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Scientific mind issue (jan-may 2018)

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Scientific mind issue (jan-may 2018)

  1. 1. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 1 Looking closely to the development of the world, nothing other than technology has been found to be more crucial. Planes, trains, automobiles, internet, television and all the things are the product of technology. The journey to the moon, investigating planets like Mars, Jupiter and gaining the information about the universe we live in, all these things are done with the help of technology. Needless to say, technology has broadened the dimension of knowledge of man. The modern health system also heavily relies on technology. X-rays, CT Scan and many other curating measures use technology. In earlier times, it was very difficult to communicate. People had to send the messages through pigeons, horses. The mode of communication is totally differentnow,ithasevolvedtoagreatextentandisveryeasy and fast. These are some of the many uses of technology. For more modernization and development, there should be more investment in technology. The development of technology has been possible through the development of science. Without the development of science, technology would not have developed. For an instance, the discovery of Maxwell’s equations has wider applications in the sector of information technology. The internet which connects the world would not have been among us without Maxwell’s equations. Knowing the mechanisms of engines, diesel and petrol engines have been developed. Science develops technology and technology develops the world. There should be more investment in science so that technology will develop. Technology is the reflection of human mind brilliance. For the exponential growth of the world, technology has played a vital role. For more development and progress, technology willbethekeyfactor.Hence,technologyhavetobedeveloped more for more modernization and development. Editorial Advisory Board Prof. Dr. Rameshwar Adhikari Prof. Dr. Deepak Prasad Subedi Dr. Dinesh Raj Bhuju Dr. Narayan Prasad Chapagain Dr. Kate Shaw Dr. Vinaya Kumar Jha Dr. Arun Sigdel Dr. Ranjan Kumar Dahal Editor/Publisher Mr. Nischal Shrestha Assoc. Editor/Managing Director Mr. Subhash Sharma Assistant Editor Mr. Niraj Sah Contributor Mr. Suman Kandel Ms. Prakriti Sapkota Mr. Sujan Dahal Intern Ms. Radhika Bhandari Legal Advisor Prof. Dr. Laxmi Prasad Mainali Magazine Layout Mr. Shreeram Bohara Mr. Ranjit Shrestha Web Design/Layout Mr. Manoj Kumar Mahato Printing Devchuli Offset Press Scientific Mind Regd. No. 432/073/074, District Adminstration Office, Kathmandu Address: Sankhamul-10, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu Cell: +977-9841151160, 9823030470 Email: articles@scientificmind.com.np Web: www.scientificmind.com.np www.facebook.com/scientificmindmagazine Twitter: @MindScientific Technology: The Basis of Exponential Growth of World Editor
  2. 2. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np2 As suggestive to its name, Scientific Mind really makes our mind scientific. It opens and expands the horizon of our understanding unlimitedly. Actually, the useful stuffs it includes act as protein and vitamins of balanced diet. Finally, I, from the inner core of my heart, want to thank The Entire Series of Scientific Mind for it assists me a lot in my study. Nishant Bhujel Times School, Siraha There are no latest articles related to earthquake. I would like to see some more articles on earthquake as our country is prone to earthquake. Sabina Tamang The magazine has many areas of science included in it. It looks great. Keep it up. Ramesh Gurung I live in Baitidi. Is it possible to make this magazine available to our place? Dhirendra Ayer Thank you Scientific Mind for the article related to Nobel Prize. I knew lots of things reading the article on Nobel Prize. Homnath Pradhan The mathematical tricks section of this magazine is very nice. Continue this section, it has been very helpful. Bishal Poudel The online version of this magazine is also good. I am outside valley. I have not read the print version but I am continuous reader of the magazine through online form. Sujan Basnet Siraha I have known many things about science reading this magazine. Thank you Scientific Mind for publishing very nice science articles. Dipendra Basnet Feedback
  3. 3. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 3 Contents Kidney Stones Types, Causes & Symptoms Investigation & Treatment Glass Cabbage 16 5 15 Understanding Bitcoin 29
  4. 4. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np4 Articlesinmagazinedonotnecessarilyreflectviewofthe magazine. Due to technical problem, this issue is a combined issue of two issues. - Editor Contents Scientific Fun Facts 9 Science Experiment 10 Quotes 11 Do You Know? 11 Finding You Through GPS 13 Science Quiz 14 Geophysics Behind the Formation of Himalaya 19 Chronological Developments of Modern Physics (Quantum Mechanics) 21 Ten Equations that Changed the World 24 Exoplanets 27 Medical/Engineering Quiz 32 Collatz Conjecture: An Unsolved Problem in Mathematics 34 38 Falcon Heavy Scientific Instrument: Hydrometer A for Astronomy 36 Mathematical Tricks 39 Essay: Sanitation 40 Reader's Questions 41 Math Test 42 Wordsearch Puzzle 43 Ten Questions for You 44 37
  5. 5. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 5 Glass The presence of glasses in our everyday environment is so common that we rarely notice their existence. Our current casual attitude toward the family of materials known as glasses has not always existed. Early Egyptians considered glasses as precious materials, as evidenced by the glass beads found in the tombs and golden death masks of ancient Pharaohs (Egyptian kings ). What is “GLASS”? For an average layman, the word ‘Glass’ signifies only that transparent material (made from silica with the addition of a few alkali oxides) which is placed in windows. But scientifically it has a very wide meaning. Now it is widely believed that nearly all liquids will form glasses (i.e. amorphous solids) if cooled to a sufficiently low temperature at a rate sufficiently rapid that detectable crystallization is avoided. In other word glass means an amorphous solid which exhibits a glass transition. Glass transition Temperature (Tg), below we have Glass and above of it we have liquid. Atoms are far apart, with negligible interaction, forms gas which on cooling, at a particular condition (atoms are closer with a little interaction) forms liquid, which on further cooling comes to solid state. If liquid is cooled fast, not allowing crystallization, i.e. quenching from liquid state while preventing from crystallization forms glass. The transition is not a thermodynamic phase transition, only a transition for “practical purpose”. Like the many unsolved problems in physics, one is physics behind the glass transition. Still no theoretical explanation is known for the phenomena of glass transition. According to Philip W. Anderson (Nobel Prize for physics 1977), “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is the theory of the nature of glass and of glass transition.” History of Glass Humans have been producing glasses by melting of raw materials for thousands of years. Egyptian glasses date from at least 7000B.C. How did the first production of artificial glasses occur? One scenario suggests that the combination of sea salt (NaCl) and perhaps bones (CaO) present in the embers of a fire built on the sands (SiO,) at the edge of a salt water sea (the Mediterranean), sufficiently reduced the melting point of the sand to a temperature where crude, low quality glass could form. At some later time, some other nomad found these lumps of glass in the sand and recognized their unusual nature. Eventually, some genius ofancienttimes realizedthatthe glassfound in the remains of such fires might be produced deliberately, and discovered the combination of materials which lead to the formation of the first commercial glasses. Types of Glass On the basis of bonding between elements and the materials used to make it, glass is divided in to two part as Table 1: Glass types on the basis of bonding Types of bond Material Covalent As2 Se3 , Se Ionic KNO3 -Ca(NO3 )2 Metallic Zr-Cu, Ni-Nb Van der waals Ortho terphenyl Hydrogen bond KHSO4 , ice, aqueous solution of ionic salts (e.g. LiCl) Bivek Kumar Tiwari M.Sc. Physics, BHU, India Temperature Liquid Supercooled liquid Glass Crystal Tmp Tg Volume
  6. 6. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np6 Table 2: Glass types on the material used Elements Si, P, Sa Oxides SiO2 , B2 O3 , GeO2 Chalcogenides As2 Te3 , As40 S60 , AsSeTe Ionic compounds KNO3 − Aqueous solution H2 SO4 Simple organic compounds Geycerol Polymeric compounds Polystyrene, polycarbonate Metallic alloys Pd80 Si20 , AuSi, Pd4 Si, Carbonate K2 CO3 -MgCO3 Halides BeF2 , AlF3 , ZnCl2 Procedure of Making Glass For the making instruments and other ordinary glass, a furnace, blow pipes are required. Glass is melted and shapes were given with help of blow pipes. But in the case of scientific research the process changes. For this different technique are used such as quenching, thermal Evaporation, flash Evaporation, Sputtering, and Glow Discharge Decomposition Technique. Then the prepared sample is a glass or not is conform by structural characterization (XRD, TEM, SEM) and thermal characterization (DSC) and then the rest of theoretical or experimental calculation will be done. Use of Glass The use of glass in daily life in windows and other decoration is obvious instead of this glass is also used in semiconductor, diffraction grating, Source: archpaper.com Making of glass. Image: open4business.com.ua holography, fiber optics, telecommunication, optical sensor, optical data storage (like RAM, ROM), wave guide, photo resists etc. A glass house. Image: cbdevelopers.com References 1. Dissertation report on “pre-exponential factor of thermally activated non-isothermal crystallization” submitted by Bivek Kumar Tiwari at solid state department, Banaras Hindu University (BHU). 2. Mehta N. “Application of chalcogenide glass in electronics and optoelectronics: A review” J SCI RES VOL 65 OCTOBER 2006
  7. 7. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 7 The Defiled City: Kathmandu Prakriti Sapkota Nepal, being one of the developing countries has the images of natural history, serenity, greenery and pristine mountains. However, the thick cloud of pollution that threatens to suffocate Nepal’s capital city provides a contrast to this reputation. There are several environmental crises converging here, but none of them are as dire as air quality recently. As a known fact, the quality of air in Kathmandu is degrading day-by-day. This pollution is compared to that in some of the most polluted cities like New Delhi and Beijing. There are several recent studies which show that the city’s air pollution level is very high. According to the report published by Numbeo.com, the capital city of Nepal is ranked fifth in Pollution Index 2017 mid-year. This means the pollution index is 96.57. For the ranking, Numbeo said it included relevant data from the World Health Organization and other institutions. Air pollution levels in Kathmandu have reached nine times the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Being an inhabitant of Kathmandu valley, when I gaze at the morning sky, all I see is the dark colored fog and clouds of dust. It is very obvious that an individual’s day starts with suffocating dust, excruciating noise and nasty smell. Due to rapid rise in the inferior quality vehicles on the traffic congested roads, unregulated location of industries, road expansion activities and various other environment unfriendly activities, pollution has worsened. This might result in a day when Kathmandu will undoubtedly be called the World’s most polluted city. In Asia, urban air pollution in many cities rivals the levels that existed during the first decades of the 20th century in Europe and North America and account for a large proportion of global health burden in relation to air pollution. Literally, Kathmandu has been tagged as "Dustmandu" or "Maskmandu". But what is the use of just tagging the name instead of doing something to eradicate pollution? Has anyone thought that one small pandemic could cause a huge loss? Here is the data published from WHO taken from the Numbeo site: Air pollution data from World Health Organization PM10 88 PM2.5 49 PM10 Pollution Level: High Pollution in Kathmandu, Nepal Air Pollution 87.50 Very High Drinking Water Pollution and 73.55 High Inaccessibility Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal 83.33 Very High Dirty and Untidy 83.14 Very High Noise and Light Pollution 53.60 Moderate Water Pollution 82.63 Very High Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City 81.53 Very High Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in 82.26 Very High the City Purity and Cleanliness in Kathmandu, Nepal Air quality 12.50 Very Low Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility 26.45 Low Garbage Disposal Satisfaction 16.67 Very Low Clean and Tidy 17.44 Very Low Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights 46.64 Moderate Water Quality 16.53 Very Low Comfortable to Spend Time in the City 19.26 Very Low Quality of Green and Parks 18.53 Very Low Index Pollution Index: 95.87 Pollution Exp Scale: 174.06 Source: https://www.numbeo.com/pollution/in/ Kathmandu
