responses/response-reviewhttp://www.nla.gov.au/content/electronic-resources-australia
  • Adequately remuneration – UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport “Independent Review into E-Lending in Public Libraries in England “Section 4 How should the industry move forward 4th recommendation “that digital copies of books should be deemed to deteriorate, ensuring their repurchase after a certain number of loans. Their printed counterparts naturally deteriorate, forcing popular books to be repurchased. This principal therefore should be applied to digital books; otherwise publishers would be unfairly discriminated against.”https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/an-independent-review-of-e-lending-in-public-libraries-in-englandhttp://www.cilip.org.uk/cilip/advocacy-campaigns-awards/advocacy-campaigns/ebooks/consultation-responses/response-reviewhttp://www.nla.gov.au/content/electronic-resources-australia
  • The school library catalogue is in most schools the only place where users can search for school-owned/licensed resources all in one place. The student or staff member seeking books, information and learning resources expects to do one search and for that search to return all relevant material available to them, regardless of its format or its location. This holy grail of single point of search assumes an integrated set of search results, which requires integrated metadata.While your students and teachers can use a search engine to find millions of onlineresources, this search will return everything online EXCEPT the very resources that your school or system has actually selected and paid for.
  • The Schools Catalogue Information Service has been supplier of catalogue records for almost all Australian and New Zealand schools for the past 25 years. Firstly – it is important that content is catalogued (ie described). This means they can be searched for and found by users.Here are some statistics on what SCIS provides in terms of its database of catalogue.Obviously with a user base of most Australian schools and a large proportion of New Zealand and English-speaking international schools, SCIS is well placed to understand the trends and issues in school library catalogues and collections
  • Scootle helps teachers to find, organise and use digital resources from partners in national cultural and collection agencies, open-ended tools for teachers and students to create learning resources, interactive assessment resources, work samples, collections of curriculum resources and teacher ideas and units of work.The content is indexed using the subject headings of the Schools Online Thesaurus, an agreed Australian vocabulary of curriculum topics and terms. Search results can be viewed on timelines and Google maps, providing new ways for teachers to discover relevant resources, and also to construct challenging learning experiences for students.The Australian Curriculum in ScootleScootle has made finding and using digital resources aligned to the Australian Curriculum easy for teachers. Teachers can browse the Australian Curriculum at the content descriptions and elaborations level. The matching digital resources are quality assured and include activities for students, teacher support materials and interactive assessment resources.
  • The Schools Online Thesaurus (ScOT) provides a controlled vocabulary of terms used in Australian and New Zealand schools. It encompasses all subject areas as well as terms describing educational and administrative processes. The thesaurus links non-preferred terms to curriculum terms. It also relates terms in a browsable structure. These features make ScOT an ideal vocabulary to integrate into 'search' mechanisms of learning management systems.
  • Making curriculum connections

    1. 1. Making connections Using education metadata to align school resources to the curriculum David Feighan & Pru Mitchell October 2013
    2. 2. • About this presentation: – Environmental scan – technology & usage – Overview of the Australian curriculum – Challenges and Opportunities – Overview of Education Services and SCIS – Response through a partnership between SCIS and school libraries – Future: what next
    3. 3. Environmental Scan • Explosion of information – The amount of digital content created in 2011 amounts to several million time that contained in all the books ever written. – The new USA National Security Agency data centre can store up to 12 Exabytes of information. The space required to store all the books written in any language represents just 0.0033% of this storage space. Source: Riding the Waves or Caught in the Tide? Insights from the IFLA Trend Report http://trends.ifla.org/insights-document
    4. 4. Environmental Scan • Use of library print collections and online collections: – 2010 Jane Burke, Discovery versus disintermediation: the new reality driven by today's end-user http://www.vala.org.au/vala2010-proceedings/vala2010-session-1-burke Library navigation is complicated, especially when compared to the simplicity of open Web searching… Users value the library but use search engines such as Google to find information. – 2012 Ithaka S+R Faculty Surveys (Higher Ed Sector) http://sr.ithaka.org/research-publications/us-faculty-survey-2012 The role of internet search engines in facilitating discovery of scholarly resources has continued to increase. The perceived decline in the role of the library catalog noted in previous cycles of this survey has been arrested and even modestly reversed, driven perhaps to some degree by significant strategic shifts in library discovery tools and services.
