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Scientific mind (november december 2017)


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Scientific mind (november december 2017)

  1. 1. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 1 In recognition of the outstanding works, people/ organizations are awarded prizes throughout the world. The basic motto to present the award is to recognize the contribution and encourage them for further future works in their field. Nobel Prize is undoubtedly the most renowned prize given to any individual in the planet. Every year people are nominated for the prize and maximum three of them are selected for this prestigious prize. The prize established in previous century has acknowledged the achievements of people from all over the world. Most of the winners have been from North America and Europe. Many modern day researchers get involved in different fields of science hoping to get a Nobel Prize. The motivation and encouragement that prizes like Nobel Prize gives to an individual is really extraordinary. People work for years to finally find out new things that can be helpful to the humanity. Their hard work and dedication have to be appreciated and acknowledged. Nobel Prize is oneof themostrewardingprizesthatonecanreceive.Nobel Prize is given to the highest contributor to the mankind in that year. Surprisingly, there are some instances where people deny the prizes given to them. One of the instances is in 2006, when Grigori Perelman was awarded the Fields Medal (often considered highest level of prize in Mathematics) and he denied to accept the prize. When a person’s work is valued, then it not only motivates the individual receiving the prize but also to larger group of people. Many other people get encouraged through the recognition, respect and financial benefit that the person gets afterwinning the prize. It is needless to say, hard labor, dedication and intellect are the key factors for winning any significant prize. To win a prize like Nobel Prize, the degree of these key factors has to be maximum. Editorial Advisory Board Prof. Dr. Rameshwar Adhikari Prof. Dr. Deepak Prasad Subedi Dr. Dinesh Raj Bhuju Dr. Narayan Prasad Chapagain Dr. Kate Shaw Dr. Vinaya Kumar Jha Dr. Arun Sigdel Dr. Ranjan Kumar Dahal Editor/Publisher Mr. Nischal Shrestha Assoc. Editor/Managing Director Mr. Subhash Sharma Assistant Editor Mr. Niraj Sah Contributor Mr. Suman Kandel Ms. Prakriti Sapkota Mr. Sujan Dahal Intern Ms. Radhika Bhandari Legal Advisor Prof. Dr. Laxmi Prasad Mainali Magazine Layout Mr. Shreeram Bohara Mr. Ranjit Shrestha Web Design/Layout Mr. Manoj Kumar Mahato Printing Devchuli Offset Press Scientific Mind Regd. No. 432/073/074, District Adminstration Office, Kathmandu Address: Sankhamul-10, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu Cell: +977-9841151160, 9823030470 Email: Web: Twitter: @MindScientific Value of Acknowledgment Editor
  2. 2. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Including diverse areas of science and technology and latest news relevant to new inventions of science are the best part of the Scientific Mind magazine. It acts as a bridge between us and scientific community around the globe. We, students of science, feel very glad to reading this magazine. Binita Dhakal Manahari, Makawanpur I am a regular reader of Scientific Mind magazine. I found that Scientific Mind covers almost every science topics and provides opportunity to publish articles, essays and many more things relevant to science and technology. I hope this magazine will increase the readers and become a best magazine of Nepal by giving such wonderful contents. Binod Bhattari Chitwan I came to know about this magazine from social media. It is good for students but still many of us are out of reach of this magazine. Aashish Gurung Liverpool College, Kathmandu I have been reading Scientific Mind since the first issue. It is a very useful magazine that caters to the needs of the science enthusiasts in Nepal. The contents are also of good value. However, I have a small suggestion. I’ve noticed in many issues that you express distances exclusively in miles. Since mile is not commonly used in Nepal, it sometimes gets a little difficult for everyone to get the actual picture of the distance in question. It would be better, I believe, if you use kilometers instead. On that note, here’s a mnemonic to convert miles to kilometers using the Fibonacci series (0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, …): 3 mi ≈ 5 km 5 mi ≈ 8 km 8 mi ≈ 13 km and so on. Also, it’s worth noting that the ratio between 1 mile and 1 kilometer is very close to the Golden Ratio ≈ 1.61. Rohit Neopane Kathmandu This magazine truely increases my desire regarding the mistery of science and techonlogy. I will feel glad if this magazine wiill give chance to post our articles related to science. Susmita Sahi (Thakuri) Golden Gate International College If possible, I request the Scientific Mind team to increase the section of contents in Nepali language because it may be easy to learn about new invention and news regarding the development of science and technology for all general public. Srijana Khanal Kathmandu This magazine is very good. I am pleased by the posting of articles of this magazine. It enhances and enriches the action of working with someone to create something. Sailesh Singh Kathmandu Feedback
  3. 3. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 3 Contents Graphene: A Miracle Material Turnip 16 15 Parasites, bridge to human: Integrated Health Approach Winners of Nobel Prize 2017 7 21
  4. 4. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Articlesinmagazinedonotnecessarilyreflectviewofthe magazine. Contents Scientific Fun Facts 9 Science Experiment 10 Quotes 11 Do You Know? 11 News 12 Science Quiz 14 Hand Washing 19 Electronic Fibres and their Potentials 22 Far Solar System: An Overview 24 Indigenous Technology and Knowledge in Nepal 26 Antibiotic: Misuse Proven to be Fatal 29 Medical/Engineering Quiz 31 Pascal's Triangle 33 Reader's Questions 35 27 Space Observation: Solar System Scientific Instrument: Hydrometer A for Astronomy 36 Essay: Technology 40 Fun Stuff 41 Math Test 42 Crossword Puzzle 43 37
  5. 5. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 5 Best Universities of the World- 2017 Founded on: 1891 No. of Students: 15,658 No. of students per staff: 7.7 International students: 22% Annual tuition fee: $44,757 Acceptance Rate: 4.8% (2016) Notable alumni: Larry Page, Sergey Brin, Sundar Pichai, Marissa Mayer, Tablo Founded on: 1891 No. of Students: 2,181 No. of students per staff: 6.7 International students: 27% Annual tuition fee: $48,111 Acceptance Rate: 8% (2016) Notable alumni: Kip Thorne, William Shockley, Satish Dhawan, Adam D'Angelo, Carver Mead Founded on: 1209 No. of Students: 18,605 No. of students per staff: 11.3 International students: 35% Annual tuition fee: $20,400 - $37,800 Acceptance Rate: 21% (2015) Notable alumni: Isaac Newton, Stephen Hawking, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Alan Turing, Ernest Rutherford, Jagdish Chandra Bose 1. University of Oxford 3. Stanford University 2. California Institute of Technology (Caltech) 4. University of Cambridge Everyone is curious about Higher Education. We here at Scientific Mind, responding to the curiosity, present a list of top 20 universities of the world. We have adopted the rankings done by Times Higher Education. Image : Image : Image : : Founded on: c.1096 No. of Students: 19,718 No. of students per staff: 10.9 International students: 35% Annualtuitionfee(Overseas):£16,230-£23,885 Acceptance Rate: 17.5% (2015) Notable alumni: Stephen Hawking, Indira Gandhi, T.S. Eliot, Bill Clinton, Tony Blair By Suman Kandel
  6. 6. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Founded on: 1861 No. of Students: 11,192 No. of students per staff: 8.8 International students: 33% Annual tuition fee: $49,580 Acceptance Rate: 7.9% (2016) Notable alumni: Richard Feynman, Salman Khan, Gilbert Strang, Pranav Mistry, Benjamin Netanyahu 6. Harvard University Founded on: 1636 No. of Students: 19,890 No. of students per staff: 8.8 International students: 25% Annual tuition fee: $43,280 Acceptance Rate: 5.4% (2016) Notable alumni: Barack Obama, Helen Keller, Bill Gates, Mark Zukerberg, William James 7. Princeton University Founded on: 1746 No. of Students: 7,924 No. of students per staff: 8.8 International students: 25% Annual tuition fee: $47,500 Acceptance Rate: 6.5% (2016) Notable alumni: John Nash, Jeff Bezos, John F. Kennedy, John Bardeen, Eric Schmidt 8. Imperial College London Founded on: 1851 No. of Students: 15,236 No. of students per staff: 11.3 International students: 52% Annual tuitionfee(EU): £9250 Acceptance Rate: 14.3% (2015) Notable alumni: Alexander Fleming, H.G. Wells, Derek Barton, John Ambrose Fleming, Cyrus Mistry 9.ETH Zurich- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Founded on: 1855 No. of Students: 18,616 No. of students per staff: 14.9 International students: 37% Annual tuition fee: CHF 580 (per semester) Acceptance Rate: 27% Notable alumni: Albert Einstein, Wilhelm Röntgen, Fritz Haber,Rudolf Clausius, Richard R. Ernst 10.University of Calfornia, Berkeley Founded on: 1868 No. of Students: 34,834 No. of students per staff: 12 International students: 16% Annual tuition fee: $14,068 Acceptance Rate: 17.5% (2016) Notable alumni: Michio Kaku, Steve Wozniak, Gordon Moore, Timothy Leary 11. University of Chicago 12. Yale University 13. University of Pennsylvania 14. University of California Los Angeles (LA) 15. University College London 16. Columbia University 17. Johns Hopkins University 18. Duke University 19. Cornell University 20. Northwestern University