  8. 8. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np8 The key air pollutants in Kathmandu are dust particles and smoke. Moreover, the road widening works, which have been in progress for the past seven year, heaps of garbage accumulated everywhere in the city, dust from construction, exhaust fumes from old and poorly maintained vehicles, and smoke caused by coal-burning kilns have degraded Kathmandu. Traffic congestion has become terrible in recent days due to various construction projects of roads. 67 percent of particulate matter is supplied byvehicular emission in Kathmandu valley let alone the pollution caused by industries, vehicles and so on. All these factors are ruining the quality of air. Pollution level is higher in early hours of the day. So the health of people going for morning walks is now a big question. Many people including housewives of those who go for morning walks are found suffering from different ailments. Even though people could be seen wearing masks, it not enough to prevent one from the bad effect of air pollution. It obviously causes a lot of problems in the respiratory system and health of population directly or indirectly. According to health experts, the fine particles in the smoke emitted byvehicles have toxic chemicals which go deep inside the body increasing the risk of multiple health issues including asthma, strokes, cancer and even might kill anyone. It has now become the peak time for all of us to open a new discourse and say a big "NO" to pollution. In order to eradicate pollution, the Government of Nepal can take necessary steps and improvise various policies in environmental hazards including air pollution. Firstly, there could also be increase in tax for private vehicles and subsidy could be given for public vehicles. Furthermore, action of terminating the license for any new industrial establishment within Kathmandu Valley and the industries already in operation should be duly monitored to update the status of gaseous and particulate emissions from those industries. Urbanization must purposefully reverse by decentralizing facilities to every part of Nepal. Fuel-based vehicles could be replaced by environment-friendly safa tempos, sajha buses and trolley buses. People can also be encouraged to use electronic vehicles and bicycles. Formulating clear policies on electric motor cycles and bi-cycles could also be a better option. Annual registration fee on vehicles based on age, size and efficiency should be progressive. Prevailing practices of burning tires and creating fireplace in open areas should not be allowed; instead strict measures should be taken. Recently, the Government of Nepal banned around 2,500 old vehicles in the capital in a bid to curb the high levels of air pollution in the city. This ban on all vehicles older than 20 years will surely address the city’s air quality and ease congestion to a certain level leading towards a cleaner future and smarter city. Secondly, Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) needs to do more and come up with more strategies, including installation of dustbins around the city to collect disposable and non-disposable products to preserve, clean, and safeguard the air quality of Kathmandu. KMC also needs to strictly implement the government decision of keeping a plastic dustbin inside the vehicles to restrict passengers from throwing garbage out of vehicles onto the streets. Thirdly, burning of plastics, waste should be discouraged and plantation should be encouraged to a great extent. Each single step towards a clean city will certainly lead to settlements curtained by fog and mist instead of dark colored clouds and fog; peaceful and managed streets instead of noisy traffics; cool breeze and fresh smell instead of dust-filled air and nasty smell and overall a serene peaceful city. Above all, each single individual shouldwork hand- in-hand and must reflect on the social factors like awareness, responsiveness, moral duties and management towards eradicating pollution in the valley. References: 1. http://peoplesreview.com.np/2016/12/21/air- pollution-in-kathmandu-reaches-hazardous- level/ 2. https://www.numbeo.com/pollution/in/ Kathmandu
  9. 9. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 9 Scientific Fun Facts Acronyms • Female sharks have thicker skins than males. • The ocean is 8 Empire State Buildings deep. • Pompeii's plumbing was ahead of its time. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79 destroyed many second stories, pipes left behind reveal traces of fecal matter, and the occasional upstairs toilet still remains in the ruins. • Madagascar hissing cockroach got its name because these roaches hiss to challenge other cockroaches to fight and when trying to attract mates. • Gravity on the moon is a sixth of what it is on Earth. Someone who weighs 150 pounds (68 kg) on this planet moves the scales at only 25 pounds (11 kg) on the moon. That’s why you'd weigh way less on the moon. • Bathroom etiquette is ancient. • Camels don't actually store water in their humps. • Salamanders can extend their tongues a long way. • In Sept. 13, 1922, the mercury soared to 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) in El Azizia, Libya. Scientists say this is the hottest temperature ever recorded on the planet, though higher temperatures might have occurred in places where there are no measuring stations. • The human body is full of friendly bacteria, with organisms on our skin and in our guts helping keep our bodies humming. • Each rubber molecule is made of 65,000 individual atoms. • Breast milk alone can have up to 700 species of bacteria, according to a study released in January 2013. • The male platypus has a venomous spur on its hind foot capable of dispensing a poison that can kill a medium-sized dog. MPA : Master of Public Administration TDM : Time Division Multiplexing TIA : Telecommunications Industry Alliance ICANN : Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers BSCCE : Bachelor of Science in Computer and Communications Engineering NCERT : The National Council of Educational Research and Training CERN : European Organization for Nuclear Research or (Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires) ICTP : International Center for Theoretical Physics ACP : Assistant Commissioner of Police PSC : Public Service Commission FIFA : The Fédération Internationale de Football Association GST : Goods and Services Tax MPEG : Moving Picture Experts Group BCCI : Board of Control for Cricket in India SAT : Scholastic Aptitude Test • Prosopagnosia is a disorder in which people struggle to recognize faces. • Scallops have as many as 100 simple eyes. They're frequently blue. • The male platypus has a venomous spur on its hind foot capable of dispensing a poison that can kill a medium-sized dog. • Mantis shrimp can use their armored claws to strike at speeds of 74 feet per second (23 m/s), delivering blows with 200 pounds (91 kg) of force behind them. • Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at standard room temperature and pressure.
  10. 10. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np10 Science Experiment: Rainbow in a Glass By applying the physical concept of Densityyou can make a rainbow in glass at your home. You will need: 1. 5 glasses 2. Sugar 3. Water 4. Different colored food coloring 5. Tablespoon 6. Epic patience and a steady hand - this will take some practice! 4. Food color and glitters. 5. Flash light. What to Do? Line up the glasses and put 3 tablespoons of water into the first four glasses. Add one tablespoon of sugar to glass one, two to glass two, three to glass three, four to glass four. Stir thoroughly to dissolve the sugar. Now add a different color food coloring to each glass. Pour 1/4 of glass four into glass five. That was the easy bit. This is the tricky bit. You must pour the next layer (glass three) so gently that it doesn't mix with the first layer. You can put a teaspoon just above the first layer and pour the mixture gently over the back of the spoon to minimize splash. The more slowly you do this, the better the results. When you have filled the glass to about the same width as the last layer, repeat with glass two, and then with glass one. If you have done this right you should get something like rainbow. What's Happening? The different amounts of sugar in water create different densities of water. As you are layering them with the heaviest at the bottom, the different layers will 'sit' on top of each other. Eventually, due to particle dynamics, the layers will mix. The greater the difference in density, the longer the effect lasts. Unlike water and oil, however, once you mix the layers, they will not settle back. Reference: www.sciencebob.com
  11. 11. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 11 Quotes Do You Know? • Life would be tragic if it weren't funny. – Stephen Hawking • I slept and dreamt that life was joy. I awoke and saw that life was service. I acted and behold, service was joy. – Rabindranath Tagore • Hope is a waking dream. – Aristotle • Moreover, since the sun remains stationary, whatever appears as a motion of the sun is really due rather to the motion of the earth. – Nicolaus Copernicus • Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge. – Plato • In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual. – Galileo Galilei • Optimism is the one quality more associated with success and happiness than any other. – Brian Tracy • What you get by achieving your goals is not as important as what you become by achieving your goals. – Henry David Thoreau • Failure will never overtake me if my determination to succeed is strong enough. – A.P.J Abdul Kalam • Life is no brief candle to me. It is a sort of splendid torch which I have got a hold of for the moment, and I want to make it burn as brightly as possible before handing it on to future generations. – George Bernard Shaw  When a woman gets pregnant, she's not only growing a baby — she's growing a support system for that fetus. As a result, pregnant women have about 50 percent more blood by week 20 of pregnancy than they did before they conceived.  King Richard the Lionheart's heart is still around. After the English monarch died in 1199, his heart was removed and preserved — though today it's basically just a pile of dust.  The dinosaur with the longest neck for its body size is Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis, a sauropod dino that lived in what is now China.  Seahorses don't have stomachs, just intestines for the absorption of nutrients from food. Food passes through their digestive system rapidly, so they eat plankton and small crustaceans almost constantly.  Amprophophallus titanium blooms with clusters of flowers that can reach 10 feet (3 m) in height. But these petals smell so much like rotting flesh that the plant is known as the "corpse flower."  Carnivorous, bog-dwelling plants called bladderworts can snap their traps shut in less than a millisecond, 100 times faster than a Venus flytrap.  Cutting onions releases a gas which causes a stinging sensation when it comes into contact with your eyes. Your body produces tears to dilute the irritant and remove it from your eyes.  There is enough DNA in an average person’s body to stretch from the sun to Pluto and back — 17 times.  The average human body carries ten times more bacterial cells than human cells.  The average human body carries ten times more bacterial cells than human cells.