    5. 5. Environmental Scan • Use of library print collections and online collections: – School students (and teachers) tend NOT to use the library for digital research. – – – – – – – – – – – Google or other online search engine (94%) Wikipedia or other online encyclopedia (75%) YouTube or other social media sites (52%) Their peers (42%) Spark Notes, Cliff Notes, or other study guides (41%) News sites of major news organizations (25%) Print or electronic textbooks (18%) Online databases such as EBSCO, JSTOR, or Grolier (17%) A research librarian at their school or public library (16%) Printed books other than textbooks (12%) Student-oriented search engines such as Sweet Search (10%) Kristen Purcell et al, (2012), How Teens Do Research in the Digital World http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Student-Research.aspx
    6. 6. Environmental Scan • Use of library print collections and online collections: – School students (and teachers) tend NOT to use the library for digital research. – A 2007 study of student research behaviour conducted by ProQuest and John Law (ProQuest, 2007), Serials Solutions’ Vice-President of Discovery Services, found that more than 60 percent of students consider Google to be the easiest place to start research, compared to less than 20 percent who find library databases the easiest starting point. Burke, J. (2010) Discovery versus disintermediation: the new reality driven by today's enduser, Proceedings of the 15th Biennial VALA Conference and Exhibition. http://www.vala.org.au/vala2010-proceedings/vala2010-session-1-burke
    7. 7. Challenges and Opportunities • Explosion of information • Use of library print collections and online collections – “the amount of information available online today is overwhelming to most students...60% [of teachers] agree with the assertion that today’s technologies make it harder for students to find credible sources of information [and the majority of teachers] believe that courses and content focusing on digital literacy should be incorporated into every school’s curriculum.” Source: Kristen Purcell et al, (2012), How Teens Do Research in the Digital World http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Student-Research.aspx – BUT in the same period many school libraries have abandoned their online non fiction content because they can “get it for free” from the local state library.
    8. 8. Challenges and Opportunities • Explosion of information and… • Use of library print collections and online collections • • • Traditional library catalogues are not working for users doing digital research. What is the impact on school libraries as they offer less online resources at the same time that demand for online is increasing? Will they be increasingly marginalized and seen as irrelevant or small niche players. What is the risk of libraries losing the digital rights to content because Australian State Libraries offer state wide access based on single site subscription costs and publishers are not being adequately remunerated? How do libraries deal with funding online content now that ERA has been disbanded? http://www.nla.gov.au/content/electronic-resources-australia
    9. 9. New Australian Curriculum “Emphasises the importance of knowledge, skills and understandings of learning areas, general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities as the basis for a curriculum designed to support 21st century learning.” Source: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au
    10. 10. Foundation to Year 10 Learning Areas General Capabilities English Mathematics Science History Geography Arts F-10 Health & Phys Ed F-10 Civics and Citizenship 3-10 Economics & Business 5-10 Languages F-10 Technologies F-10 Work Studies 9-10 Cross-curriculum priorities Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia Sustainability Student Diversity • • Students with disabilities Gifted and talented students • Students with English as a second language or dialect
    11. 11. Senior Secondary Learning Area Subjects English  English  English as an Additional Language or Dialect  Essential English  Literature Mathematics  Essential Mathematics  General Mathematics  Mathematical Methods  Specialist Mathematics Science  Biology  Chemistry  Earth and Environmental Science  Geography  Physics History • Ancient History • Modern History
    12. 12. Curriculum module example
    13. 13. Challenges and Opportunities • To what extent does traditional library metadata LSCH and SCIS support the curriculum and facilitate discovery? • Put library catalogue metadata into the cloud to facilitate its integration with other education metadata. • Think beyond using the library catalogue (or even discovery layer) to facilitate discovery of library resources. • What new partnerships are required between agencies, libraries, and publishers?