  7. 7. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 7 Graphene : A Miracle Material Amit Dawadi M.Sc. Physics 4th Semester After awarding Andre and Kostya by 2010's Nobel Prize, the weight of the topic “Graphene” became much heavier. Large number of researchers’ brain and money are being invested for its research why? Actually what is Graphene? Why, this topic is so emerging? What miracle does it do ? It’s quite interesting to know. Two dimensional hexagonal shape of single atomic layer of carbon is Graphene i.e. one atom thick layer of graphite. Graphene is basic structural element of other allotropes including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. Its supreme properties like mechanical strength, optical properties, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity coercion to accept its nick-name as “Miracle Material”. Its optical and electrical properties make researcher crazy (about 97.3% transparent and known lowest resistivity at room Flexibility with good electrical conductivity and optical properties endorse the concept of flexible optoelectronic devices. Many characteristics (1. Room temperature electron mobility 2. Young modulus 3. Intrinsic strength 4. Thermal conductivity 5. Optical absorption 6. Complete impermeability to any gases 7. Aability to sustain extremely high electric current densities ~ 1,000,000 times higher than copper) measured in experiment have exceeded those obtained in any other material( reaching some theoretically predicted limits also). But some characteristics have been achieved only in mechanically exfolicated graphane. Electronic application Since, sheet resistance reaching 30 Ω/ cm-2 of 2D area in highly doped graphene sample; it meets electrical and optical requirement by giving excellent transmittance (~97.7% per layer) for Transparent Conductive Coating(TCC), widely used in electronic products like touch screen displays, e-paper (electronic paper) and organic light- emitting diodes (OLEDs). Outstanding flexibility (fracture strain of graphene = 10 times of ITO) and chemical durability (better endurance than other available candidates ) of graphene can be used to make flexible electronic devices; in which ITO usually fails. Furthermore, for TCC, ITO deposition is expensive, so Graphene can replace the ITO and has a full capacity to secure good fraction of the market. Many researchers believe that graphene transistors might have an opportunity to replace Silicon Technology only after 2020. New structures of graphene is needed to use it as a logic transistor. Grapheme's supreme electrical and thermal conductivities and its excellent barrier properties might open door for this material towards being used as interconnects and for thermal dissipation in ICs. Photonics Wavelength-independent absorption (π × α = 2.3%) takes place due to massless electron in graphene for normal incidence of light below~3eV. When optical energy < 2 × fermi energy for mono and bi-layer of graphene they become completely transparent. Such properties would push this material towards being used as controlled photonic devices. In photonics it can be used as Photodetector, Tunable fibre mode-locked laser, Solid-state mode-locked laser, Polarization controller, Optical modulator, Isolator etc., but for these purposes there are a few unsolved issues, which we need to address first. Photodetectors Graphene's high operating bandwidth (in principle
  8. 8. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 from ultraviolet to infrared) makes it suitable for high-speed data communications (presently bandwidth of photodetectors in Ga. As for optical communication and Ge for optical interconnection are limited to ~150 GHz and ~80 GHz respectively). But for its practical implementation it may require a new structure or doping control, and the modulator bandwidth must follow suit. Tunable fibre mode-locked lase Wide spectral range of Graphene brings the best possibility of making tunable fibre mode-locked laser. Optical modulator High-quality graphene with low sheet resistance is needed to increase bandwidth to over 100 GHz this is the special challenge. Solid State Mode-locked laser Compact graphene is very easy to integrate with Si than bulky current polarization controlling devices. But first need to achieve full control on parameters of high-quality graphene. Composite materials, paints and coating Different outstanding properties along with its high aspect ratio are fruitful for its applications in composite materials. Many companies’ attraction is being shifted towards graphene. After some substantial developments and chemical modifications on graphene, however the commercial position held by carbon fibres are so strong, it is believed that within few years carbon fibres might be replaced by graphene and its oxide. Graphenes conductive ink, electromagnetic- interference shielding and gas barrier applications are the main areas where graphene based paint can be used very interestingly. Because of its high chemical stability it can act as a corrosion barrier against water and oxygen diffusion. Impermeable graphene membrane can be used as gas and moisture barrier, electromagnetic shielding is its next interesting application. It might increase the operating temperature level of composites, reduce moisture uptake, induce antistatic behaviour, give lightning strike protection and improve composite compressive strength. Graphene for sensors and metrology There is enough possibility for the uses of graphene as sensor, it is natural to consider using graphene from measurements of magnetic field to DNA sequencing and from the monitoring of the velocity of surrounding liquid to strain gauges (device used to measure strain on an object). Graphene crystal is stretchable, so it can enhance the working of such sensor significantly but it is most competitive application. Graphene can be used for the design of multidimensional devices (single device can work to measure strain, gas environment, pressure and magnetic field) so it can revolutionize the whole electronic world. It is more suitable for bio-sensing because functionalization for enhancing its selectivity for other sensors is expensive. Its unique band structure i.e., anomalously splitted large energy between zero and first landau levels makes it an ideal material to develop the universal resistance standard based on the quantum Hall effect. Graphene has beautiful uses in energy generation & storage devices and Bio-applications but there are also a few major issues need to address to obtain high performance. After addressing all issues the earth will be revolutionized. Paper computer & super capacitors are not so far. References 1. Novoselov, K. S.; Colombo, L.; Gellert, P. R.; Schwab, M. G.; Kim, K. A roadmap for graphene. 11October 2012 |vol.490|NATURE|199 2. Joseph Scott Bunch A Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University|may 2008. Bulletproof Graphene material
  9. 9. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 9 Scientific Fun Facts Acronyms • It takes 8 minutes 17 seconds for light to travel from the Sun’s surface to the Earth. • 10 percent of all human beings ever born are alive at this very moment. • The speed of light is generally rounded down to 186,000 miles per second. In exact terms it is 299,792,458 m/s (metres per second – that is equal to 186,287.49 miles per second). • Every year over one million earthquakes shake the Earth. • The largest ever hailstone weighed over 1kg and fell in Bangladesh in 1986. • If you could drive your car straight up you would arrive in space in just over an hour. • October 12th, 1999 was declared “The Day of Six Billion” based on United Nations projections. • The Earth spins at 1,000 mph but it travels through space at an incredible 67,000 mph. • When Krakatoa erupted in 1883, its force was so great it could be heard 4,800 kilometres away in Australia. • Every second around 100 lightning bolts strike the Earth. • Every year lightning kills 1000 people. • In October 1999 an Iceberg the size of London broke free from the Antarctic ice shelf . • Human tapeworms can grow up to 22.9m. • The Earth is 4.56 billion years old…the same age as the Moon and the Sun. • The dinosaurs became extinct before the Rockies or the Alps were formed. • Female black widow spiders eat their males IP : Internet Protocol SAT : Scholastic Aptitude Test GRE : Graduate Records Examination CIO : Chief Information Officer CMA : Certified Medical Assistant CADAC : Certified Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counselor ME : Master's of Engineering BTech : Bachelor's of Technology USB : Universal Serial Bus WWW : World Wide Web MAC : Media Access Control WPA : Wi-Fi Protected Access VLAN : Virtual Local Area Network EDTA : Ethlenediaminetetraacetic acid DPT : Diptheria Pertussis Tetanus Vaccine GST : Goods and Services Tax By Prakriti Sapkota after mating. • When a flea jumps, the rate of acceleration is 20 times that of the space shuttle during launch. • If our Sun were just an inch in diameter, the nearest star would be 445 miles away. • The Australian billygoat plum contains 100 times more vitamin C than an orange. • Astronauts cannot belch – there is no gravity to separate liquid from gas in their stomachs.
  10. 10. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Science Experiment: Lava Lamp You will need: 1. Empty two liter pet bottle. 2. Vegetable oil. 3. Fizzing tablets (like Alka Seltzer). 4. Food color and glitters. 5. Flash light. What to do? 1. Clean-up the bottle. 2. Pour half liters of water in bottle. 3. Fill the bottle full with vegetable oil and wait till oil and water gets separated. 4. Add 10 drops of food coloring and glitters in the bottle. 5. Break a Alka seltzer tablet in half and drop one by one inside the bottle. How does it work? According as the steps above when we pour oil in water, they do not mix but get separated. Oil stays above the water because it is less dense than water. When we add food coloring, drops will pass through the oil and then mix with the water below. While dropping the tablet piece, it sinks to the bottom and start dissolving and creating gas. As the gas bubbles rise to top with some, they take some colored water with them. When gas bubbles reaches the top, gas escapes and colored water comes down. To store the colored gas in bottle, put the cap on. To keep the effect going on, keep adding tablet piece. For true lava lamp effect, light a flash light through the bottom of bottle. Reference: By Bir Bikram Sah
  11. 11. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 11 Quotes Do You Know? • Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change. -Stephen Hawking • It is strange that only extraordinary men make the discoveries, which later appear so easy and simple. – Georg C. Lichtenberg • The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom. – Isaac Asimov • A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life. – Charles Darwin • The study of mathematics, like the Nile, begins in minuteness but ends in magnificence. – Charles Caleb Colton • Life is a math equation. In order to gain the most, you have to know how to convert negatives into positives. – Anonymous • Every aspect of the world today – even politics and international relations – is affected by chemistry. – LINUS PAULING • Chemistry is necessarily an experimental science: its conclusions are drawn from data, and its principles supported by evidence from facts. – MICHAEL FARADAY • Just because something doesn’t do what you planned it to do doesn’t mean it’s useless. – Thomas Edison  Light would take 13 seconds to travel around the Earth.  If you drilled a tunnel straight through the Earth and jumped in, it would take you exactly 42 minutes and 12 seconds to get to the other side.  A medium-sized cumulus cloud weighs about the same as 80 elephants.  A single bolt of lightning contains enough energy to cook 100,000 pieces of toast.  There are 8 times as many atoms in a teaspoonful of water as there are teaspoonfuls of water in the Atlantic Ocean.  If the Sun were the size of a beach ball then Jupiter would be the size of a golf ball and the Earth would be as small as a pea.  If you could drive your car straight up you would arrive in space in just over an hour.  The human brain takes in 11 million bits of information every second but is aware of only 40.  More germs are transferred shaking hands than kissing.  A red blood cell can make a complete circuit of your body in 20 seconds.  One in ten European babies is conceived in an IKEA bed. (Not much science in this one, but funny enough to know.  Males produce one thousand sperm cells each second – 86 million each day.  One in every 2000 babies is born with a tooth.  Girls have more taste buds than boys.  Gorillas and potatoes have two more chromosomes than humans do.  A pig’s orgasm lasts for 30 minutes.  Koalas sleep an average of 22 hours a day, two hours more than the sloth.
