Linguistics varieties and multilingual nations


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Linguistics varieties and multilingual nations

  1. 1. “Linguistic Varieties and Multilingual Nations” Introduction to Sociolinguistics By: Fourth Group
  2. 2. Vernacular Languages  VERNACULAR LANGUAGE The term vernacular is used in numbers of ways. It generally refers to a language which has not been standardized and which does not have official status. Vernacular are usually the first language learned by people in multilingual language communities, and they are often used for a relatively narrow range of informal functions. The function of vernacular language is to shows their identity when they talking with the other person from the other place.
  3. 3. Standard languages  STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is the language which has undergone some degree of regulation or codification in grammar and a dictionary. Usually standard language is used in the country which have there so many dialect or the country which use multilingual nations.
  4. 4. Lingua franca  LINGUA FRANCA Lingua franca can be describe as a language which is serving as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual nation and used habitually by people whose mother tongues are different in order to facilitate communication between them.
  5. 5. Pidgins Pidgin is a new language which develops in situations where the speakers of different languages need to communicate but don’t share a common language.
  6. 6. Why do pidgins develop? A pidgin is a language which has no native speakers. Pidgins develop as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language. So a pidgin is no one’s native language. Pidgins seem particularly likely to arise when two groups with different languages are communication in a situation where there is also third dominant language.
  7. 7. What kind of linguistic structure does a pidgin language have? Pidgin languages are created from the combined efforts of people who speak different languages. All languages involved may contribute to the sounds, the vocabulary, and the grammatical features, but to different extents, and some additional features may emerge which are unique to the new variety.
  8. 8. Attitudes Pidgin languages do not have high status or prestige and, to those who do not speak them, they often seem ridiculous. Because of the large number of pidgin words which derive from a European language in a pidgin such as Tok Pisin, many Europeans considers pidgins to be a debased from of their own language.
  9. 9. Three features of Pidgin Pidgins are used in restricted domains and functions  Pidgins have a simplified and mixed linguistic structure.  H-vocabulary  L-grammar   Pidgins have low prestige and receive negative attitudes.
  10. 10. creoles A creole is a pidgin which has acquired native speakers. Many of the languages which are called pidgins are in fact now creole languages. They are learned by children as their first language and used in a wide range of domains.
  11. 11.       Function Once a Creole has developed it can be used for all the functions of language, politics, education, administration Attitudes Though outsider’ attitudes to creoles are often as negative as their attitudes to pidgins, this is not always the case for those who speak the language. Origins and endings Most are based on one of seven European languages; English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, Dutch, and Italia.
  12. 12. Pidgin & Creole Pidgins Have no native speakers. Creoles Have native speakers. Are the result of extended contact Develop from pidgins, they are learnt as between groups with no language in a first language by a large number of common, they are used mostly for trade. speakers. Have simple grammatical structures. Are more complex in structure, they also have a wider range of vocabulary to express a wide range of meanings. Are not used for group identification. May take on national and official functions.