  12. 12. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np12
  13. 13. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 13 Finding You through GPS Ravi Shrestha B.E in Geomatics Engineering, KU What in case you are unknown about the path and have no idea where you are standing right now. In this case GPS (Global Positioning System), a worldwide radio-navigation system can assist you in finding you position. What is GPS? A formation of 24 satellites in space in the form of constellation orbiting around the Earth forms a Global Positioning System. Initially the system had main focus on providing the positional services to the U.S. military department in order to maintain an extraordinary defense but later on the service was made available to all the civil users across the world. But talking about the efficiency of services the users get it is less efficient than the services the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) access. Background For centuries, navigators and explorers have searched for a system that would enable them to locate their position on the globe to reach their intended destinations. On June 26, 1993, however, the answer became as simple as the question when the U.S. Air Force launched the 24th Navstar satellite into the orbit, completing a network of 24 satellites known as GPS. Therefore with a GPS receiver on your hand you can instantly know your location on the planet with the information of your latitude, longitude, and even the altitude. How GPS works? Talking about the working principle of GPS, basically two mathematical concepts are behind the scene. The first is called trilateration, which literally means positioning from three distances. The second concept is the relationship between distance traveled, rate (speed) of travel and amount of time spent traveling, or: Distance = Speed (Rate) × Time Trilateration Trilateration focuses on finding your position on the Earth by knowing the location of orbiting GPS satellites and the distance from those satellites to your location on the earth. Actually, there is no way of calculating the distance physically through tape or any instrument. Therefore, a question can be raised so how is Trilateration possible since we can’t physically measure the distance? So this confusion can be made clear through the second concept which relates the distance with the speed or rate of the radio-signal that the satellite transmits and the time. Distance, Rate and Time In GPS, the rate indicates the speed of the signal, which is equal to the speed of light (nearly 3 × 108 m/s). Similarly time is determined by how long it takes for a signal to travel from the GPS satellite to a ground receiver. Therefore, with both the rate and the time being known to us we can mathematically calculate the distance. Hence, once we have the distance from at least 3 satellites, we can determine a three dimensional position on the surface of the earth. Why at least 3 satellites? The reason behind the requirement of at laast three satellite for the determination of 3 dimensional position is a plain mathematical procedure. In order to find out three variable (latitude, longitude, altitude) we have to solve three equations which requires accurate time instead you have to solve four equation to get the accurate positional information. Variability in Satellite Number With one satellite, you can only calculate your position on a sphere, where the radius of this sphere is the pseudorange to the satellite. With two satellites, you get two such spheres, one for each satellite. You position must be on the intersection between both spheres, which is a circle. Still no accurate position. With three satellites, you finally get only two possible positions, by inter-secting the circle with the third sphere. Still this is no accurate solution. The true fix comes with the fourth one. By this we have enough measurements to reduce the pseudo range errors of other three satellites and get the accurate fix. Reference 1) h t t p s : //w i k i . o p e n s t re e t m a p . o rg /w i k i / Accuracy_of_GPS_data 2) h t t p s : // w w w. e e t i m e s . c o m /d o c u m e n t. asp?doc_id=1278363 3) h t t p : // m a s h a b l e . c o m / 2 0 1 2 / 1 1 / 1 6 / gps/#UCeUd_UJpSqk
  14. 14. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np14 Science Quiz Let's test our knowledge on Science. After attempting the questions below, check answers in page 42. 1. The working of a rockets based on the principle of? 2. Celsius and Fahrenheit show the same temperature at? 3. Special Theory of Relative was proposed in? 4. "Optical Phenomenon" in the fringe pattern of CD is? 5. Persons sitting in an artificial satellite of the earth have? 6. Hasdo Valley in Chhattisgarh is famous for? 7. Exchange particle in Quark-Quark Interaction is? 8. Black hole is an object to be found in? 9. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is mainly a mixture of? 10. Fraction of volume of ice seen outside when immersed in water? 11. The disease “bronchitis” is associated with? 12. Which color indicates Highest Temperature? 13. The pollutants which move downward with percolating groundwater are called? 14. Light Year is? 15. The device used for detecting even feeble current is? 16. IRADIAN is? 17. Most of the light rays inside a tube-light is in the form of? 18. Anemometer is an instrument used for measuring? 19. The Ozone layer lies in the? 20. Which is the alkaloid that contains in cola drinks? Arecibo Observatory, formerly the world's largest radio telescope. Its official name is the Five-hundred- meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). Its monster dish measures 500 meters (1,640 feet) across. Today, Chinese scientists switched it on beginning a multi-year testing phase. FAST is just another example of China’s push into space exploration. FAST is twice as sensitive as Arecibo and can survey 5-10 times faster than the previous record holding telescope. Better instruments mean better observations. FAST can see fainter planets, fainter pulsars and fainter galaxies.Image: NAIC - Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF
  15. 15. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 15 Cabbage Belonging to Brassica family, cabbage is a leafy vegetable with round or oval in shape. It consists of soft, light green or whitish inner leaves covered with harder and dark green outer leaves. Cabbage is widely used throughout the world and can be prepared in a number of ways. Most commonly, it is included as either a cooked or raw part of many salads. Cabbage is beneficial in curing various health ailments and has many benefits. Some of them are as follows: 1. Cabbage is an abundant source of vitamin C. It is actually richer in vitamin C than oranges, which are considered the “best” source of that vital nutrient. Vitamin C reduces free radicals in your body that are the fundamental causes of premature aging. It also helps in repairing the wear and tear of the body through the course of life. Therefore, cabbage is very helpful in treating ulcers, certain cancers, depression, and boosting the immune system, and defending against cold and cough. It can also speed up the healing process for wounds and damaged tissues, regulate the proper functioning of the nervous system, and reduce the effects and presence of Alzheimer’s disease and other degenerative neural diseases. 2. Cabbage is very rich in fiber , which is the main health benefit of roughage. This helps the body retain water and it maintains the bulkiness of the food as it moves through the bowels. Thus, it is a good remedy for constipation and other problems related to digestion. 3. Cabbage helps fight infections in wounds and reduces the frequency and severity of ulcers. 4. Cabbage also prevents Cancer. One of the most celebrated health benefits of cabbage is its powerful antioxidant quality. This means that cabbage and other similar vegetables scavenge free radicals from the body, which can be detrimental to overall health and are major contributors to cancer and heart diseases. 5. Cabbage works as an anti- inflammatory agent. So, consuming cabbage can reduce the effects of many types of i n f l a m m a t i o n , irritation, allergies, joint pain, fever , and various skin disorders. 6. Cabbage improves vision. It is a rich source of beta- carotene, so many people, particularly as they get older, turn to cabbage for its ability to prevent macular degeneration and promote good eye health and delay cataract formation. 7. Cabbage promotes weight loss. Since cabbage is packed with many beneficial vitamins , minerals, and other nutrients, it is a healthy dietary option for people to eat and is quite filling since it has high levels of fiber, which add bulk to the bowels. It is also low in calories, amounting to only 33 calories in a cup of cooked cabbage. 8. Cabbage also improves brain health. The presence of vitamin K and anthocyanins within cabbage can give a strong boost to mental function and concentration.
  16. 16. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np16 Cover Story Kidney Stones Kidney stones, commonly known as renal stones in medical science, imply presence of stones anywhere in urinary tract. Urinary Tract starts from kidney and ends at urethra. It comprises of two kidneys (Right and left), a ureter arising from each kidney, one urinary bladder, and finally urethra. As urethra forms part of passage through which semen travels during ejaculation in male, it is also known as Genito-urinary system. Stones can be present anywhere in this system, commonly found in kidney, ureter and bladder where they’re technically termed as Nephrolithiasis, Ureterolithiasis, Cystolithiasis/Vesical Calculus respectively (lith- meaning stone). Calculus (pleural: calculi) is another term commonly used for stones. Types of Renal Stones Oxalate stones: It is the commonestvariety of renal stones.These stones primarily comprise of calcium deposits. They are usually irregular,spiculated, mulberry shaped. The tiny spicules can cause damage to surrounding blood vessels (capillaries mainly) and cause slight bleeding. The stones are therefore mostly brown in color owing to their mineral composition and also staining with pigments of blood. By virtue of spicules, it causes pain even in early stages and hence when detected are usually small. These are usually found in acidic urine as oxalates are insoluble in acidic ph. Dr. Anand Deo MBBS, Kathmandu University Phosphate stones: These contain calcium, magnesium and ammonium deposits and hence commonly called triple stones. They are smooth surfaced, white in color and can grow considerably in size before causing symptoms. They are commonly found in infected, alkaline urine. Bacterial enzymes are probably necessary for formation of ammonium deposits. Also phosphates are insoluble in alkaline ph. Other varieties are Uric acid stones, Urate stones, Xanthine stones, Cystine stones. Prevalence of Renal Stones in Nepal A study conducted by A. Pandeyaet.al in 2008- 2010 on 99 cases of renal stones, 61 were males (61.6%) and 38 were females (38.4%). This is in accordance with the study results published by Stapleton FB. Larger muscle mass and complex Various types of renal stones and their approximate frequency of occurrence Urinary tract