  12. 12. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Khalti won the Google Business Group storytelling contest, 2017 Monster planet discovered with size of Jupiter News Astartup from Nepal has won prestigious and international storytelling contest which was held in Singapore by Google Business Group (GBG) along with other three companies which are Cafe Yagam and Virtualahan of Philipines, Riliv of Indonesia . Not only being the winner, Khalti has also won People's choice Award. Three startups from Nepal were selected among the nine finalists. Khalti along with other three winners will get opportunity to travel to GBG An exoplanet has been discovered by the research team led by University of Warwick in collaboration with University of Leicester, University of Cambridge, Queen's University Belfast, Geneva Observatory, DLR Berlin and University of Chile. This planet which is named as NGTS-1b was spotted by help of a wide field observing facility Fig : An artist's impression of monster planet and its parent star headquarters in Mountain View, California for Google I/O in 2018 and interact with innovators, tech thinkers and enterprise leaders. Also their story will be shown in a video. Yellow Nepal, which is also a nepali startup, had won this contest in 2014. Khalti is a digital wallet and payment gateway which is one stop payment solution for recharging mobiles, airlines ticketing, movie ticketing, fund transfer, DTH and ISP bills payment. Fund transfer includes bank to wallet and vice verssa and wallet to wallet transfer. It was first launched in CAN infotech and has been successfully winning people's hearts. To use the services, we need to sign up for khalti and load money into our wallet through e-banking or from friend's wallet. And then there we go for all the services. consisting of a collection of telescopes called Next- Generation Transit Survey. The surprising fact is the planet of size of Jupiter and mass less than 20% of it revolves around a star of size half of that sun. Not only this, another amazing fact is that it revolves around its star in every two and half day that means a year in NGTS-1b is equal to around 2.6 earth days. Observed from observatory at Northern Chile, NGTS-1b revolves around a red dwarf star which was seen faint. According to Dr. Daniel Bayliss, the lead author of the research, "The discovery of NGTS-1b was a complete surprise to us – such massive planets were not thought to exist around such small stars." He also said, "Our challenge is to now find out how common these types of planets are in the Galaxy.” This has led to question mark on the theory we follow on formation of a planet and has opened a new gateway of the dire need of exploring the Universe more out of our Solar System. Retrieved from : By Radhika Bhandari
  13. 13. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 13 Internatinal Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in the low earth orbit. Image: Star trails Image: Jason Idzerda
  14. 14. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Science Quiz Let's test our knowledge on Science. After attempting the questions below, check answers in page 42. 1. What is the term given to the perimeter around a circle? 2. What is 70.3 divided by 10? 3. What is two thirds of 270? 4. How many straight edges does a cube have? 5. What is the common name for the third and final set of molars that most people develop? 6. If the number 2 = E and 1 = A, can you fill in the missing letters to reveal the name of a famous ancient leader: 1*2*1** 2* **2 **21* 7. Paul needs 13 bottles of lemonade from the shop but he can only carry 3 bottles at a time. How many trips to the shop will Paul need to make? 8. In humans, what is the only internal organ capable of regenerating lost tissue? 9. We have two identical balls in terms of diameter and weight. However, one of them is solid and the other is hollow.Without knocking the ball, can you find the solid ball? 10. Replace the ? by the correct Mathematics symbol to make the expression true18 ? 12 ? 4 ? 5 = 59 11. I know a three positive numbers that will results the same when multiplied together or added together Note : they are not fractional number. 12. Jimmy Bullard and his friend went for fishing. They got six fishes without heads, nine fishes without the tail and eight fishes cut in two halves. How many fishes did they caught ? 13. The average age of 10 members of a committee is the same as it was 4 years ago, because an old member has been replaced by a young member. Find how much younger is the new member ? 14. I am a son of a chemist and a mathematician. People called me Iron59. What's my name? 15. Can you solve the maths puzzle by replacing the question mark with the correct number ? Scientific Mind Magazine requests the science enthusiasts to send their articles related to science and mathematics. Best articles will be published in the coming issues. Articles can be send at Call For Articles
  15. 15. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 15 Turnip What Is A Turnip? Turnips are starchy vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family which also includes cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts etc. Though we usually refer to the bulbous roots as turnips, their sprouts and leaves are also edible and highly nutritious, and are used in European, Asian and Eastern American cuisines. Are turnips good for you? Well, the leafy green vegetables that come from the tops of turnip bulbs are known as turnip greens. These can be added to salads or sautéed and served as a side dish. Though the root is most widely used, its top fresh greens are much more nutritious, being several times richer in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. All in all, turnips can be a perfect replacement for potatoes as it contains only 1/3 calories in comparison to those in potatoes. Health Benefits of Turnips Like most other vegetables, turnips are low in calories and hence, quite nutritious. There are variety of turnip health benefits, check out what are they. 1. Cancer Prevention These cruciferous vegetables contain high levels of antioxidants and phytochemicals, which reduce the risk of cancer. Presence of glucosinolates prevents as well as reduces the effect of cancer. These are natural plant chemicals that break into two compounds while digesting i.e. indoles and isothiocyanates. They help the liver process toxins, fight the effects of carcinogens and can inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Inclusion of this vegetable in your daily diet can reduce the risk of breast cancer as well as colon and rectal tumors. 2. Cardiovascular Health Turnips possess great anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of large amount of vitamin K. These help in preventing heart attacks, heart strokes and other heart ailments. Turnip greens aid in digestion by absorbing more amount of bile which uses up the cholesterol present in the body. This results in the reduction of cholesterol. Turnips are also excellent sources of folate, which further helps to boost up the cardiovascular system. 3. Helps in Digestion The high fiber content in turnip greens supports the body’s digestive system. Researchhasproved that glucosinolates may also help the stomach process bacteria like Helicobacter pylori . 4. Beneficial for Weight Loss Turnips are low in calories and hence, can form part of an effective weight loss program. Their high fiber content on the other hand regulates metabolism, controls body weight and supports a healthy and active colon. 9. Cures Asthma The anti-inflammatory properties of turnips can be attributed to their high content of vitamin C which is a powerful antioxidant. These properties are effective in curing asthma and curbing the symptoms of asthma. Studies have proved that giving turnips to asthmatic patients can lessen wheezing. 10. Strengthens the Immune System Turnip root plays an important role in the proper functioning of the body’s immune system. The beta-carotene content in turnips helps the body in producing healthy membranes. Turnip is also beneficial for eyes, lungs, bones etc. Source: benefits-of-turnips-for-skin-hair-and-health/ Image:
  16. 16. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Cover Story Winners of Nobel Prize 2017 By Nischal Shrestha The Nobel prize ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden. Image: Nobel Prize is undoubtedly the most prestigious award in the world. The award named after inventor Alfred Nobel was started in the year 1901. Like in previous years, this year too, Nobel Prize was awarded to the greatest achievements benefitting the humankind. In the month of October, the recipients of the Nobel Prize in six disciplines were announced. The winner receives a medal, diploma and about one million US dollars (approx. 10 crores Nepalese Rupees). The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 is given to Jacques Dubochet (University of Lausanne, Switzerland), Joachim Frank (Columbia University, New York) and Richard Henderson (MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, U.K.) for discovering better ways to see the molecules at the atomic level. The Nobel Committee awarded the prize to trio, "for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution". The discovery will help to visualize the cells more clearly. Scientists used cryo-electron imaging to determine the shape of the Zika virus. Zika virus is assumed to cause large number of birth defects and through the determination of its shape, research for the treatment will be lot more easier. It is believed that this discovery will revolutionize chemistry and take it to another level. Regarding the inability of winning Nobel Prize by Nepal, Prof. Rameshwar Adhikari, executive director of Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST), Tribhuvan University said, “Till date we did not win Nobel Prize because
  17. 17. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 17 One of the Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, Richard Henderson at work. Image: Artwork of two coalescing black holes spinning in a non-aligned fashion. Image: we did not identify precisely our potential and did not seriously put efforts on discoveries on that ground. Our efforts are too insufficient and superficial – on part of persons, institutions as well as the government.” He further went on to say, “Scientists, institutions and government should put serious efforts on new discoveries and innovations based on our inherent potentials so that we will be one day able to win Nobel Prize. ‘Nobel Prize for Nepal’ should be our national agenda towards National Pride.” This year, the discovery of Gravitational Waves was given the Nobel Prize in Physics. The prize will be shared by Rainer Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Kip Thorne and Barry Barish (California Institute of Technology) for “decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves.” Gravitational Waves detection announcement was done a year earlier in 2016. It is widely expected in the scientific fraternity that this discovery will play fundamental role to know more about the universe. Gravitational waves are the ripples in the space-time created due to the merging of large bodies like black holes in space. Scientists do not know about the early universe, what happened during the big bang. The discovery will shed light on this mystery in the days to come. Weiss and Thorne are pioneers of the LIGO project, while Barish took the lead in completing it. On Sept. 14, 2015, Gravitational Waves from the black hole collision 1.3 billion years ago were detected by twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in Louisiana and Washington state, USA. Weiss and Thorne are pioneers of the LIGO project, while for completion, Barish took the lead. In the context of Nobel Prize, Prof. Balasubramanian Ananthanarayan of Indian Institute of Science (IISc), one of the top research universities of the world said, “Nobel prize is not the only way of evaluating scientific contribution. It is awarded for specific landmark contribution. Also West is centuries ahead and invests enormous amount of money. Thus the odds are stacked against developing countries. South Asian people working in the West do win. That actually proves my point. It is also important to think beyond Nobel prize.” 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was given to Jeffrey C. Hall (University of Maine), Michael Rosbash (Brandeis University), and Michael W. Young (Rockefeller University) for the discovery of biological clocks. Biological clocks anticipate various activities throughout the day like wakingup, sleeping, eating etc. by regulating things like hormone levels, temperature and other things. They were acknowledged for their discovery of the 24- hour body clock which is a microscopic biological machinery controlling the circadian rhythm.
