Future of vocabularies


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Presentation by Ben Chadwick to the SCIS Asks Consultation 2013 provides a report on the Schools Online Thesaurus (ScOT), an overview of Australian Curriculum alignment and opportunities for development of the SCIS Subject Headings list in the light of linked data.

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  • Last year – the fact of multiple subject vocabularies. What future for that?A brief overview of controlled vocabs in general today, but focus is on the Linked Data aspects of AustEdu Vocabs – especially ScOT.Focus on implications of this for crucial issue – AlignmentRaise a few issues and challenges, and a few related but important issues in the same Semantic Web constellation eg semantic markupRole: raise issues and discussion, but not necessarily provide answers. Metadata analyst: strange ‘handyman’ space between web developer, cataloguer, semantic web technologist
  • Faceted search: Navigation: Collections: learning areaRedirects: see references, hidden,incl spelling variation (Maths->Mathematics)See also (Elections, Referenda)Mapping between repositoriesResources to researchCurriculum to curriculum
  • The Schools Online Thesaurus (ScOT) provides a controlled vocabulary of terms used in Australian and New Zealand schools. It encompasses all subject areas as well as terms describing educational and administrative processes. The thesaurus links non-preferred terms to curriculum terms. It also relates terms in a browsable structure. These features make ScOT an ideal vocabulary to integrate into 'search' mechanisms of learning management systems. ScOT terms loading: ScOT terms have been added to SCIS MARC records since 2006Salmond, Rachel 2007 ScOT in SCIS - more of the same … or different?, Connections Issue 60http://www2.curriculum.edu.au/scis/connections/issue_60/scot_in_scis_-_more_of_the_same__or_different.html
  • Sample queries assisting developers in managing update and management of local copies, build navigation structures and synonym redirections etc…
  • Linked Data: My concept matches your concept
  • Linked: Things not Strings
  • “Emphasises the importance of knowledge, skills and understandings of learning areas, general capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities as the basis for a curriculum designed to support 21st century learning.”Source: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au
  • In the 2013 survey by Softlink, over 800 school library staff responded to a question about the library goals they considered the most important during the following 12 months. The top three goals included: Aligning Australian Curriculum (ACARA) with existing resources/practices;School Library Survey Findings from Softlink’s 2013 Australian School Library Survey into school library budgets, staffing and literacy levels in Australian school libraries.
  • Navigation - Scootle helps teachers to find, organise and use digital resources from partners in national cultural and collection agencies, open-ended tools for teachers and students to create learning resources, interactive assessment resources, work samples, collections of curriculum resources and teacher ideas and units of work.The content is indexed using the subject headings of the Schools Online Thesaurus, an agreed Australian vocabulary of curriculum topics and terms. Search results can be viewed on timelines and Google maps, providing new ways for teachers to discover relevant resources, and also to construct challenging learning experiences for students.The Australian Curriculum in ScootleScootle has made finding and using digital resources aligned to the Australian Curriculum easy for teachers. Teachers can browse the Australian Curriculum at the content descriptions and elaborations level. The matching digital resources are quality assured and include activities for students, teacher support materials and interactive assessment resources.
  • A tool demonstrating use of linked data (ScOT and AC) for aligning any ScOT tagged resource to AC outcomes. So, hard-copy books with SCIS records are not immune from AC alignmentinfers content descriptions using the ScOT hierarchyleverages investment in ScOT taggingsupports collection data mining
  • Not to MARC: Other curriculumsChanges to the curriculum
  • Out of total 302,928,939 MARC records
  • Dynamic querying – what happens if systems go down? (LOC)
  • Future of vocabularies