  17. 17. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 17 Source: A. Pandeya et. al 2008-2010 structure of genito-urinary tract in males may be responsible for pre-ponderance of stone formers among males; higher the muscle mass, more the metabolic waste and hence higher the likelihood of stone formation. Majority of the cases (52.5% of the total cases) were of age group of 21-40 years followed by 25.2% in age group of 41-60 years. This result is supported by study of Asplinet. al. The least number of stone formers were present beyond their 60s. The composition of most of the stones analyzed were oxalate (98.9%) followed by uric acid (62.6%) as an organic constituents while as an inorganic constituents, stones were composed of calcium (95.9%), phosphate (85.8%), ammonium (46.4%) and very few number of stones were composed of carbonate (5.0%). Cause of Renal Stones Decreased water intake, hot weather, dehydration, consuming water with higher level of calcium and other minerals causes relative excess of solute in urine. These super saturate to form small deposits (microliths) especially in areas where the lining cells(epithelium) in urinary tract are damaged. Over time, the deposits increase in size and form stones. Citrate level in urine keeps calcium and other minerals in soluble state in urine. Decrease in citrate level favors supersaturation of urine and predisposes to stone formation. Sodium contained in common salt can increase the risk of stone formation, probably by increasing the urinary excretion of calcium. Vitamin A deficiency causes poor healing of damaged epithelium and increases chance of stone formation. Oxalate is oxidized product of Vitamin C and hence excess of Typical hand gesture in renal stone pain Pain from loin to groin this vitamin may predispose one to renal stones. Increased blood calcium level causes increased level of calcium in urine and hence favors stone formation. High protein diet, high oxalate diet also predisposes to stone formation. Various disease cause increased level ofvariety of minerals in blood (eg. Blood calcium level increases due to increased bone resorption in primary hyperparathyroidism) and predisposes to formation of respective stones in urinary tract. Acidic urine favors formation of oxalate and uric acid stones while alkaline urine favors formation of phosphate stones. Symptoms Many of us have small deposits of these minerals in our urinary tract. Only a fraction of individuals experience discomfort due to renal stones though. Symptoms due to stones depend primarily on size, location and shape of stone. A small stone in kidney may not cause any symptom but the same stone if dislodged into ureter can cause severe symptoms because ureter is narrowtubular structure. Oxalate stones cause symptoms even when small because of its irregular shape. A phosphate stone usually attains large size before causing symptoms. Table 1: Prevalance of stones amongdifferent age groups Age group Males (%) Females (%) Total (%) Up to 20 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0) 15 (15.1) 21-40 28 (53.8) 24 (46.1) 52 (52.5) 41-60 16 (64.0) 9 (36.0) 25 (25.2) More than 61 1 (20.0) 4 (80.0) 5 (5.0) Table 2: Chemical composition of stones and their percentage Sex Frequency Organic constituents Inorganic constituents Oxalate Uric acid Calcium Phosphate Ammonium Carbonate Males 61 61 40 58 56 29 3 Females 38 37 22 37 29 17 2 Total (%) 99 98 (98.9) 62 (62.6) 95 (95.9) 85 (85.8) 46 (46.4) 5 (5.0) The most common symptom is pain abdomen, especially in flanks and lower abdomen. Some experiencedullachingpainwhileothersexperience
  18. 18. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np18 excruciating pain starting from flanks and going down towards groin. One may feel nauseated or may even vomit due to severe pain. There may be burning sensation while passing urine, unable to pass urine freely. Some may pass blood mixed urine. Infected urine may cause headache, fever, lower backache. Some may feel urge to pass urine repeatedlybutpassingonlysmallvolumeeachtime. This urge is due to local irritation caused by stones and infected urine. Sometimes these stones may partially or completely obstruct the flow or urine down its tract resulting in accumulation of urine in areas before the site of stone(hydronephrosis : accumulation of water/urine in kidney causing it to swell up; hyderoureter : accumulation of water/ urine in ureter causing it to swell up). In such cases people experience a great deal of distress. The accumulated urine may get infected and pus may develop in these structures (pyonephrosis ; pyo- referring to pus). This situation may progress and cause dame to kidney. Investigations The common modalities of investigation are X-ray (commonly called X-ray KUB; kidney ureter bladder), Ultrasound abdomen, Biochemical and microbiological analysis of urine. Depending on severitythere maybe need ofassessingthe capacityofkidneyto filter blood and form urine (Renal function tests). Advanced imaging techniques like CT scan may be occasionally necessary. Most of the renal stones are radiopaque thereby meaning it appears on plain x-ray. Non-radio opaque stones can be found on abdominal ultrasound. Treatment Most important home remedy for asymptomatic cases and as preventive measure is drinking enough of clean water. There are several foods that have been implicated to facilitate stone formation while another list of food that facilitates stone dissolution. Normal- Calcium, Low-Sodium, and Low Animal- Protein Diets are recommended for Stone Prevention. Other treatment options depend upon Diet and Kidney Stones. Image: Osteoconnections, UHN Osteoporis Program2014 the symptomatology and findings on investigation. Pain relieving medications, antibiotics for infected urine are commonly prescribed. Various non- invasive techniques like fragmenting the stones into smaller pieces (lithotripsy) to facilitate their spontaneous expulsion in urine are available. Larger stones may require surgical intervention varying from endoscopic procedures, minimally invasive to extensive surgeries. References: 1. Assessment of kidney stone and prevalence of its chemical compositions by A. Pandeya, R. Prajapati, P. Panta, and A. Regmi. (Nepal Med College Journal 2010; 12(3): 190-192). 2. Stapleton FB. (Childhood stones. EndocrinolMetabolClin North America 2002; 31: 1001-15). 3. Asplinet. al (Nephrolithiasis. In: Brenner BM, ed. Brenner and Rector’s the kidney. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1996)
  19. 19. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 19 Geophysics behind the formation of Himalaya Jiyalal Prasad Kuswaha Patan Multiple Campus Geophysics is a part of Science, used to study about the Earth with the help of physical principles and it is also defined as the intersection of Geology, Mathematics and Physics. It deals with the physical phenomena occurring internally and externally about the Earth; such as earthquakes, Magnetic field, heat flow, Volcanos and force of Gravity, etc. Geodynamics of formation of Himalaya has been studied with the help of Plate tectonic theory. Geodynamics is the study about the movement and deformation of the earth’s lithospheric plates and is caused by various forces from inside or outside of the Earth . Plate tectonic theory is the most important theory of Geomorphology. In 1912 a German metrologist & Geologist Alfered Wegner proponed a hypothesis called displacement hypothesis also known as “continental drift theory”. According to his vast study and research, he suggested that all the continents were together at late Paleozoic era and the whole landmass was named as ‘Pangaea’ (Pangaea means the whole Earth). Pangaea was surrounded by a single ocean called Panthalassa. Plate tectonic theory describes that how did Pangaea break into different plates. It was a biggest scientific theory in that time. The Apparent fit of Continents & Fossils Correlation The earth lithosphere is not continuous, is broken parts are known as plates. Plates are divided into two parts i.e. oceanic plate & Continental plate. Oceanic plates are denser than other. All plates are in motion. They are interacting to each other. Some of them are separating from each other (diverging plates) but some are colliding to each other (conversing plates). Alfered Wegener couldn’t explain the cause of continental drift. In 1960’s Harry Hass & Diet proposed an idea of sea floor expanding theory using convection cell known as ‘sea floor spreading theory’. Convection cell is responsible for continental drift theory. Due to large amount of heat inside the lower mental forms cell like structure called convection cell. Thus two convection cells diverges upward as rising limbs at ridge. The crust and the divergent limbs of convections cell separates the plate from each other and on other hand as descending limbs of convection limbs meets so that the crust can form trench. Schematic diagram of Convection cell They argued that sea floor spreading is a process that occurs at MOR, where new oceanic crust is formed through the volcanic activity is then gradually moves away from the ridge sea floor spreading helps to explain continental drift in plate tectonics theory. In late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, Pangaea
  20. 20. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np20 had started to break into two parts i.e. Laurasiya and Gondwanaland. Gondwanaland consisted of Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australiya, India and South America started to move in the southern hemisphere but Laurasiya (North America , Greenland, Europe and Asia) had started to move in the Northern hemisphere about 140 million years ago during mid-Mesozoic. The formation of Himalaya is the result of convergent plate boundary i.e. continental- continental collision. Millions of years ago, these mountain peak didn’t exist. The Asian continent was mostly intact, but India was an Island floating off the coast of Australia. Around 220 million years ago, around the time that “Pangea” was breaking apart. Schematic diagram of Indian landmass moving towards Tibetan Plate India started to move northwards. The schematic diagram of movement of Indian land mass towards Tibetan plate is shown in fig. 3. It travelled some 6000 km before it finally collided with Asia landmass was softer than Indian landmass. So, the part of Indian landmass was denser and more firmly attached to the seabed, which is why Asia’s softer soil was pushed up rather than the other way around. Continent-Continent collision between Indian plate & Eurasian plate Thus, Indian landmass merged into Tibetan plate results the Himalayan formation. It has world fastest uplift rate about 10 mm/a at Nanga parwat. It has world’s maximum relief (> 600 m Indus valley). It has world largest high plateau (Tibet> 5000m). Reference: 1. William Lowrie-Fundamentals of Geophysics 2. Bilham, R. (2004).Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history. Ann. Geophy, p.47, 839-858. 3. Ader, T, Avouc, J.P., Liu-Zeg, Lyon-Caen, H., Bollinger, L., Galetzka, J., et al. Convergence rate across the Nepal Himalaya and interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan fault: implication for seismic hazard p. 117, (2012)
  21. 21. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 21 At the end of nineteenth century, the physics consisted essentially of Classical Mechanics (Newtonian Mechanics), Maxwell’s theory of Electromagnetism (a unified theory of Electricity, Magnetism and Optics) and Thermodynamics. Classical Mechanics was used to predict the dynamics of material bodies and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism provided proper framework to study of radiation. As for the interactions between matter and radiation, i.e., particles and waves, they were explained by the Lorentz force or by thermodynamics. The overwhelming success of classical physics (classical mechanics, classical theory of electromagnetism and thermodynamics) made people believe that the ultimate description of nature had been achieved. It seemed that all known physical phenomena could be explained within the framework of the theories of particles and waves. However, at the beginning of the twentieth century, classical physics, which had been quite unassailable, was seriously challenged by the relativistic mechanics and Quantum Mechanics. These two fields were independent to a large extent and they challenged classical mechanics on different points. Classical laws cease to be valid for material bodies travelling at very high speeds, comparable to that of light (relativistic domain). They are also failed in providing proper explanation for newly discovered phenomena on an atomic or subatomic scale (quantum domain). The failure of classical physics to explain several microscopic phenomena; such as blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, atomic stability Chronological Developments of Modern Physics (Quantum Mechanics) Ratna K. Bade Faculty Member (Physics) Golden Gate Int'l College and atomic spectroscopy, had cleared the way for seeking new ideas outside its purview. In 1900, Max Planck introduced the concept of the quantum of energy. In his efforts to explain the phenomenon of blackbody, he succeeded in reproducing the experimental results only after postulating that the energy exchange between radiation and its surroundings takes place in discrete or quantized amounts. He argued that the energy exchange between an electromagnetic waves of frequency n and matter occurs only in integer multiples of hn , called the energy of a quantum, where is a fundamental constant called Planck’s constant. Planck’s idea gave an accurate explanation of blackbody radiation, prompted new thinking and triggered an avalanche of new discoveries that yielded solutions to the most outstanding problems of the time. In 1905, Einstein provided a powerful consolidation to Planck’s quantum concept. Einstein recognized that Planck’s idea of the quantization of the electromagnetic waves must be valid for light as well. Generalizing the Planck’s hypothesis, he posited that light itself is made of discrete bits of energy or tiny particles, called photons, each possessing the an energy hn. The introduction of the photon concept enabled Einstein to give an elegantly accurate explanation to the photoelectric effect, which had been waiting for a solution ever since its first experimental observation by Hertz in 1887. In 1913, Neils Bohr introduced the model of the hydrogen atom by combining Rutherford’s atomic model (1911), Planck’s quantum concept and