  18. 18. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 They were able to peek inside our biological clock and elucidate its inner workings,” the Nobel Prize Committee press release reads. “Their discoveries explain how plants, animals, and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronized with the Earth's revolutions.” Dr. Young was stunned by the announcement. He explained about the moment he heard about the announcement, “I really had some trouble getting my shoes on that morning,” he said. “I’d go and pick up my shoes and then I’d realize I need socks, and then I’d realize I need to put my pants on first.” Adding his views on Nobel Prize and Nepal, Prof. Adhikari further said, “This is the age of knowledge – economy and prosperity depend on knowledge today. We should put all our efforts to make our country a land of innovations and new discoveries, of course, on the basis of our potentials and resources. We have brilliant young scientists whom we should strive to promote and encourage to make Nepal their ‘Centre of Living’. They will bag Nobel Prize for Nepal. This will mean us a lot – our country will be identified as a land of discoveries and innovations besides being a country of diversities, natural beauty, and with enthusiastic, optimistic, cheerful as well as hardworking folks.” The 2017 Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to Richard H. Thaler "for his contributions to behavioural economics". The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017 was awarded to Kazuo Ishiguro "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world. The Nobel Peace Prize 2017 was awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty- based prohibition of such weapons". Source:,, theguardian. com Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young, recipients of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, were shown at the award announcement in Stockholm
  19. 19. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 19 Hand Washing Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene is act of cleansing hands off any contamination including microorganisms. It is a very simple, inexpensive and effective; yet much overlooked method of disinfection. We wash our hands multiple times a day. But then, we just do it for namesake. There’s a proper way of hand washing which when employed achieves high level of disinfection. Keeping hands clean through improved hand hygiene is one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Many diseases especially those transmitted through feco-oral route like typhoid, cholera, intestinal amoebiasisand conditions like diarrhea, dysentery are spread by not washing hands with soap and clean, running water. Superficial infections of skin like impetigo that can be contagious through secretions, respiratory infections that can be contagious through droplets like influenza can also spread through unclean hands. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field so as to prevent mass dissemination of pathogen, but it is also an important practice for the general public to keep themselves,the family and community healthy. It is estimated that about every 1 in 3 infant suffer from diarrheal disease. Around 1.8 million children under the age of 5 year die around the world every year due to acute respiratory tract infection and another 3.5 million under 5 children deaths has been attributed to diarrheal diseases. A simple act of proper hand washing can reduce this mortality by almost 50%. When to wash hands? Hand washing can be performed whenever considered appropriate and is of critical importance: - Before, during, and after preparing food, handling raw meat, fish or poultry, - Before eating food, - Before and after caring for someone who is sick, Dr. Anand Deo MBBS, Kathmandu University - Before and after treating a cut or wound, - After using the toilet, - After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet, - After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing, - After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste, - After handling pet food or pet treats, - After touching garbage. The World Health Organization has "Five Moments" for washing hands for medical personnel: - Before patient care, - After environmental contact, - After exposure to blood/body fluids, - Before an aseptic task, and - After patient care. How to wash hands? - Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off the tap, and apply soap. - Lather your hands by rubbing them together
  20. 20. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails (steps 1-7). - Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Hum the “Happy Birthday” song from beginning to end twice. - Rinse your hands well under clean, running water. - Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them. Running water is preferred as hands could become re-contaminated if placed in a basin of standing water that has been contaminated through previous use. However, washing with non-potable water when necessary may still improve health. Not much difference has been observed in the level of decontamination obtained from using hot water or cold water. So cold water is the convention as hot water is less environment-friendly and can also cause skin irritation. Also there is not much data to show significant transfer of pathogen while closing the tap after done cleaning hands. So, one can close the faucet himself to save the water. But this is not advised for the medical personnel who have to maintain strict asepsis as in conditions while performing surgery. Someone else has to close it off for him. Using soap and water lowers the surface tension which lifts the dirt and microbes off the skin surface and scrubbing takes care of the organisms present on the skin surface. Washing off the lather with running water removes these lifted dirt and microbes from the hand. Hands should be dried after washing as germs can be transferred more easily to and from wet hands. Alternative to soap and water are alcohol based sanitizers that contain at least 60% alcohol. When using hand sanitizer, apply the product to the palm of one hand and rub the product all over the surfaces of your hands until your hands are dry. Hand sanitizers may not be as effective when hands are visibly dirty or greasy. These might not remove harmful chemicals, like pesticides and heavy metals, from hands. Quite uncommonly one can suffer from alcohol poisoning from accidental ingestion of sanitizers, especially children. Another detrimental effect of too much hand washing is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in which person has obsession of personal cleanliness and has a compulsive behavior of repeated hand washing. To emphasize on the importance of hand washing, WHO and the world celebrates hand washing day on October 15. The slogan for year 2017 was ‘Our Hands Our Future’. Rightly so, the health and future of you is in your hands. Keep it clean! Sources: WHO, CDC The state of world’s children, child survival, UNICEF "Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review". The Lancet Infectious Diseases (May 2003)
  21. 21. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 21 Parasites are the integral part of the human body, playing essential role but are we serious about the parasites that run forming a chain from our pets to human illness. There are several opportunistic parasites that find their way from dogs to human. Most common of them are Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp., Taenia spp., Dipylidiumspp., Trichuris spp. and Diphyllobothrium spp..The most common zoonotic diseases of the developing countries are cutaneous and visceral larva migrans, hydatidosis, and taeniasis (Akao & Ohta, 2007) and giardiosis, cryptosporidiosis and echinococcosis (Kaewthamasorn et al, 2006). The contamination of urban public spaces with parasitic dog faeces constitutes a public health problem mainly in children, which is most likely due to the close contact that children have with soil in public parks due to their land-grabbing habit (Ribeiro, Dracz, Mozzer & Lima, 2013; Soriano et al., 2010). Dogs have been implicated in playing a significant role in the contaminating soils around poor peri-urban and urban environments(Avcioglu& Balkaya,2011; Maśnik, 2000). Most parasites affect the dogs subclinically and dogs may harbor Parasites, bridge to human: Integrated Health Approach Dr. Birendra Shrestha Dr. Kush Kumar Yadav Tribhuvan University a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans (Craig & Macpherson, 2000). Dogs are the most popular pet and famous among kids. The more we indulge with the dogchances of transmission are higher. Unknowingly, we do welcome a lot of parasites by not maintaining sanitation measures. Vaccination is not only the way to protect themselves and dogs from diseases. Deworming in regular interval is also the important required preventive measure. Virus, Bacteria are not only known for zoonotic pathogens. Paraistes too plays major role in zoonotic disease transmission resulting in fatal cases. In a research conducted at Rupandehi district on 400 dogs, we found Ancylostomaspp. (46.81%), Toxocaraspp (37.87%), Taenia spp. (9.36%), Dipylidium spp. (22.98%) ,Trichuris spp. (5.73%) and Diphyllobothrium spp. (2.98%) to be the prominent parasites in the area. The study revealed the occurrence of single helminth parasitic infection more common (78.72%) than concurrent mixed infection (21.28%) among positive samples. There was higher prevalence of gastrointestinal zoonotic helminth in non-dewormed pet dogs (61.41%) than in dewormed pet dogs (36.81%). Research data clearly explains the threat of disease transmission that could lead to major economic and health disturbances to human. Deworming on regular basis and screening can be the best preventive ways. Havng pets and raising them properly following vaccination and deworming schedule can lead to long life of dogs and ultimately a happy company to human.Image: Getty Images
  22. 22. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 ELECTRONIC FIBERS AND THEIR POTENTIALS Many technological advantages have already been extracted by mankind for daily life utilities based on the electronic properties of conductors and semi-conductors. This endeavor, however, was restricted to a great extent until the plastics were developed as bad conductors of electricity. But with the invention of conducting plastics changed the whole scenario of electronics materials making inroads into human daily life domain with exotic applications. In 1977, Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa reported high conductivity in oxidized iodine- doped polyacetylene. For this research, they were awarded the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the discovery and development of conductive polymers”. Polyacetylene itself however did not find practical applications, but drew the attention of scientists and encouraged the rapid growth of the field. Fibretronics Efforts are always directed to innovate electronic devices with better functionality, energy efficiency and flexibility from earth-abundant materials using eco-friendlyprocesses.Plasticororganicelectronics, which is made from organic carbon-based semiconductors, is one such group of technologies that can potentially provide flexible, light-weight, large-area and additively-manufactured devices, which are attractive for some types of applications. Just as in classical electronics, the construction of electronic capabilities on textile fibers requires the use of conducting and semi-conducting materials such as a conductive textile. There are a number of commercial fibers today that include metallic fibers mixed with textile fibers to form conducting fibers that can be woven or sewn. As both metals and classical semiconductors are stiff material, they are not very suitable for textile fiber applications, since fibers are subjected to much stretch and bending Image: Dr. S. S. Verma Department of Physics, S.L.I.E.T. Punjab, India during use. A new class of electronic materials that are more suitable for e-textiles is the class of organic electronics materials, because they can be conducting, as well as semiconducting, and designed as inks and plastics. Future applications for e-textiles may be developed for sports and well-being products, and medical devices for patient monitoring. Technical textiles, fashion and entertainment will also be significant applications. Electronic textiles Experts in the field of electronics and fibers always desired to bring both the areas together in order to create smart textiles for clothing that can sense their environment, store, transmit and process information as well as harvest and store the energy necessary to do all this. However, creating truly smart textiles is easier said than done as one problem is that clothing generally has to be soft and flexible, something that chips, wires and sensors usually are not. A second problem is that most clothing is made from woven materials which must be made from soft flexible strands. Some progress has been made with certain conducting polymers drawn into fibres and woven into a material to form a kind of wearable
  23. 23. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 23 motherboard. It is then possible to fasten electronic components such as chips, sensors and batteries to this motherboard. Smart fabrics (combining fabrics and electronics) are being developed with new technologies and functionalities that provided added value to the wearer. What makes smart fabrics more revolutionary is their ability to do many things that traditional fabrics cannot do including communicate, performance enhancement, conduct energy, purify water using nothing but the sun as an energy source, clothes that can take an ECG or become cool at extreme temperatures and even grow. Performance enhancing smart textiles is intended to be used in atheletics and military applications. These include fabrics designed to regulate body temperature, reduce wind resistance, and control muscle vibration – all of which may improve athletic performance. Other fabrics have been developed for protective clothing, to guard against extreme environmental hazards, such as radiation and the effects of space travel. The health and beauty industry is also taking advantage of these innovations, which range from drug-releasing medical textiles, to fabric with moisturizer, perfume, and anti-aging properties. Many smart clothing, wearable technology, and wearable computing projects involve the use of e-textiles. Power from fabrics Scientists have already developed a flexible fabric that makes electricity from heat or movement of body. In order to get really good thermoelectrics, we use exotic materials that can move lots and lots of electrons very, very fast, but that don't allow the transfer of heat. They're very expensive and they're very exotic. They work very well, but they're just not very useful in the sense that we can't apply them in many of the places where heat sources exist. The electric fiber material is light weight, feels like wool felt, and can be wrapped around surfaces or even sewn into clothing. While fabric cannot create power but can essentially pull electricity out of vibrations, from heat and movement. The fabric will turn heat from- our body, the sun, anywhere- into usable electricity e.g., letting a bouncing smartphone on a car seat during a long drive could be able to charge itself. So could a shirt flapping in the wind. Nanowires that convert motion into current could lead to textiles that can generate power. Researchers have taken an important step toward creating fabrics that could generate power from the wearer’s walking, breathing, and heartbeats. Future scope The use of organic polymers for electronic functions is mainly motivated by the low-end applications, where low cost rather than advanced performance is a driving force. Materials and processing methods must allow for cheap production. Printing of electronics using inkjets or classical printing methods has considerable potential to deliver this. Another technology that has been around for millennia is weaving using fibres. Integration of electronic functions within fabrics, with production methods fully compatible with textiles, is therefore of current interest, to enhance performance and extend functions of textiles. Researchers worked on optimizing the working of overall textile towards producing the energy by studying the effect of individual parameters like turboelectric component and stress. To extract maximum energy conversion from textiles movement (through body), researchers have studied the role of triboelectric component from the wave patterns and found that plain-weave provided the highest electrical output. Moreover, due to the breathability, flexibility, and robustness of the textile, it is a prime candidate for wearable electronics. References 1. Tushar Ghosh and Anuj Dhawan, Electronic textiles and their potential, Indian Journal of Fiber & Textile Research, vol. 31, pp. 170- 176, 2006. 2. Jian Feng Gu, Stephan Gorgutsa, and Maksim Skorobogatiy, Soft capacitor fibers for electronic textiles, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, pp. 133305-1-3, 2010. 3. Md. Syduzzaman, Sarif Ullah Patwary, Kaniz Farhana and Sharif Ahmed, Smart Textiles and Nano-Technology: A General Overview, J Textile Sci Eng, vol. 5 (1), 1000181, pp.1-7, 2015.