    14. 14. Education Services Australia • A not-for-profit, ministerial company to provide services to the Standing Council on School Education and Early Childhood (SCSEEC) • Assists with infrastructure and content to support national initiatives such as the Australian Curriculum and National Professional Standards for Teachers • Services: SCIS, Curriculum Press, myfuture, ScOT thesaurus edu.au domain registrar, Scootle esa.edu.au
    15. 15. Resourcing the curriculum School libraries support the implementation of curriculum in their school
    16. 16. School library catalogues provide access to learning resources for the school community
    17. 17. Schools Catalogue Information Service • Quality: standards-based & consistent • Scope: Australian/NZ K-12 education • Terminology: subject headings appropriate K-12 • Classification: relevant to schools • Efficiency: savings on cost and effort • Quick: Bulk download by ISBN
    18. 18. What does SCIS provide? 1.6 million+ catalogue records 10,000+ 10,000+ 3,000+ 2,500+ 1,000+ 100+ e-books educational websites learning objects digital video files audio books apps Form of resources catalogued by SCIS 2012-13 1 July 2013 statistics
    19. 19. Learning objects ndlrn.edu.au
    20. 20. Scootle www.scootle.edu.au
    21. 21. Controlled vocabularies "High levels of precision and recall, the two ways in which we judge any information retrieval system, are dependent on controlled vocabularies and national and international standards - they cannot be obtained by other systems not involving human intervention” Michael Gorman foreword to Conversations with Catalogers in the 21st Century Libraries Unlimited, 2011 (p. viii)
    22. 22. How do vocabularies help search • • • • • • Faceted search Curriculum Connect (ScOT) Navigation Collections Redirects Did you mean? scot.curriculum.edu.au/search.asp
    23. 23. Responding to the challenges and maximising the opportunities: a school library catalogue vocabulary renovation
    24. 24. metadata cleansing metadata enhancing we did both to create… the glue that facilitates discovery of library collections to the curriculum
    25. 25. Step 1: metadata cleansing SCIS subject headings
    26. 26. Step 2: metadata enhancing ScOT thesaurus http://scot.curriculum.edu.au/
    27. 27. The process What we found • 37,009 out of 43,130 (86%) records had ISBN-like data available • qualifiers in ISBN field are annoying, eg ;(hbk.) ;(pbk.) ; (trade) etc • clean up of export before matching against SCIS database, eg some ISBN duplicates can be removed by tools, watch out for field data types, esp for ISBNs and BIBIDs, leading zeros • how to be sure that 001 values were SCIS numbers • reloading and overlay process • time and server load
    28. 28. New vocabularies and new MARC tags Use of 658 Curriculum Element field TOTAL number of records with this field in WorldCat: 4,679 out of a total of 302,928,939 MARC records as of 1 Jul 2013 Overall number of Holdings: 63,847
    29. 29. Australian Cross curriculum priorities • 282 x MARC records with “658 $bAsia and Australia’s engagement with Asia. $2ACARA Australian education vocabularies” • 482 x MARC records with “658 $bAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. $2ACARA Australian education” vocabularies” • 324 x MARC records with “658 $bSustainability. $2ACARA Australian education vocabularies”
    30. 30. Using new vocabularies • Improves catalogue metadata to facilitate discovery and make the catalogue easier to use. • Adds curriculum metadata so the catalogue can be aligned to the curriculum and therefore user needs. • Provides a potential seamless metadata link: – To external authoritative information sources. – From other interfaces such as Scootle back to a library’s own online and print holdings.
    31. 31. Using new vocabularies • The glue that links the links the print and online collections to the curriculum as well as… • The metadata that can be used to facilitate discovery of online resources directly from collection signage.
    32. 32. Using new vocabularies and fields Does your library system: • • • • • Display the field for data entry? Display the field in OPAC? Index the field? Include the field in reports? Provide export/import profiles?
    33. 33. Future of metadata • Professional, manual creation • User contribution • Automation Hybrid Hider, P 2012 Information resource description: creating and managing metadata, Facet Publishing, London
    34. 34. Next step: community metadata SCIS ingesting curriculum metadata from community member/s to share out to others in the SCIS community
    35. 35. Future of vocabularies Semantic web automagical realtime updating
    36. 36. What does a vocabulary require? • Unique ID for concepts to aid updating of multiple systems, and to aid translation into multilingual thesaurus • References • URI for semantic web • Web publishing tools
    37. 37. Keeping in touch • SCIS professional learning program www.esa.edu.au/scis/professional_learning.html • SCIS updates @schoolscatinfo facebook.com/schoolscatinfo

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