  22. 22. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np22 Einstein’s photons. He argued that atoms can be found only in discrete states of energy and interaction of the atoms with radiation, i.e., the emission or absorption of radiation by atoms takes place only in discrete amounts of hn because it results from transitions of the atom between its various discrete energy states. His work provided a satisfactory explanation to several outstanding problems such as atomic stability and atomic spectroscopy. In 1923, Compton made an important discovery that gave the most conclusive confirmation for the corpuscular aspect of light. By scattering X-rays with electrons, he confirmed thatthe X-rayphotons behave like particles with momenta hn/c , where c is the velocity of light or photons in vacuum. In 1924, de Broglie introduced an idea of waves associated with electrons. The classical mechanics could not reconcile this new concept. He postulated that not only does radiation exhibit particle-like behavior but, conversely, material particles themselves display wave-like behavior. This concept was confirmed experimentally in 1927 by Davisson and Germer. They showed that interference patterns is a property of waves, can be obtained with material particles such as electrons. By 1925 Heisenberg and Schrodinger developed and skillfully welded the various experimental findings as well as Bohr’s postulates into a refined theory. In addition to providing an accurate reproduction of the existing experimental data, this theory turned out to possess astonishingly reliable predictions which enabled it to explore and unravel many uncharted areas of the microphysical world. This new theory put an end to twenty five years (1900-1925) of patchwork which was dominated by the ideas of Planck and Bhor, which later known as Old Quantum Theory. The matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were two independent formulations of Quantum Mechanics. The matrix mechanics was developed by Heisenberg (1925) to describe atomic structure starting from the observed spectral lines. Inspired by Plank’s quantization of waves and Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom, Heisenberg propounded his theory on the notion that the only allowed values of energy exchange between microphysical systems are those that are discrete quanta. Expressing the dynamical quantities such as energy, position, momentum and angular momentum in terms of matrices, he obtained an eigenvalue problem that describes the energy spectrum and the state vectors of the system. Matrix mechanics was very successful in accounting for the discrete quanta of light emitted and absorbed by atoms. The wave mechanics is formulated by Schrodinger (1926). It is a generalization of the de Broglie postulate. This methodismoreintuitivethanmatrixmechanicsand describes the dynamics of microscopic matter by means of a wave equation, called the Schrodinger equation. The solutions of Schrodinger differential equation yield the energy spectrum and the wave function of the system under consideration. In 1927, Max Born proposed his probabilistic interpretation of wave mechanics. He took the square moduli of the wave functions that are solutions to the Schrödinger equation and the interpreted them as probability densities. Dirac suggested a more general formulation of Quantum Mechanics which deals with abstract objects such as kets, bras and operators. The representation of Dirac’s formalism in a continuous basis (the position or momentum representation) gives back Schrödinger’s wave mechanics. As for the Heisenberg’s matrix formulation, it can be obtained by representing Dirac’s formalism in a discrete basis. In this context, the approaches of Schrödinger and Heisenberg represent, respectively, the wave formulation and the matrix
  23. 23. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 23 formulation of the general theory of quantum mechanics. Combining special theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, Dirac derived in 1928 an equation which describes the motion of electrons. This equation is known as Dirac’s equation, predicted the existence of an antiparticle, called positron, which has similar properties with the electron, but of opposite charge. The positron was discovered in 1932, four years after its prediction by quantum mechanics. In a nutshell, Quantum Mechanics is the theory that describes the dynamics of matter at the microscopic scale. It is vital for understanding the Physics of Solids, Lasers, Semiconductor and Superconductor Devices, Plasma, etc. In brief, Quantum Mechanics is the foundations of all Modern Physics, Solid State Physics, Nuclear & Particle Physics, Optics, Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, Medical Physics, Bio-Physics, etc. It is also considered to be the foundations of Chemistry and Biology. Reference: 1. Zettilli, Nouredine (2009), Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, UK. 2. Aruldhas, G. (2009), Quantum Mechanics, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. 3. Bade, Ratna K. & Jha, Gopal (2011), A Refresher Course in Quantum Mechanics, Laxmi Pustak Bhandar, Maitighar, Kathamndu, Nepal 4. Agrawal, B. K. & Hari Prakash (1997), Quantum Mechanics, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, India. 5. Ghatak, Ajay & Lokanthan, S. (2004), Quantum Mechanics: Theory and Applications, Fifth Edition, Macmillan India Limited. 6. Peleg, Youv et. al. (2011), Quantum Mechanics (Schaum's Outlines), Second Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies. If you spin a ball when you drop it, it will fly through the air as it falls. This is called the Magnus effect, and it makes playing tennis and soccer a whole lot easier. Cricket bowlers and baseball pitchers also use the Magnus effect in their sport. You can make balls fly. Scientists predict that there are over 3 billion base pairs of DNA in human genes and over 25,000 genes in the human genome. An entire copy of that genome exists in each of the 10 trillion cells in the human body. If all of that DNA were lined up, it would cover the distance between Earth and the sun 100 times. We have a lot of DNA in our body. Image: Vitstudio/Shutterstock Image: Vyas Abhishek/Shutterstock
  24. 24. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np24 Ten Equations that Changed the World
  25. 25. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 25
  26. 26. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np26 There are other many equations which have played crucial role for the development of science and the world. Some of the majors are Euler’s Equation, Boltzmann Equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Lorentz Equation, Arrhenius Equation, Black-Scholes Equation, Ideal Gas Equation, Wave Equation, etc. Source: futurism.com
  27. 27. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 27 Exoplanets The earth is deteriorating. If we do not find another planet that can host human life with abundance of water in its lithosphere and oxygen in the atmosphere, it means that the run of humanity and other biological life is at its last moment. However, Matthew McConaughey and his team are going on a mission to set foot on a new hospitable planet. Well, it’s a part of synopsis of the movie Interstellar. But, we can’t ignore the fact that one day a similar situation cannot come. More than that, we have huge telescopes set up in the space that have been providing infinite data about the position and orientation of planets on distant star systems. These planets that lie beyond our solar system are Exoplanets. Detection Starting from 1990s, over 3000 exoplanets have been found. The first ever detected exoplanet was 51 Pegasi b which has the spin duration of only 4.4 days. This type of exoplanet is classified as a Hot- Jupiter, which means that it is a hot gaseous planet that can be as big as Jupiter or larger. This kind of large planet was detected by using Doppler shift method. In this method, a high resolution spectroscopy is used. The motion of the planet around its star induces small motions in the waves of the star, and the spectral shift can be detected. We know that the stars are apparently motionless like the Sun is and thus the revolution of the planet deters the waves of the star, which is physically described by Doppler Effect. However, the plane of the motion in the star-planet should be in huge inclination in respect to the observer, i.e. detecting telescope. If the plane is in zero inclination, there would be no apparent to and fro motion between the system and the observer, which means that there would be no Doppler effect. And alternatively, if the inclination is 90 degrees, the Doppler Effect is the largest as the planet falls between the star and the observer. This method Madhu Lamichhane B.E. Mechanical Engineering was helpful in finding few hundred of exoplanets along with their masses but it had limitations since the wobble of the star is only few milliarc seconds which is quiet difficult to detect. In 2009, NASA set up Keppler Space Observatory and then new form of exoplanet detection, known as Transit Method, has begun. The number of exoplanets discovered has sky rocketed since then. Most importantly, the detection of small sized planets has been possible using this method. In this method, the star system must be in same plane of the observer. This method looks for the slight shadowing of the star as the planet moves in between the observer and the star. The depth of the eclipse that the planet leaves on the star is measured with the stability photometry; the depth of the eclipse gives the relative size of the planet in relation to its star. Furthermore, when the planet lies just behind the star, infrared waves can be compared to detect the temperature of the planet. This is done by calculating the difference between the temperature when the planet is in front of the star and that when the planet is behind the star. The most important factor to be in mind in this method is the fact that the star systems are at random inclination, so repeated tests needs to be done in order to confirm the eclipse. Fig: Exoplanet population and their observed method Image: nasa.gov