  24. 24. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 The history of successful interplanetary space mission is begun by United State in December 1962 after sending the Mariner 2 to the planet Venus which collected the data from around 35,000 km of the Venus. In a last few decades, due to advancement in technology, robotic spacecraft is being used in the space exploration. The first robotic spacecraft is sent under joint venture by the NASA, Indian Space Research Organization, Soviet Union, European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency which has produced number of discoveries and revolutionized our view about Solar system. In 1977, the Voyager mission was launched which was one of the fruitful missions as it provided many examples of the process of discovery. Voyager revealed that the moon of the Jupiter named Io was volcanically active and confirmed the theories of tidal heating, and another moon, Europa is nearly crater-free icy surface which suggests recent resurfacing and the possibility of liquid water. Voyager also noticed about the Saturn’s largest moon Titan that it’s atmosphere is thick and rich in hydrocarbons, and another moon, Enceladus (the sixth- largest moon of Saturn) to have amazingly geologically young surface. Until now, much more information has been obtained about major planets of the solar system but a little has been known about a trans-Neptune region, the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud. The Kuiper belt is a disc- shaped region of icy bodies which includes dwarf planets such as Pluto and comets beyond the orbit of Neptune, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at ~ 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun. The astronomical unit (symbol A.U.) is the unit of distance in space science andit is approximately 150 million km. This belt is similar to the asteroid belt, but is far larger ~ 20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive. Beyond this Kuiper belt, there is another belt called Oort cloud. This article comprises an overview on the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud. A sednoid is a trans-Neptunian object with a perihelion greater than 50 AU and a semi-major axis greater than 150 AU.[1] Only two objects are known from this population, 90377 Sedna and 2012 VP113, both of which have perihelia greater than 75 AU, [2] but it is suspected that there are many more. These objects lie outside an apparently nearly empty gap in the Solar System starting at about 50 AU, and have no significant interaction with the planets. They are usually grouped with the detached objects. Some astronomers, such as Scott Sheppard,[2] considered the sednoids to be inner Oort cloud objects (OCOs), though the inner Oort cloud (or Hills cloud) was originally predicted to lie beyond 2,000 AU, several times as far as the aphelia of the two known sednoids. Kuiper Belt Kuiper belt (pronounced Kai- per) is disc-shaped very cold zone of the solar system which extends from 30 to 100 A.U. and is never inside orbits of jovian planets. It contains materials totalling less than a tenth the mass of the Earth. Based on different models developed, scientists conclude that the entire Kuiper belt formed closer to the Sun and was transported outward during the final stages of planet formation. The Kuiper Belt consists of Icy rocks, and it a major source of short-period Comets in the Solar system. Extending beyond the planet Neptune, Pluto was discovered to be one of the largest objects in the belt which is now in the family of dwarf planet. The Kuiper Belt is one of the two main reservoirs of comets in the Solar System along with the Oort cloud. Jupiter- Family comets are believed to have formed here and to have migrated inwards only later, to their current orbits with aphelia near the orbits of Jupiter and the other giant planets. Mass of all comets probablyare comparable to the mass of terrestrial planets. The schematic diagrams of inner solar system, Far Solar System: An Overview Dr. Vinaya Kumar Jha
  25. 25. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 25 outer solar system and Oort cloud have been shown in figure above. Oort Cloud The mysterious Oort cloud is a collection of Comets which is thought to extend far beyond the planets of the Solar System. It is better called ‘Cloud’ as the Oort comets are distributed spherically about the Sun, possibly extending as far as half way to the next star. The orbits of OCOs are not regular or planar like the Asteroid and Kuiper belts, and supposed that they are often perturbed through gravitational interactions during their long journeys on highly eccentric orbits. The belts and the Oort cloud show just how many rocks there are in the Solar System. The Planets certainly may be the largest objects, but they are certainly not alone. This region is filled with billions of comets. Already mentioned above, one of the major sources of comets are the Oort cloud along with the Kuiper belt. The gravity of Jupiter, a Gas Giant planet affects objects in the Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud, sending them into our Solar System towards the Sun. In Figure above, the right panel shows the Oort cloud, the other main reservoir of comets located well beyond the outer Solar System. They have highly eccentric orbits and periods of around 200 years or more. Comets from the Oort cloud are believed to have originated in the vicinity of the giant planets and to have been ejected later, via gravitational interactions, to their current orbits. The Oort cloud is thought to have a roughly spherical distribution. Although Nemesis is assumed to be the most distant object in the solar system, probably the most amazing hypothetical trans-Neptunian object. This is a predicted companion star to the Sun, with an elliptical orbit between 20,000 and 90,000 AU from the Sun and a period of 30 million years. The IRAS satellite surveyed the entire sky at and could not find any evidence about the existence of Nemesis In November 2015, space scientists found the icy body named V774101which is supposed to be the farthest body in the solar system. This claim is based on its reflectivity. [3,4] This icy body is supposed to be 500 to 1,000 km in diameter which is roughly half the size of Pluto. It is around 10 billion miles from Earth, or three times farther away than Pluto. References 1. Sheppard, Scott S. "Known Extreme Outer Solar System Objects". Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, April 17, 2014. 2. Chadwick A. Trujilloand Scott S. Sheppard.“ ASedna- like body with a perihelion of 80 astronomical units”, Nature 507, 471- 474, March 14, 2014. 3. Kelly Beautty. “ V774104: Solar System’s Most Distant Object”, SKY & TELESCOPE, November 15, 2015. 4. Deborah Byrd. “New most distant object in solar system”, Science wire/Space, December 1, 2015. Image: Schematic diagram of inner solar system (left), planets and Kuiper belt (middle) and Oort cloud (right). Source (
  26. 26. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Indigenous Technology and Knowledge in Nepal Indigenous refers to those practices which is more of local origin that includes skills, experiences and knowledge of people to sustain their livelihood. Indigenous knowledge is and has been developed and adapted continuously for centuries and is still evolving. Indigenous knowledge and technology (ITK) is passed down from generation to generation interwoven with people’s cultural values so, it has played a vital role on shaping people’s life and their existence. It is very important to understand ITK when it comes to natural resource management. This is because we need to consider people’s values and beliefs for effective and efficient nature conservation. In Nepal, we have been practicing such techniques for years. Some of the examples are slicing the walls of terrace risers, allowing flood water into fields, application of farm yard manure, crop rotations, mulching, use of forest soils and black soil, fallowing, ashing to prevents pests and insects Fig: Terrace farming in Chitlang Susmina Gajurel M.Sc. Environment and Natural Resources, Kathmandu University and provide organic matter to enrich soil fertility. Rainwater harvesting, agroforestry, fire in range land during dry period to provide organic matter so that there will be re-growth of new sprouts and eradication of insects and pests are few more practices of ITK. ITKplaysasignificantroleinpeople’slifesowehave to acknowledge local knowledge and enable and empower them to adapt and respond to changes that are occurring in an unprecedented way due to climate change. There exists a loophole in proper understanding and transfer of such knowledge. This entails that a serious attention is required in an assessment and development of local and indigenous knowledge because it is interlinked with people, culture and their social structure. If we could explore more into it we can promote sustainable and efficient resource mobilization. Heisenberg and Schrodinger are driving in a car. A cop pulls them over. Heisenberg is driving, and the cop asks, “Do you know how fast you were going?” “No, but I know exactly where I am,” replied Heisenberg. The cop says, “You were going at 60 in a 40-speed limit.” Heisenberg throws up his hands in air and shouts, “Great! Now, I’m lost.” The cop thinks this is suspicious and asks him to open up the trunk of the car. He checks it out and says, “Do you know there’s a dead cat back there?” “We do now, idiot!” shouts Schrodinger. JOKE
  27. 27. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 27 Space Observation: Solar System There is no visual trace back to the formation of planets. This is historical science and we may never know what had actually happened; however, we do have evidences that has survived from near the zero-time. We can discern the properties of the solar system in an attempt to find how it formed and how it got the way it is today. In this attempt, we look at the broad scope, depicting the patterns within the solar system and drawing out the reasons for such patterns and reasoning the anomalies. The first observation we get from the planets and the sun in the solar system is their movements. The planets revolve around the sun in the direction in which the sun itself rotates, and most of the planets also revolve around the sun in the same direction. Another common feature in the system is that the four inner planets are small in size and mostly rocky, while the outer planets are gaseous and bulky. Beyond the sun and the eight planets are the clusters of small interplanetary bodies and in between the inner planets and outer planets lies a ring of rocky bodies, all of which lie in a plane. An exception to these patterns is the rotation of Mars, which rotates in opposite direction to that of the Sun. The Uranus has its axis tilted on its side, an inclination of nearly 90 degrees. Let’s dive into these broad concepts! Inner Planets The first four planets are the rocky and small sized inner planets. Only the Earth harbours life and while the other three appear similar, life sustenance is quite impossible. This is because of the miniature size of these three planets, which makes them hard to hold atmosphere. Earth and Venus are identical in size, mass and interior structure, but since Venus is nearer from the Sun, it gets more radiation which makes it Madhu Lamichhane B.E. Mechanical Engineering difficult to harbour life. Another important factor for sustenance of life and any of bio-feature is volcanic worlds within the planet with magma flow internally which makes exchange of energy possible for carbon-based life. Mercury and the Moon too to have tectonic activities, but their size is the limit to hold atmosphere. Also, these small planets have gases exceeding escape velocity.This same thing had made Earth’s hydrogen and helium escape the atmosphere long before. And later, O2 was formed by microbe metabolism. Mars The Red planet has always been the subject of interest from Space Probes and Manned Missions. It is the only planet that bears most similarities to the Earth. The expectation of Mars had started from a century ago. Parcival Lowell had constructed two-meter telescope, the largest at the time, in the desert of Arizona to study the Mars and much information has been known since then. Substaintially smaller than the Earth, Mars holds only 1% of density of the air we breathe, which is formed mostly of co2. Lying 50%further from the sun than the Earth does, it receives one fourth of radiation than the earth does. So it is a cold place and liquid water, an important aspect of
