Introduction to Sociolinguistics
By: Fourth Group
The term vernacular is used in numbers of
ways. It generally refers to a language which has
not been standardized and which does not have
official status. Vernacular are usually the first
language learned by people in multilingual
language communities, and they are often used for
a relatively narrow range of informal functions.
The function of vernacular language is to shows
their identity when they talking with the other
person from the other place.
Standard language is the language which
has undergone some degree of regulation or
codification in grammar and a dictionary.
Usually standard language is used in the
country which have there so many dialect or
the country which use multilingual nations.
Lingua franca can be describe as a
language which is serving as a regular
means of communication between
different linguistic groups in a
multilingual nation and used
habitually by people whose mother
tongues are different in order to
facilitate communication between
Pidgin is a new language which
develops in situations where the
speakers of different languages need
to communicate but don’t share a
Why do pidgins develop?
A pidgin is a language which has no native speakers.
Pidgins develop as a means of communication between
people who do not have a common language. So a pidgin
is no one’s native language. Pidgins seem particularly likely
to arise when two groups with different languages are
communication in a situation where there is also third
What kind of linguistic structure does a
pidgin language have?
Pidgin languages are created from the combined
efforts of people who speak different languages.
All languages involved may contribute to the
sounds, the vocabulary, and the grammatical
features, but to different extents, and some
additional features may emerge which are unique
to the new variety.
Pidgin languages do not have high status or
prestige and, to those who do not speak them,
they often seem ridiculous. Because of the large
number of pidgin words which derive from a
European language in a pidgin such as Tok Pisin,
many Europeans considers pidgins to be a
debased from of their own language.
Three features of Pidgin
Pidgins are used in restricted domains and
Pidgins have a simplified and mixed
Pidgins have low prestige and receive
A creole is a pidgin which has acquired
native speakers. Many of the languages
which are called pidgins are in fact now
creole languages. They are learned by
children as their first language and used in
a wide range of domains.
Once a Creole has developed it can be used for all
the functions of language, politics, education,
Though outsider’ attitudes to creoles are often as
negative as their attitudes to pidgins, this is not
always the case for those who speak the language.
Origins and endings
Most are based on one of seven European
languages; English, French, Spanish, Portuguese,
German, Dutch, and Italia.
Pidgin & Creole
Have no native speakers.
Have native speakers.
Are the result of extended contact
Develop from pidgins, they are learnt as
between groups with no language in
a first language by a large number of
common, they are used mostly for trade. speakers.
Have simple grammatical structures.
Are more complex in structure, they also
have a wider range of vocabulary to
express a wide range of meanings.
Are not used for group identification.
May take on national and official