  28. 28. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np28 There are two other methods too – Direct imaging and Micro-lensing, but these methods are quiet difficult as they have many limitations. Well, there are limitations on previous two methods too. The planet should be facing the earth for it to be detected which is not always the case. But, hopefully, thousands of them do and we can discover more in the sky. Characterisation and Biomarkers We have our planets now, but what about their properties? Size and mass do not provide sufficient characteristics of a life hosting planet. Fortunately, we will find our way through detailed observation. Two different spectrums are read using critical spectroscopy;first,whentheplanetcomesbetween the star and the observer, the electromagnetic spectrum is read, and secondly, the spectrum of the star only is read. The difference of the spectrum gives the spectrum of the exoplanet. The spectrums provide the physical features like the elemental composition of the exoplanet. Chemical components like Hydrogen, Helium and other heavier elements can be traced. Still, this method provides the spectrum of large gaseous planets only. Furthermore, mass from Doppler method and size from transit method can be used to find the density of the planet. By comparing the density of water, rock and other materials from the Earth, the rough composition of the materials in the exoplanets can be predicted. This means that, we can also predict if the planet consists of terrestrial water. In the last few years, such planets with possible water and layer of ozone have been found. The nearest such planet is just 40 light-years away from the Earth. Again, Earth like planet has not been found, but we can say that we are getting closer than ever. Through various simulations, it has been possible to mark the habitable zone in each star system. The simplest example of habitable zone is the Earth in the solar system. The Mars is too far to get enough radiation from the Sun and the Venus is too near that no atmosphere can sustain. In addition, the planet needs to have enough volcanic activities in its core to support biosphere, which small planets like Mars do not have. The Keppler space-observatory has been successful in finding more than 300 exoplanets in habitable zone, and The Chandra X-Ray space-observatory claims that there are millions of exoplanets yet to be discovered. The number of exoplanets discovered is increasing, and we have never been so sure of existence of another habitable planet. But, we have to have more data from these exoplanets. It would be only a matter of time when we would have found some alien life. Till then, more information needs to be fetched. Reference: www.coursera.com/learn/astro www.space.com/17738-exoplanets/ www.exoplanets.eu Fig: Exoplanets found by Keppler on habitable zone Image: nasa.gov Fig: Relative size of planets found by Kepler Image: space.com
  29. 29. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 29 Understanding Bitcoin You probably have heard of bitcoin. It has been making lot of buzz lately. One bitcoin was traded for nearly $20,000 at some point last December. But what exactly is bitcoin? Let’s take a closer look at bitcoin, its technology, and some other aspects. What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin basically is a digital money. Users of bitcoin can use it to do just anything that can be done with conventional currencies, like buying and selling goods, sending money to people, organization, or extend credit. However, bitcoin is entirely virtual, there are no physical coins. Units of currency called bitcoin (BTC) are used to store and transfer values among participants in the bitcoin network. Unlike traditional currencies, bitcoin is not controlled by governments, but by a clever cryptographic technique. Where did Bitcoin come from? In 2008, a computer programmer under the alias of Satoshi Nakamoto published a paper titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” [1] In this paper, Satoshi outlined the design of bitcoin Rohit Neopane combining several prior inventions. Based on his (or her or their) paper, Satoshi released a software the following year that could be used to exchange bitcoin. Satoshi Nakamoto vanished from the public in 2011, leaving behind the development of the software and the bitcoin network to a volunteer open-source community. The identity of Satoshi Nakamoto is still unknown. How does Bitcoin work? Nakamoto wanted people to exchange money electronically securely without the involvement of a third party like a bank or a company like Visa or PayPal. He designed bitcoin to be run by a decentralized network of computers around the world that keep track of all of bitcoin transactions, just like Wikipedia is maintained by a decentralized network of writers and editors. The Basics Just the way you need a web browser to access internet, you need a bitcoin application to join the bitcoin network. A “bitcoin wallet” is the most common user interface to the network. Once you Bitcoin is still in infancy compared to the fiat currencies, but the technology it employs is considered ingenious and revolutionary. Image: Reuters/Dado Ruvic
  30. 30. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np30 download and install a bitcoin wallet (there are many bitcoin wallets, just like there are many web browsers), it connects over the internet to the decentralized bitcoin network. It also generates a pair of unique keys. One key is called the private key. This is stored in your wallet. The private key gives you ownership and control over your bitcoin funds. The other is called the public key. Like an email address, you’ll need to share your public key with others to make a bitcoin transaction. You can post it anywhere without risking the security ofyour account. It is practically impossible for anyone to crack your private key from your public key. A public key looks something like this: 1GdK9UzpHBzqzX2A9JFP3Di4weBwqgmoQA. (Warning! Do not make any bitcoin transaction to this bitcoin address. It will be lost forever.) Stores that accept bitcoin share their public keys with their customers. Transferring Bitcoins This is where things can get a little confusing. When you make a transaction, say 0.01 BTC to your friend, your bitcoin wallet sends a value equal to the 0.01 BTC signed by your private key to the bitcoin network with your friend’s public key. The bitcoin network performs a check in the public transaction log stored in the network to verify that you actually have 0.01 BTC to spend. Your friend’s public address will always be listening to the network for a transaction in that address. When you make the transaction, it is forwarded to other clients in the bitcoin network. These clients go through their copy of the public ledger and try to validate that you have 0.01 BTC to spend. At the same time some clients called “miners” are racing to solve a complex cryptographic mathematical puzzle using their computational power. A miner succeeds every ten minutes, on average, and is able to validate the transactions of the past ten minutes. When your transaction gets validated by a miner, it gets included in the block (think of a block as a page of a ledger). And once this updated transaction log reaches your wallet, you will know that your transaction has been successful. Therecordofallbitcointransactionsthattheminers are constantly updating is called the blockchain. A blockchain is a chain of blocks. The blockchain is the public ledger of the bitcoin network. How secure is Bitcoin? A bitcoin transaction cannot be forged or modified. It also does not reveal the private information, like identities and personal details of the parties involved in the transaction. So even if your transaction is broadcast over public channel, like unsecured WiFi, your security will not be compromised. Bitcoin is very much like digital cash or gold. And the key to unlock this cash is the private key in your bitcoin wallet. If you lose it, misplace it, have it stolen, or give a wrong amount to a person, it’s like dropping some cash on the road − there’s no coming back. On the bright side, bitcoin being a decentralized network, the responsibility and control of the security is solely on the users. You can backup your bitcoin wallet containing your keys. You can also store it in multiple copies, or even print out for hard-copy backup. Now, can you backup your cash, gold or your bank account? Bitcoin’s decentralization model puts a lot of power in the hands of users. And with that power comes a great responsibility of maintaining secrecy of the keys.[2] As long as your keys are secure, your bitcoin fund is secure. How to obtain Bitcoin? The best way to get bitcoin, for beginners, is to find someone who has bitcoin and buy directly from him or her. If you don’t know anyone who has bitcoin, you can use the classified service such as https://localbitcoins.com to find sellers near your location. Or you could sell your service or product for bitcoin. But the easiest way to buy bitcoin is through standard exchanges that offer the service of exchanging bitcoin with local currency. But bitcoins also have to be “mined” in the first place. Bitcoin clients called miners compete to
  31. 31. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 31 update the next “block” of the public transaction log by solving a complex cryptographic puzzle. The winning miner gets rewarded with 12.5 bitcoins. After every 210,000 blocks, the reward will be halved. As per Nakamoto’s white paper, only 21 million bitcoins can ever be mined. As of this writing, there are 16,990,413 bitcoins in circulation.[3] Following the current trend, the 21 million bitcoins will be fully mined by the year 2140. Warning! Nepal Rastriya Bank has officially declared bitcoin illegal in Nepal. So, anyone trading bitcoin will be punished as per law. Who controls Bitcoin? No one. Or the entire bitcoin community which includes developers, miners, users, and traders. In Nakamoto’s paper, there’s a loophole though: if more than half of the computing power of the bitcoin network falls in the hands of a single entity, things could change. They could then help forge transactions by removing them from the blockchain. But this is very unlikely to happen for two reasons. The Bitcoin Transaction Lifecycle. Step-by-step illustration of how the bitcoin Rob sends reaches to his friend Laura. Image: Patricia Estevão Firstly, if someone amassed 51% of the total computational power, it would attract significant attention. Secondly, there is no incentive in attacking the network. Let’s say if someone actually amassed 51% of the total computational power of the entire network, would they risk losing all to attack the network when they could mine bitcoin with that power and earn a lot more? They would risk losing all their bitcoins. The trust in the bitcoin code and the mutually beneficial incentives is the key to bitcoin's success. Only time will tell if bitcoin will succeed in becoming the currency of everyday use. But the the blockchain technology it employs is here to stay. References: [1] Nakamoto S. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. 2008. Available from: http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf. [2] Antonopoulos AM. Mastering Bitcoin: Programming the Open Blockchain. 2nd ed. O’Reilly. Sebastopol (CA). 2017. [3] Bitcoin Block Reward Halving Countdown. Available from: http://www.bitcoinblockhalf. com
  32. 32. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np32 Medical/Engineering Entrance Questions and Answers Physics 1. The dimension of the stress is a) ML-2 T-2 b) ML-1 T-2 c) ML2 T-2 d) ML1 T-2 2. Temperature correspond to 1eV energy is a) 7.6 x 102 K b) 7.7 x 103 K c) 7.1 x 10-2 K d) 7.2 x 103 K 3. The time period of pendulum on a satellite orbiting around the earth is a) 1/π b) 0 c) π d) ∞ 4. A chock coil should have a) High resistance and low resistance b) High resistance and high inductance c) Low resistance and high inductance d) Low resistance and low inductance 5. The speed of an electron having a wavelength of 10-10 m is a) 7.25x 106 m/s b) 5.25x 106 m/s c) 6.26x 106 m/s d) 4.24x 106 m/s Chemistry 6. The telluric helix was given by a) De chan courtis b) Newlands c) L. meyer d) Mendeleeff 7. Platinum asbestos is used in a) Haber’s process b) Ostward’s process c) Contact process d) Kipp’s apparatus 8. Dead burnt plaster is a) CaSO4 .2H2 O b) MgSO4 .7H2 O c) CaSO4 . 1 2 / H2 O d) CaSO4 9. Formic acid and acetic acid can be distinguished by a) Litmus b) NaHCO3 c) Caustic soda d) Ammonical AgNO3 10. Boiling and melting point of the following hydride follow the order: a) SbH3 > AsH3 > PH3 > NH3 b) SbH3 > NH3 > AsH3 > PH3 c) SbH3 > AsH3 > PH3 > NH3 d) SbH3 < AsH3 < PH3 < NH3 Biology 11. A transport protein is: a) Collagen b) Immunoglobulin c) Haemoglobin d) None 12. The deadliest mushroom is: a) Agaricus b) Amanita c) Peuritus d) Volvariella 13. Bacterial DNA is identified as: a) DNA only b) DNA without histone c) DNA with histone d) DNA & RNA 14. Cross between 2 flowers of same species is called? a) Allogamy b) Xenogamy c) Geitonogamy d) Autogamy 15. Which of the following is not macronutrient? a) Glucose b) Proteins c) Vitamin B12 d) Fats