  28. 28. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 life, doesn't form. It also has similar tilt like Earth's, so although it lies far from the Sun, the seasonal variations are similar. After the telescopic view, the mission to the Mars went further. In 1970s, Viking Landers was sent to the Mars that collected many information, collecting the rocks and studying their ages through carbon dating. Phoenix Lander by University of Arizona was another probe that went to North Pole region of the planet. And currently, Curiosity Mission by NASA is exploring it. We know now that most of the surface is old and eroded by crate, and not refurnished by volcanic and tectonic activities like on the Earth. On the Earth, surface ancient rocks are rarely found, while most of the places on the Mars are 3.5 billion years old. However, this planet is not completely boring as its surface looks. The telescope by Percivell had suggested that it contains mild hydrological cycle. Olympus Mon which is the largest volcano in the entire solar system known so far also lies here. Jovian Planets Four gaseous planets beyond the asteroid belt are the large Jovian planets. Each of these gas planets has its magnetic field, multiple satellites and large ring systems, but it's only Saturn whose ring systems are prominent. Other three planets' rings were discovered in 1970s and 1980s. Most of the planets' atmospheres are made up of hydrogen and helium, as these gases escaped the erosion by the sun's radiation. The most bizarre thing is the presence of hydrogen and helium in liquid and even crystalline form. But, although these planets are cold, deep in their atmosphere, it is hot with high temperature and high pressure. Jupiter is regarded as miniature version of the sun, since it is mostly made up of hydrogen and helium and is as large as three Earths. The visions from the telescopes and the data sent by the space missions suggest that it has enormous weather system that last for centuries. Another heavenly planet is Saturn on which Cassini Mission has been exploring. Many interesting images have been sent by the Mission. It has cluster of rings that revolve around it in a plane, but sometimes strike with each other. The Cassini Mission has recently sent intriguing pictures of Europa, Saturn's moon, where it appeared that the water vapour was evaporating from its surface. Other images that show rivers and dendritic channels are also seen. Solar system is the first things that we need to observe if we are to know more about the Universe. Every planets work in a broad pattern and they behave the way do because of the impacts that exists from the beginning. If we have much information about it, then we can look for other bodies in the space that work in the similar pattern and that can sustain carbon based life like our Earth does. Reference Planets – NASA Solar System Exploration http:// Space Exploration
  29. 29. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 29 ANTIBIOTIC: Misuse Proven to be Fatal Asma Shrestha B.Sc. MicrobiologyAntibiotics can be loosely defined as the variety of substances derived from bacterial sources (microorganisms) that control the growth of or kill other bacteria. Antibiotic can be classified as follow: Various types of antibiotics work in either of the following two ways: Bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotic A Bactericidal antibiotic kills the bacteria generally by either interfering with the formation of the bacterium's cell wall or its cell contents whereas a bacteriostatic antibiotic stops bacteria from multiplying by interfering with bacterial protein production, DNA replication, or other aspects of bacterial cellular metabolism. Penicillin, daptomycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole are some example of Bactericidal antibiotics. Some bacteriostatic antibiotics is tetracyclines, sulphonamides, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, macrolides and lincosamides. “Antibiotic misuse”, sometimes called “antibiotic abuse” or “antibiotic overuse”, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health. It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, informally called "super bugs": relatively harmless bacteria (such as Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Acinetobacter) can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections. Common situations in which antibiotics are overused include the following: Apparent viral respiratory illness in children should not be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics may be used only when there is diagnosis of bacterial infection. When children with ear tubes get ear infections, they should have antibiotic eardrops put into their ears to go to the infection rather than having oral antibiotics which are more likely to have unwanted side effects and so is the case for swimmer’s ear. Sinusitis should not be treated with antibiotics because it is usually caused by a virus, and even when it is caused by bacteria, antibiotics is not indicated except in atypical circumstances as it usually resolves without treatment. Viral conjunctivitis should not be treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics should only be used with confirmation that a patient has bacterial conjunctivitis. Older persons often have bacteria in their urine which is detected in routine urine tests, but unless the person has the symptoms of a urinary tract infection, antibiotics should not be used in response. Eczema should not be treated with oral antibiotics. Dry skin can be treated with lotions or other symptom treatments. Theuseof topicalantibioticstotreatsurgicalwounds does not reduce infection rates in comparison with non-antibiotic ointment or no ointment at all. Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the Source: society/the-malaise-antibiotic-overuse-1390387
  30. 30. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 world’s most pressing public health problems. Antibiotic resistance can cause illnesses that were once easily treatable with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, prolonging suffering for children and adults. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can spread to family members, schoolmates, and co-workers, and may threaten your community. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are often more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat. In some cases, the antibiotic-resistant infections can lead to serious disability or even death. “Although some people think a person becomes resistant to specific drugs, it is the bacteria, not the person, that become resistant to the drugs.” Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics through several ways. Some bacteria can “neutralize” an antibiotic by changing it in a way that makes it harmless. Others have learned how to pump an antibiotic back outside of the bacteria before it can do any harm. Some bacteria can change their outer structure so the antibiotic has no way to attach to the bacteria it is designed to kill. After being exposed to antibiotics, sometimes one of the bacteria can survive because it found a way to resist the antibiotic. If even one bacterium becomes resistant to antibiotics, it can then multiply and replace all the bacteria that were killed off. That means that exposure to antibiotics provides selective pressure making the surviving bacteria more likely to be resistant. Bacteria can also become resistant through mutation of their genetic material. about/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html Steps can be taken at all levels of society to reduce the impact and limit the spread of resistance. Individuals To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, individuals can: Only use antibiotics when prescribed by a certified health professional, never demand antibiotics if your health worker says you don’t need them, always follow your health worker’s advice when using antibiotics, never share or use leftover antibiotics and prevent infections by regularly washing hands, preparing food hygienically, avoiding close contact with sick people, practicing safer sex, and keeping vaccinations up to date. Policy makers To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, policy makers can: Ensure a robust national action plan to tackle antibiotic resistance is in place, improve surveillance of antibiotic- resistant infections, strengthen policies, programs, and implementation of infection prevention and control measures, regulate and promote the appropriate use and disposal of quality medicines and make information available on the impact of antibiotic resistance. Health professional To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, health professionals can: Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment is clean, only prescribe and dispense antibiotics when they are needed, according to current guidelines, report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams and talk to your patients how to take antibiotics correctly, antibiotic resistance ,the dangers of misuse and about preventing infections (for example, vaccination, hand washing, safer sex, and covering nose and mouth when sneezing). Healthcare industry To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, the health industry can invest in research and development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics and other tools. Agriculture sector To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, the agriculture sector can: Only give antibiotics to animals under veterinary supervision, notuseantibioticsforgrowthpromotionortoprevent diseases, vaccinate animals to reduce the need for antibiotics and use alternatives to antibiotics when available, promote and apply good practices at all steps of production and processing of foods from animal and plant sources and improve biosecurity on farms and prevent infections through improved hygiene and animal welfare. WHO | Antibiotic resistance factsheets/antibiotic-resistance/en/