    1. 1. Future of vocabularies SCIS and linked data Ben Chadwick, Metadata analyst 14 November 2013
    2. 2. Where are we now? 2012 • Why vocabularies? • How to manage multiple vocabularies? 2013 • Linked data • Curriculum vocabularies Reynolds, Leo 2006, niche, CC-by-nc-sa
    3. 3. Controlled vocabularies "High levels of precision and recall, the two ways in which we judge any information retrieval system, are dependent on controlled vocabularies and national and international standards they cannot be obtained by other systems not involving human intervention.” Michael Gorman foreword to Conversations with Catalogers in the 21st Century, Libraries Unlimited, 2011 (p. viii)
    4. 4. How do vocabularies help search? • • • • • • Search expansion and faceting Navigation and browsing Collections Redirects (“See”) Related topics (“See also”) Mapping between repositories scot.curriculum.edu.au/search.asp
    5. 5. Australian Education Vocabularies
    6. 6. ScOT thesaurus scot.curriculum.edu.au
    7. 7. About ScOT o About school curriculum and the teaching profession o 9232 concepts o 10 top concepts o 9441 broader/narrower relations o 7775 alternate labels/ synonyms o Used since 2003 for tagging education resources o Used since 2011 to tag the Australian Curriculum
    8. 8. API – SPARQL and RESTful
    9. 9. Ecosystems 生態系; 生态系统; Mātauranga taupuhi kaiao; Ekosistem; ; Ökosystem; Οικοσύστημα; Ecosistema; 생태계; Hệ sinh thái; Ekosistem; Ecosistema; ; Écosystème Ecosystems Ecology http://vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/scot/2458 Biodiversity; Biogeochemical cycles; Bioindicators; Biomes; Competition (Ecology); Ecological niches; Ecological succession; Food webs; Habitats; Land degradation; Native species; Populations (Ecology); Symbiosis Use for resources about communities http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh85040752#concept of living organisms interacting with each other and with their environment, http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ecosystem including the processes that take place.
    10. 10. ScOT as Linked Open Data • Unique Identifiers for concepts • Linked to other unique identifiers (inside and outside the vocabulary) • Open: – Available for consumption on the open web – Expressed in a standard, machine-readable format (RDF)
    11. 11. e-Portfolio teacherstandards.aitsl.edu.au/elements
    12. 12. Australian Curriculum australiancurriculum.edu.au
    13. 13. Architecture of the curriculum Learning Areas English Mathematics Science History Geography Arts F-10 Health & Phys Ed F-10 Civics and Citizenship 3-10 Economics & Business 5-10 Languages F-10 Technologies F-10 Work Studies 9-10 Cross-curriculum priorities Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia Sustainability
    14. 14. ScOT in curriculum content descriptions
    15. 15. Warning: XML ahead!
    16. 16. Tagging the curriculum tagged o 1000+ o 5 curriculum areas published so far o ACARA endorsed
    17. 17. Schools want Curriculum Alignment Aligning existing resources to the Australian Curriculum one of three top priorities of school library staff Adriaen van Utrecht, 1647 Public Domain Softlink 2013 Australian School Library Survey
    18. 18. Scootle www.scootle.edu.au
    19. 19. Tagging resources 20,000 resources tagged in Scootle 350,000 resources tagged in SCIS MARC records
    20. 20. Inference o Common vocabulary o Leverage past tagging o Exploit hierarchy
    21. 21. ScOT in Australian Curriculum Curriculum Link content with high correlation of SCOT tags
    22. 22. Exploiting the hierarchy Curriculum Link content with high correlation of SCOT tags
    23. 23. ScOT’s Curriculum Connect tool
    24. 24. Directions for SCIS • • • • • • • • Curriculum alignment: to MARC or not to MARC? Old records without ScOT terms Non-subject vocabularies: Audience? Learning area? Increased records for digital learning resources Retrospective updates of schools’ SCIS records Viability of Linked Open Data (LOD) authorities? A new model for Authority File subscriptions? Viability of LOD records. What would this mean?
    25. 25. Curriculum vocabularies in MARC 658 Curriculum Objective Element Number of records with this field in WorldCat: • 4,679 total as of 1 Jul 2013 • overall number of holdings: 63,847
    26. 26. SCIS Subject Headings test project http://stage.poolparty.vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/scis.html
    27. 27. Concept display
    28. 28. LOD for Bib Records – final thoughts What would it mean for SCIS? For systems? • Capacity to pull data. Automatic updating • Local copies versus dynamic querying Exposing local holdings to the web, with semantic markup • LRMI (schema.org) • BIBFRAME (Library of Congress)
    29. 29. Useful links Pages URL ScOT scot.curriculum.edu.au Solutions scot.curriculum.edu.au/solutions Curriculum Connect scot.curriculum.edu.au/indexing API vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au/PoolParty/ sparql/scot Downloads vocabulary.curriculum.edu.au ScOT blog schoolsonlinethesaurus.edublogs.org SCIS Subject Headings esa.edu.au/scis SCIS blog scis.edublogs.org