  33. 33. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 33 Answers 1. b 2. b 3. d 4. c 5. a 6. a 7. c 8. d 9. d 10. b 11. c 12. b 13. b 14. c 15. c 16. b 17. b 18. b 19. c 20. b 21. a 22. d 16. Gibberellins was first of all obtained from: a) Algae b) Fungus c) Bacteria d) Virus 17. The movement of leaf in mimosa is: a) Epinastic b) Seismonastic c) Hyponastic d) Thigmotropism 18. Sleeping sickness is caused by bite of: a) Sandfly b) Tse-Tse fly c) Mosquito d) Housefly 19. Water vascular system is characteristics of: a) Colenterata b) Porifera c) Echinodermata d) Platyhelminthes 20. Connecting link between Krebs & Glycolysis: a) Pyruvic acid b) Acetylcoenzyme A c) Oxaloacetic acid d) PEP 21. 35 meiotic division leads to the formation of how many seeds: a) 28 b) 35 c) 36 d) 70 22. Deamination of protein takes place in: a) Kidney b) Large gut c) Pancrease d) Liver Sudoku Call For Articles Scientific Mind Magazine requests the science enthusiasts to send their articles related to science and mathematics. Best articles will be published in the coming issues. Articles can be sent at articles.scimind@gmail.com
  34. 34. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np34 Collatz Conjecture: An Unsolved Problems in Mathematics! Have you ever wondered “Math is complete or not?” If you have thought Math is complete then in some cases you may be wrong. Wrong in the sense that there are still some problems in Mathematics, which are still remains to be solved or we can say still they are unsolved. Yeah you are getting it right. So what are the problems they are still remains to be solved? A few of them are as follows: 1. The Riemann’s Hypothesis 2. The P vs. NP problem 3. The Navier-Stokes Equation 4. The Hodge Conjecture 5. Yang-Mills Theory and Mass Gap Hypothesis To solve these problems you need a good Mathematical background. In 2000 “The Clay Mathematics Institute” situated in Peterborough, USA announced $1 million prize to the person who would solve any one of these problems. We are not going to talk about any of these problems. But there is a problem in Mathematics which can be understood by any sixth grade student and still remains to be solved. The problem is named as “Collatz Conjecture” or sometimes known as the “3n+1” problem. Collatz Conjecture: This Conjecture is named upon German Mathematician Lothar Collatz (July 6, 1910- Sep 26, 1990). It states that every whole number either even or odd eventually goes down to 1. For this we have to consider the following operation on any positive Integer n; 1. If the chosen number is even, divide it by two. i.e. If the chosen number is ‘n’ we get ‘n/2’ Kusal Thapa 2. If the chosen number is odd, triple it and add 1 to it. i.e. if the chosen odd number is ‘n’ we get, ‘3n+1’. In Arithmetic notation we define a function f as follow: f(n) = 1 2 ; if n is even if n is even3n + 1; The sequence of number involved is known as Hailstone sequence or Hailstone numbers (because the value usually goes up and down like hailstone in cloud.) or as wondrous number. Mathematicians tried this function for the number up to 260 and that still got back to 1. Now the question may arise what is the problem on this function, we will talk about it on the last. First let’s see some illustrative examples: Take number 12. 12 is even. Divide it by 2. 12 2 = 6 (even) 6 2 = 3 (odd) (3 × 3) + 1 = 10 (even) 10 2 = 5 (Odd) (5 × 3) + 1 = 16 (even) 16 2 = 8 (even) 8 2 = 4 (even) 4 2 = 2 (even) 2 2 = 1 Here again if you think 1 is odd, then we can do it again for 1 (1 × 3) + 1 = 4 (even) 4 2 = 2 (even) 2 2 = 1
  35. 35. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 35 Back to 1 again, so the cycle 4 ⇒ 2 ⇒ 1 This cycle keeps repeating after we got to 1. Now take a number less than 12, take 9 (smaller than 12). 9 ⇒ 28 ⇒ 14 ⇒ 7 ⇒ 7 13 ⇐ 26 ⇐ 52 ⇐ 17 ⇐ 34 40 ⇒ 20 ⇒ 10 ⇒ 5 ⇒ 16 1 ⇐ 2 ⇐ 4 ⇐ 8 Back to 1 again, Here we can see that 12 greater than 9 took more step to become 1. But also if we take 8 there will be more less steps. Taking example of those numbers which will take more steps to descend to 1: 1. Between 1 and 100: • 27 takes 111 steps to become 1; it climbs up to 9,232 before descending to 1. • 54 and 55 both take 112 steps to descend to 1; both of them also climb up to 9,232. • 97 take 118 steps to descend to 1. 2. Between 1 and 1000: • 703 takes 170 steps to descend to 1 it climbs up to 250,504. • 937 takes 173 steps to descend to 1 it also climbs up to 250,504. • 871 takes 178 steps to descend to 1 it climbs up to 190996. ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ 3. Between 1,000 and 10,000; 6,171 takes 261 steps to descend to 1 after reaching the maximum of 975,400. 4. Between 10,000 and 100,000 ; 77,031 it take 350 steps to descend to 1 after reaching the peak value 21,933,016. 5. Between 100,000 and 1 million; 837,799 takes 524 steps. 6. Between 1 million and 10 million; 8,400,511 takes 685 steps. 7. Between 10 billion and 100 billion; 75,128,138,247 takes 1,228 steps. Actually, the problem in this Conjecture is that there is no certain rule that, the larger number will take more steps or smaller number will take fewer steps to become 1. For example the number 909 take 15 steps to descend to 1 where as the number 7 take 16 steps. There are so many other examples like this. Also we cannot find any pattern of numbers descending to 1. So it’s up to you! Note: The Collatz conjecture is not on the list of The Millennium Problems, but there is certain prize for this whoever solves this! References: 1. The millennium problems, Delvin K. (2002), Clay institute, Peterborough, USA. The average person walks the equivalent of five times around the world in a lifetime. The average moderately active person takes around 7,500 step/day. If you maintain that daily average and live until 80 years of age, you’ll have walked about 216,262,500 steps in your lifetime. Doing the math; the average person with the average stride living until 80 will walk a distance of around 110,000 miles — which is the equivalent of walking about 5 times around the Earth, right on the equator.
  36. 36. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np36 • Even though Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, Venus is hotter than Mercury because Venus has atmosphere. • Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, on March 18, 1965, became the first person to ever walk in outer space. • 49 years ago, American space hero Buzz Aldrin became the first man to pee on the A for Astronomy Moon. • Betelguese is a red supergiant located 642.5 light years away in Orion Constellation. It is about 10 million years old, and is expected to end is life in a supernova explosion. • NASA announced the discovery of seven alien planets in TRAPPIST system on 22 Feb, 2017 in TRAPPIST 1 star some 39 light years away. But it normally takes us 817,000 years to reach there. References: http://scientificmind.com.np/trappist-1-system-seven-alien-planets-discovered/ https://news.nationalgeographic.com/ http://www.astronomytrek.com/step-4-interesting-facts-about-orion/ If Betelgeuse exploded, transitioning from the red supergiant stage to supernova, it would light our sky continuously for two months. It could happen anytime — within a couple of thousand years, tomorrow or even now. Betelgeuse lies some 430 light-years from Earth, yet it’s already one of the brightest stars in Earth’s sky. The reason is that Betelgeuse is a supergiant star — the largest type of star in the Universe. Betelgeuse has a luminosity about 10,000 times greater than that of the Sun and its radius is calculated to be about 370 times that of the sun. If it were positioned at the center of our sun, its radius would extend out past the orbit of Mars. Because it’s near the end of its lifetime, Betelgeuse is likely to explode into a supernova. Artist's rendition of a supernova explosion. Image: http://galaxyclusters.tumblr.com Betelgeuse − a supergiant star that could go supernova anytime. Or has it already?
  37. 37. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 37 Spectometer A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to determine information about an object through the analysis of its light properties. Spectrometry is the study of interactions between light and matter, and the reactions and measurements of radiation intensity and wavelength. Therefore, spectrometer is the chief instrument used in spectrometric analysis. Spectrometers were developed in early studies of physics, astronomy and chemistry. Spectrometers are of two types : Optical Spectrometers and Mass Spectrometers. Optical spectrometers work in the principle of Optical dispersion. It shows the intensity of light is a function of wavelength or frequency where the deflection is produced either by refraction in a prism or by diffraction in a diffraction grating. Mass spectrometer is an analytical instrument that is used to identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample. These are of two types: Time-of-flight spectrometer and Magnetic spectrometer. A spectrometer does something similar to what a prism does: light goes in, and gets split up into a spectrum. If you shine white light through a prism, a rainbow comes out the other side. Emission is the ability of a substance to give off light, when it interacts with heat whereas Absorption is the opposite of emission, where energy, light or radiation is absorbed by the electrons of a particular matter. Since the emission and absorption lines are unique for every element, using a spectrometer can help scientists determine the composition of whatever they are studying. Spectrometry also allows us to measure the velocities of celestial bodies, as well as distances on cosmological scales (to galaxies). Spectrometry has huge application in most of the field of science. It is one of the most important scientific instrument ever invented. Sujan Dahal Fig: A diagram of mass spectrometer. Image: Openstax Only one type of mammal has wings FUN FACT Those mammals would be bats. While flying squirrels can jump from trees and glide, they can’t truly fly like bats can. Image: Gizmophoto/Shutterstock
  38. 38. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np38 Falcon Heavy Falcon Heavy is the most powerful rocket designed and manufactured by American space company SpaceX. It conducted Falcon Heavy’s maiden launch on February 6, 2018 at 3:45 p.m. from the Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket carried a Tesla Roadster belonging to SpaceX CEO Elon Musk as a dummy payload. It was designed to carry humans into space farther than ever before especially to Mars. It is partially reusable super heavy-lift launch vehicle. It has capacity to launch 64 tonnes of payloads to low earth orbit which is greater in mass than a 737 jetliner loaded with passenger crew, luggage and fuel. Its two boosters successful landed on ground while third booster destroyed and felt at sea. It was built in around $90 million. Falcon Heavy, with its great lifting capability and low cost, could prove a handy vehicle for interplanetarymissions."Youcanimagineanumber of possibilities that are only in the drawing board phase," says Jack Burns, an astrophysics professor at the University of Colorado and recent member of the NASA transition team. "This could include a mission to orbit Pluto which requires a more massive spacecraft than New Horizons, missions to the moons of Saturn, [and] sample return from Mars, [which] requires multiple launch.” "We want a new space race," Elon Musk said at a press conference after the Falcon Heavy Launch. "Space races are exciting." He's going to get one. SpaceX might be king of the hill right now, with the most cost-effective rockets on the market, but you better believe other companies have the front runner in their crosshairs. Prabesh Bista The two reuseable side boosters of the Falcon Heavy landed in perfect harmony on the launch pad. Image: Wikipedia Elon Musk's Tesla Roadseter that was used as a payload in the Falcon Heavy test launch Image: Elon Musk's Instagram A dummy called Starman in SpaceX's spacesuit in Musk's red Roadster. Image: Screengrab from SpaceX youtube