  31. 31. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 31 Medical/Engineering Entrance Questions and Answers Physics 1. What is radioactive series ? a) All the alpha and beta particles emitted by radioactive element. b) All changes initiated from unstable by radioactive element to final stable element. c) The immediate isotope resulting from emission of alpha and beta particles. d) The new isotope/isotopes resulting from emission of alpha and beta particles and disintegration of parent element. 2. What is the degree of freedom of diatomic gas? a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 6 3. Doppler’s effect of light is used in: a) Electrocardiograph and star distance measurement b) Ultrasonography and measurement of speed of sun rotation c) Measurement star distances and speed of sun rotation d) ElectrocardiographandUltrasonography 4. Humidity is measured by : a) Monometer b) Barometer c) Hygrometer d) Thermometer 5. Hubble’s law states that (xxx) a) V = r b) V = r2 c) V =1/r d) none Chemistry 6. Which of the following order of basicity is correct ? a) NaCH3 < CH3 NH2 < NaOH b) NaOH < NaCH3 < CH3 NH2 c) NaCH3 < NaOH < CH3 NH2 d) CH3 NH2 < NaCH3 < NaOH 7. Atomic weight is defined as: a) no. of electrons b) sum of no. of protons and neutrons c) sum of no. of electrons and protons d) average of the product of isotopic mass & their relative abundances 8. Which is not a carbohydrate? a) Starch b) Cellulose c) Glycogen d) Haemoglobin 9. PH is defined as: a) Logarithm of H– b) Negative Logarithm of H+ c) Negative Logarithm of OH– d) Logarithm of OH– 10. Human beings: a) Degrease entropy of universe b) Obey both laws of thermodynamics c) Obey only the 2nd laws of thermodynamics d) Transfer energy from the environment only in the form of mass Biology 11. Which gas contributes maximum to the “Green house effect” on the earth ? a) CO2 b) CCl2 F2 c) Freon d) Methane 12. Which of the following does not have an open circulatory system ? a) Frog’s tadpole b) Prawn c) Chelifer d) Cockroach 13. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genes are: a) Single stranded RNA b) Double stranded DNA c) Proteinzceous d) Double stranded RNA
  32. 32. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Answers 1. d 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. a 6. a 7. d 8. d 9. b 10. b 11. a 12. a 13. a 14. c 15. b 16. a 17. d 18. d 19. d 20. b 14. A child’s blood group is ‘O’. The parent’s blood group can’t be a) A and B b) A and A c) AB and O d) B and O 15. The plant body of moss (funaria) is: a) Completely sporophyte b) Predominately gametophyte with sporophyte c) Completely gametophyte d) Predominately sporophyte with gametophyte 16. 10% energy transfer law in food is given by: a) Liedeman b) Tanslay c) Elton d) Raunkiar 17. One of the following is not modified green stem a) Cladode b) Cladophyll c) Phylloclade d) Pistilode 18. Chloroplast containing cell is a) Collenchymas and parenchyma b) Collenchymas and sclerenchyma c) Collenchymas and chlrorenchyma d) Collenchymas and parenchyma 19. The respiratory pigment haemocyanin is in a) Insects b) Lobasters c) Echinodermata d) Polychaeta 20. In human sperm the cytoplasm around the mitochondria is called a) Acrosome b) Manchette c) Centroplasm d) Microplasm Sudoku Nobel Laureates under Arrest at the Time of the Award Three Nobel Laureates were under arrest at the time of the award of the Nobel Prize, all of them Nobel Peace Prize Laureates: German pacifist and journalist Carl von Ossietzky Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo
  33. 33. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 33 Pascal’s Triangle One of the most interesting number patterns in mathematics is Pascal’s triangle. The triangle at first was first extensively studied by Blaise Pascal, though we find many ancient Indian scholars and those from china and Persia also studied it. To build the triangle, let us start with 1; On the second, write two 1s, altogether forming three corners of triangle. Now on each subsequent row start and end with 1’s and compute each interior term by summing two numbers above it. If we observe the diagonals of triangle, the first diagonal is of 1’s, next diagonal has counting numbers, and the third has triangular numbers. (1, 3, 6, 10, 15 . . .) 1. Pascal's triangle up to nine rows Interesting facts and features about Pascal’s Triangle 1. Powers of 2 If we sum each row, we obtain power of base two starting with; 1 = 20 1 + 1 = 21 1 + 2 + 1 = 22 1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 23 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1 = 24 And so on… 2. Powers of 11 The triangle also reveals power of base 11. All you have to do is squish the number in each row together. 1 = 110 11 = 111 121 = 112 1331 = 113 14641 = 114 But when you reach to fifth row, you get double entries (two digits number, ex: 10). In that case, we proceed as; Now, 161051 = 115 and so on… 3. We can locate the perfect squares of natural Kusal Thapa
  34. 34. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 numbers from the second diagonal. The square of a number is equal to the sum of the numbers next to it and below of this number. 4. Expanding binomials or to find formulas for (x+y)n We can use Pascal’s triangle to find binomial expansions for (x+y)n or to find the formulas for higher powers like; (x+y)4 ,(x+y)5 , etc. For this, we proceed as follows; In case of (x+y)2 , the coefficient are found in the second row(see the figure1 for the notations of rows). 1x2 + 2xy+ 1y2 For (x+y)3 , we go to the third row. 1x3 + 3x2 y+ 3xy2 + 1y3 For (x+y)4 , we look into fourth row. 1x4 + 4x3 y + 6x2 y2 + 4xy3 + 1y4 By this you can find the expansion for any power of binomial expression. 5. Last but not the least! We can split the Pascal’s triangle into two halves, it is symmetric! The separated parts are identical. Family Nobel Laureates As you may notice, the Curies were a very successful 'Nobel Prize family'. Marie Curie herself was awarded two Nobel Prizes. Married couples  Marie Curie and Pierre Curie  Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot  Gerty Cori and Carl Cori  May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser  Alva Myrdal and Gunnar Myrdal Mother & daughter  Marie Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie Father & daughter  Pierre Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie Father & son  William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg  Niels Bohr and Aage N. Bohr  Hans von Euler-Chelpin and Ulf von Euler  Arthur Kornberg and Roger D. Kornberg  Manne Siegbahn and Kai M. Siegbahn  J. J. Thomson and George Paget Thomson Brothers  Jan Tinbergen and Nikolaas Tinbergen Shared and Unshared Nobel Prizes in Physics 47 Physics Prizes have been given to one Laureate only. 32 Physics Prizes have been shared by two Laureates. 32 Physics Prizes have been shared between three Laureates. Whyisthat? InthestatutesoftheNobelFoundation it says: A prize amount may be equally divided between two works, each of which is considered to merit a prize. If a work that is being rewarded has been produced by two or three persons, the prize shall be awarded to them jointly. In no case may a prize amount be divided between more than three persons.
  35. 35. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 35 Reader's Questions 1. Why do people have different eye color? The variation of eye color can be explained on the basis of pigment melanin found in the front part of the iris of the eye. If the pigment present in the eye is less; you have blue eyes, if the pigment is on average scale; you have green eyes and if the pigment is in excess; you have brown eyes. Scientists have found that genes are responsible for the color of the eye. Some of the key genes involved are, OCA2 and HERC2 . – Ramesh Shrestha 2. Why do stars twinkle? The twinkling of the stars depends upon the distribution of earth’s atmosphere. If you were to observe stars from outside the earth, you won’t observe twinkling stars! So, frankly, stars don’t twinkle at all! When the light from those stars travel towards the earth, until they do not enter the earth’s atmosphere they travel in straight line but once they get on to the atmosphere they get refracted. This refraction is the reason behind beautiful twinkling stars. – Nishant Bhujel 3. How does lightning occur? Lightningisanelectriccurrent.Whentheground is hot, it heats the air above it. This warm air rises. As the air rises, water vapour cools and forms a cloud. When air continues to rise, the cloud gets bigger and bigger. In the top of the clouds, temperature is below freezing and the water vapour turns into ice. Now, the cloud becomes a thundercloud. Lots of small bits of ice bump into each other as they move around. All these collisions cause a buildup of electrical charge. Eventually, the whole cloud fills up with electrical charges. Lighter, positively charged particles form at the top of the cloud. Heavier, negatively charged particles sink to the bottom of the cloud. When the positive and negative charges grow large enough, a giant spark - lightning - occurs between the two charges Scientific Mind requests the readers to send their questions related to science and mathematics. The answers will be given by consulting with the exports of the relevant subject. Questions can be send at Notice within the cloud. This is like a static electricity sparks you see, but much bigger. – Arti Devkota 4. How much percentage of the brain do human use in their life? You may have heard someone saying, “We use only 10% of our brain, what would happen if we could use the rest 90% of it!” Does this statement mean that we are not using 90% of our brain? Well, this statement has no scientific evidence. This misconception may have started with misquote of Albert Einstein or through William James. Brain scans and studies show that our brains are always active. In addition to billions of neurons, the brain has other types of cells that are always active. Finally, the conclusion would be, “WE ARE USING 100% OF OUR BRAIN!” – Hem Bidari 5. What is climate change? Is climate change even real? Climate change is a change in the pattern of weather, and related changes in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, occurring over time scales of decades or longer. Yes, climate change is real indeed! The observable effects of climate change are greenhouse effect, shrinking of glaciers are few instances of it. We have to work smart on to nullify the effects of climate change and make earth a happy home again. – Nek Ansari
  36. 36. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 • More than 1200 Earths can fit inside Jupiter & more than 1 million Earths fit inside the Sun. • The Sun,as you see now,is actually 8min 20sec older(as light takes 8min 20sec to reach the Earth). • Every year, the Moon moves about 1.5 inches (3.8 centimetres) further away from Earth. • On 15 Feb, 2017, Satellite Launch A for Astronomy Vehicle(PSLV) blasted off from Satish Dhawan Space Center by Indian Space Research Organization(ISRO) which total cost was only NRs.75crore & 104 satellites were taken by it. • In Pluto,the mountains,Tenzing Montes, first viewed by the New Horizons spacecraft on 14 July 2015, and announced by NASA on 15 July 2015, is named after the Nepalese mountaineer Tenzing Norgay References: Age Name Category/Year Date of birth 17 Malala Yousafzai Peace 2014 12 July 1997 25 Lawrence Bragg Physics 1915 31 March 1890 31 Werner Heisenberg Physics 1932 5 December 1901 31 Tsung-Dao Lee Physics 1957 24 November 1926 31 Carl D. Anderson Physics 1936 3 September 1905 31 Paul A. M. Dirac Physics 1933 8 August 1902 32 Frederick G. Banting Medicine 1923 14 November 1891 32 Tawakkol Karman Peace 2011 7 February 1979 32 Rudolf Mössbauer Physics 1961 31 January 1929 32 Mairead Corrigan Peace 1976 27 January 1944 33 Joshua Lederberg Medicine 1958 23 May 1925 33 Betty Williams Peace 1976 22 May 1943 33 Rigoberta Menchú Tum Peace 1992 9 January 1959 The Youngest Nobel Laureates
  37. 37. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 37 HYDROMTER Hydrometer is a device used for measuring some characteristics of a liquid, such as its density (weight per unit volume) or specific gravity (weight per unit volume compared with water). In simple words, hydrometer is a scientific instrument used to measure relative density of liquids. Hypatia of Alexandria is given credit for inventing the hydrometer (or hydroscope) in late 4th century or early 5th century. The two Baumé hydrometers (invented by Antoine Baumé), one for specific-gravity determinations in liquids denser than water and the other for liquids less dense than water, are calibrated with the special Baumé scale (also constructed by him) in 1768. Hydrometer is based on Archimedes' principle ( that a solid body displaces its own weight within a liquid in which it floats). It consists of two parts : stem and bulb. The slender tube above the larger tube is the stem. It is hollow glass with a rounded end. The straight, cylindrical stem is calibrated by which the density or specific gravity of the test liquid is measured. The stem ends as the glass cylinder enlarges into the bulb. Again, the bulb consists of 2 parts: the ballast and the glass bead. As the hollow bulb enlarges from the stem, its diameter increases, stabilizes, and rounds at its end in the shape of a hemisphere. This rounded end contains the ballast (small steel spheres) inside, at the end of the bulb. The small spheres are held in place by epoxy. The ballast weights the hydrometer in the liquid. Attached to the outside of the hydrometer, at the end of the bulb, is a small, glass bead. This glass bead serves to buffer the hydrometer, preventing the bulb from coming into direct contact with the bottom of the liquid's container. To use hydrometer, first retrieve sample (of which density are you measuring) & insert hydrometer. Then, obtain the original gravity reading. Make sure you are reading the bottom of the meniscus to get most accurate data. Now calculate with temperature using Standard Hydrometer Temperature Correction Chart and repeat the process. Finally, you get your final reading.Different scales are used on hydrometers depending on the types of liquids being measured. Some of it's major scale are Brix or Balling Scale, Baume Scale, Alcohol Scale, and many more. References: s c i e n c e - a n d - t e c h n o l o gy / t e c h n o l o gy / technology-terms-and-concepts/hydrometer Sujan Dahal
  38. 38. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 l;+xb/jf/ sf7df8f}+, g]kfn s'g} klg kf/df0ljs kbfy{ / ;f]sf] k|of]u jf ;ld>0f ePsf] s'g} klg j:t'sf] cfot, lgof{t, cf];f/k;/ ,e08f/0f, k|of]u, sf/f]jf/ jf ;f] ;DaGwL cf];f/k;f/, e08f/0f, k|of]u sf/f]jf/ jf ;f] ;DaGwL s'g} lqmofsnfk ug{ rfxg] JolQm jf ;+:yfn] :jLs[tsf] nflu b]xfosf] ljj/0f v'nfO{ o; dGqfnodf lgj]bg lbg cg'/f]w 5 . -s_ :jLs[tL dfu ug]{ JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] gfd,y/, jtg, ;Dks{ gDj/ / Od]n -v_ :jLs[t dfu ug'{sf] sf/0f jf k|of]u, -u_ kf/df0ljs kbfy{sf] kl/df0f / ljj/0f, -3_ k|of]u x'g] cj:yf / k|ljlw, -ª_ e08f/0fsf] Joj:yf, -r_ sfdbf/ jf ;]jfu|fxLx?sf] ;'/Iffsf pkfox?, -5_ k|of]ukl5 lj;{hg ug]{ :yfg / tl/sf / -h_ dGqfnon] tf]s]sf cGo ljifox? lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno
  39. 39. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 39 Mathematical Tricks Magic of Number 9 Math Fun Table 1 × 8 + 1 = 9 12 × 8 + 2 = 98 123 × 8 + 3 = 987 1234 × 8 + 4 = 9876 12345 × 8 + 5 = 98765 123456 × 8 + 6 = 987654 1234567 × 8 + 7 = 9876543 12345678 × 8 + 8 = 98765432 123456789 × 8 + 9 = 987654321 1. Squaring Numbers of three digit 1222 =? Step 1: Choose the last two digits of '122' and add it with the given number 122 =122 + 22 =144 Step 2: Multiply 100 with the above result 144 = 144 x 100 = 14400 Step 3: Multiply '22' with '22' = 22 x 22 = 484 Step 4: Now, add the values obtained from step 2 and step 3. = 14400 + 484 = 14884 Result: 1222 = 14884 Note: This Squaring concept is only applicable only for three digit numbers from 100 to 200. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 make 100. There are at least three different ways to use the numbers 1– 9 in that order without multiplying or dividing in order to reach 100: Route 1: 123 + 4 – 5 + 67 – 89 = 100. Route 2: 123 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 + 8 – 9 = 100. Route 3: 1 + 23 – 4 + 5 + 6 + 78 – 9 = 100. You can find Route 4... Many mathematicians use the acronym BODMAS to solve such riddles, it stands for Brackets, Orders, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction. B : Brackets first O : Orders (i.e. Powers and Square Roots, etc.) DM : Division and Multiplication (left-to-right) AS : Addition and Subtraction (left-to-right) 9 – 3 ÷ 1 3 + 1 = ? 9 – 3 ÷ 1 3 + 1 = 9 – 3 ÷ 1/3 + 1 = 9 – 3/(1/3) + 1 = 9 – 9 + 1 = 1 Two digit example 9 + 13 = 22 2 + 2 =4 1 + 3 = 4 9 + 14 = 23 2 + 3 =5 1 + 4 = 5 9 + 15 = 24 2 + 4 =6 1 + 5 = 6 Three digit example 9 + 134 = 143 1 + 4 + 3 = 8 1 + 3 + 4 = 8 9 + 155 = 164 1 + 6 + 4 = 11 1 + 5 + 5 = 11 9 + 185 = 194 1 + 9 + 4 = 14 1 + 8 + 5 = 14 Math Magic Can You Solve This ?
  40. 40. Scientific Mind: November-December 2017 Technology Sailesh Singh Golden Gate Int'l College For the next issue, we request our readers to send an essay in the topic ‘Sanitation’ in not more than 500 words before 31st December 2017 A.D. The essay can be send in the email address The best essay will be published in the Jan.-Feb. 2018 issue and next three issues of the magazine will be provided. Do you know we are not handling technology; we are being handled by our creation ? And all the technology is the result of science ? The semantic of science is orderly body or matter of knowledge based on observation, reasoning and experimental facts. Similarly, technology is the product of applied knowledge and creativity which relate each other like strong bonding. Technology is the innovation of the necessity. Everything which is being use in our day to day life is elegant achievement of technology. It leads us to new era with sophisticated and luxurious fate beyond recognition. "Technology is neither curse nor blessing. It's entirely up to us how we utilize it." The era of technology has enriches our world with its glory. All the incredible which we are spotting is furbish utilization of it to narrow the world. It has given us speed, luxury, and safety. Big rockets, satellites to all nano devices are the marvelous gifts of technology. They are boon especially during the periods of natural catastrophes; wars to rescue the sufferers and it thus save the humanity from ruination. It has given eye to the blind, ears to the deaf, tongue to the dumb and legs to the lame. So it has got victory over the world. We are all informed of all the events occur in every nooks and corners of the world. There is hardly a single field where there is no technology have a great faith in benevolent nature of technology. That's why people, thus from every perimeter, It has made the world financially and materially richer. Together, technology regard as blessing for mankind. However, technology has no exception to its mighty and demolishing drawbacks. What technology gives by one hand, it takes by another. The invention of machinery and large production has resulted insanitary living circumstances. Hence, we are lazy, unhealthy and sycophant. It performs all our works and creates unemployment. So today people have hand-to-mouth problem. Likewise, scientific tools are luxuries for the rich and dreams for the poor. The invention of atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb has threatened the peace of the world. Thus, it divides the people between the haves and haves not. It gives birth to never ending smash between them. All the inventions are massively used in the war. For instance South Korea militarized border with North Korea and they use all their finance in hydrogen bomb and its research. Yet the nations have been investing their money on accumulating arms rather aiding to poor and needy ones. They don't shed their tear to the agony of the poor. Instead their prime motive is to show their supremacy at any cost, which ultimately promotes the nuclear war. It can kill the millions of people within blinking of an eye. It is due to wrong use of technology today means are so much lost in the materialistic welfare. So, they are in-fact the real causes of carnage and mass destruction. Technology in each category represent a successively larger category of activities which are highly interdependent but distinct. We need technical education to handle the technology. Government should pay attention for the development of technical education. It is massively different from general education, for technical education duo theoretical knowledge and practical skills. In context of our country Nepal, we have technology but not ace technicians to handle it. We have to hire them from abroad. It means a huge ransom of our national budget is going out. Hence pace of development is very slow. It is a matter of misfortune. Practice of research as a source for development and assimilation of new human skills enables more efficient strategies of applied research development and refinement. Thus, being bookies to research papers is not cent percent achievement. Its application in practical show its ultimate relation like brain with body parts. In essence, our problems are not due to applied science, i.e. technology. It is the misuse that has created unthinkable havoc. That's why genuine use is a boon to humanity whereas wrong is a bitter curse. It is therefore; enhance to remark "Science is an angel in peace but a devil in war." Probably because of this fact, one scholar said, "How can we dream of lovely spring when we are uprooting the trees in winter?"