  39. 39. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 39 Mathematical Tricks 1. Multiply a 3-digit number by 111: Example: 111 × 234 Step 1: 111 × 234 = 4 Write down the 4. Step 2: 111 × 234 = 74 3 + 4 = 7 Step 3: 111 × 234 = 974 2 + 3 + 4 = 9 Step 4: 111 × 234 = 5974 2 + 3 = 5 Step 5: 111 × 234 = Write down the 2. 25,974 2. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 715: Take the multiple of 7, divide it by 7, then multiply by 5. Write that result as a 3-digit number (padding with 0s if necessary), and then write it again to the left. Example: 42 × 715= ?? 42 ÷ 7 = 6 6 × 5 = 30 Answer: 30,030 Math Fun Table 12 = 1 22 = 1 + 3 32 = 1 + 3 + 5 42 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 52 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 62 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 72 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 82 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 92 = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 13 + 53 + 33 = 153 163 + 503 + 333 = 165033 1663 + 5003 + 3333 = 166500333 16663 + 50003 + 33333 = 166650003333 and so on and on and on and on! 3. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 429: Divide the other number by 7 and multiply by 3 Example: 56 × 429 = ?? 56 ÷ 7 = 8 8 × 3 = 24. Answer: 24,024 4. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 572: Divide the other number by 7 and multiply by 4. Example: 572 × 14 = ?? 14÷7 = 2 2×4 = 8 Answer: 8008 5. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 858: Divide the other number by 7 and multiply by 6. Example: 21 × 858 = ?? 21÷ 7 = 3 3 × 6 = 18 Answer: 18,018 6. Multiplying by 9: Multiply the other number by 10, then subtract it Examples: 9n = 10n – n 9 × 23 = 230 – 23 = 207 19 × 42 = 20 × 42 – 42 = 840 – 42 = 738
  40. 40. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np40 Sanitation Kamlesh Sah Global College of Management For the next issue, we request our readers to send an essay in the topic ‘Universe’ in not more than 500 words before 31st May 2018 A.D. The essay can be send in the email address articles.scimind@gmail.com The best essay will be published in the Jan.-Feb. 2018 issue and next three issues of the magazine will be provided. The world’s population is increasing day by day and the increasing crowd of the people result in the increasing pollution and environmental degradation as well. Sanitation refers to the hygienic management of all those sectors that are responsible for the environmental pollution. Environmental pollution is indeed a burning issue due to which sanitation has become an urgent need for the whole world. Pollution and environmental degradation are the issues for the whole world but they’re comparatively more problematic in the developing countries like Nepal. Unsystematic development tasks are being carried out that result in unmanaged disposal of garbage, wastages coming out from factories, households, etc. These things are very harmful for human life. The perfect example can be seen in Kathmandu valley. The pollution in the Kathmandu valley has increased so much that maintaining just personal hygiene is insufficient for good health of the people. Construction works have increased air pollution so much that there is no place where anyone can go safely without a face mask. Respiratory problems have been increasing rapidly. Kathmandu seems like “Dustmandu”. Water pollution is a very common thing that can be seen in the valley. The pollution of Bagmati river is not hidden from anyone. These things have affected the climate there, fertility of soil, etc. Similar problem can be seen in Janakpurdham, a religiousplaceof Nepal.Infact,there’snosanitation at all due to the development tasks that are being carried out haphazardly. Such polluted places are the best suited places for insects to breed. And, insects do have high egg-laying capacity at such places. Thus, mosquitoes have disturbed the life of the people living there. Janakpurdham can also be called as “Mosquitoesdham”. The maintenance of sanitation is so difficult to find even in the developed places like Kathmandu and Janakpurdham then we can easily imagine its maintenance in the rural areas. People of the rural areas are illiterate and ignorant. So, they’re unable to adopt the policies of sanitation. They do not know about proper disposal of garbage, household wastage, animal feces, etc. Media campaigns can be raised to make people aware about the importance and the methods of sanitation. Thus, people will be able to make systematic disposal of household wastage, animal feces, etc. Personal sanitation is must at first and then is environmental sanitation. In order o ensure a healthy life, one must have food sanitation as well. It’s very easy to pollute the environment but very difficult to control pollution and adopt sanitation. Everyone should consider such problems as their common one and go ahead with the objective of improvimg the situation unitedly. For example, “Bagmati Sarsaphai Abhiyan” is an initiative of maintain sanitation in the community. If all the people understand the urgency of sanitation, they’ll surely be able to maintain it. If this is possible then the problems of urban areas like Kathmandu valley, Janakpurdham and many rural areas will improve. Everyone knows about these all. If they’re given to write an essay on the topic “Sanitation”, then they’ll write pages and pages but in real life, there’s no any contribution of such people in environmental sanitation. The things that people lack are lack of time, wisdom, selfishness. People should remember that their earnings do not give them good returns unless they’ve maintained a good sanitation for their health. If people know and try to remove these weaknesses and work as one unitedly, such respiratory problems and other harmful effects would be prevented through sanitation
  41. 41. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 41 Reader's Questions 1. Why do cats always land on their feet? Cats have an innate ability known as their “righting reflex”. Due to their very flexible backbones and highly tuned sense of balance, they can twist their bodies to right themselves. Their balance system, located in the inner ear, determines up from down and they rotate their upper body to make sure they will land the right way up – the lower body follows on. Cats also benefit from light bone structure and thick fur, which decrease their terminal velocity. – Mala Adhikari 2. If a tree falls in the forest and no one hears it, does it make a sound? THIS is a philosophical question which asks whether something exists if there is no one there to perceive it. It is really questioning existence and whether a sound exists because it is made or because it is perceived? – Gopal Basnet 3. What's at the bottom of a black hole? It's a question that it haven’t the tools to answer till now. Einstein's general relativity says that when a black hole is created by a dying, collapsing massive star, it continues caving in until it forms an infinitely small, infinitely dense point called a singularity. But on such scales quantum physics probably has something to say too. Except that general relativity and quantum physics have never been the happiest of bedfellows – for decades they have withstood all attempts to unify them. However, a recent idea – called M-Theory – may one day explain the unseen centre of one of the universe's most extreme creations. – Sudhir Devkota 4. Is time travel possible? Time travellers already walk among us. Thanksto Einstein'stheoryofspecial relativity, astronauts orbiting on the International Space Station experience time ticking more slowly. At that speed the effect is minuscule, but ramp up the velocity and the effect means that one day humans might travel thousands of years into the future. Nature seems to be less fond of people going the other way and returning to the past, however Scientific Mind requests the readers to send their questions related to science and mathematics. The answers will be given by consulting with the exports of the relevant subject. Questions can be send at articles.scimind@gmail.com Notice some physicists have concocted an elaborate blueprint for a way to do it using wormholes and spaceships. It could even be used to hand yourself a present on Christmas Day, or answer some of the many questions that surround the universe's great unknowns. – Shrijana Kathet 5. Where do we put all the carbon? For the past couple of hundred years, we've been filling the atmosphere with carbon dioxide – unleashing it by burning fossil fuels that once locked away carbon below the Earth's surface. Now we have to put all that carbon back, or risk the consequences of a warming climate. But how do we do it? One idea is to bury it in old oil and gas fields. Another is to hide it away at the bottom of the sea. But we don't know how long it will stay there, or what the risks might be. Meanwhile, we have to protect natural, long-lasting stores of carbon, such as forests and peat bogs, and start making energy in a way that doesn't belch out even more. – Sabin Thapa 6. How do we get more energy from the sun? Dwindling supplies of fossil fuels mean we're in need of a new way to power our planet. Our nearest star offers more than one possible solution. We're already harnessing the sun's energy to produce solar power. Another idea is to use the energy in sunlight to split water into its component parts: oxygen, and hydrogen, which could provide a clean fuel for cars of the future. Scientists are also working on an energy solution that depends on recreating the processes going on inside stars themselves – they're building a nuclear fusion machine. The hope is that these solutions can meet our energy needs. – Namrata Pradhan
  42. 42. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np42 Math Test Quiz Answers 1. Conservation of momentum 2. 40 3. 1905 4. Interference 5. Zero weight 6. Coal mines 7. Gluon 8. in the sky 9. Propane and butane 10. 10.5% 11. Lungs 12. Dull red 13. Leachates 14. the distance traveled by light in one year 15. Galvanoscope 16. 57.3 degree 17. Ultra-violet light 18. Wind speed 19. Stratosphere 20. Caffeine Ig Answer:1.32. 22 3. A:58 B:864. 6 5. 98 6. 11 7. 6 1. Which number replaces the question mark? 5. Which number replaces the question mark? 2. Which number replaces the question mark? 4. Which number replaces the question mark? 3. Which number is the odd one out in each oval? 6. Which number replaces the question mark? 7. Which number replaces the question mark? 1 12 4 2 6 14 24 8 ? 12 8 21 7 13 11 7 9 3 2 5 6 3 1 9 1 7 3 5 8 6 7 4 2 ? 2 10 6 1826 1222 ?16 28 32 63 A B 72 86 58 77 48 49 88 35 2 11 6 3 10 4 6 15 ? 64 115 122 85 74 ? 13 5 4 7 2 1 10 6 9 4 8 1 ? 5 5 6 3 2
  43. 43. www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 43 Find each reptile in the puzzle below and circle the name of each reptile as you find it. Words may be forward, backward, diagonal, vertical or horizontal. SolutionofPreviousIssue WordsearchPuzzle Winners: 1. Kamal Shahi Tikapur - 6 , Kailali 2. Manjil Gautam Galkot English Boarding School Baglung 3. Krishna Sah Goldengate Int'l College, Kathmandu
  44. 44. Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np44 Ten Questions For You Sendanswersof "Puzzle"and"Ten QuestionsForYou"of this issue in the address: articles.scimind@gmail.com. Three lucky winners will get free subscription of the magazine for next three issues. Please send the answers within 31th of May, 2018. 1. The acronym ________ means billion of operations per second. 2. What are the machines used to check the progress of unborn babies still in the mother’s womb? 3. A technology to provide high speed internet access over telephone wiring: 4. The part of a computer that shows visual information on a screen. 5. Which device is used to study the way and object behaves when the air flows over it? 6. The process of killing diseases producing micro organism in food items by heat. 7. A type glass that is highly resistant to heat. 8. Tuberculosis is caused by it. 9. Which country in the world has maximum number of robots working? 10. The fear of being out of mobile phone contact is known as? Name……………..............…................................................. School……....…….……............… Class….............………........ Address ..………….....…….........……...................................... Answers From July-October 2017 Issue Winners: 1. Yubina Sahani Kathmandu 2. Bindu Sharma Liverpool Higher Secondary School, Kathmandu 3. Suraj Subedi Himalayan College of Engineering, Lalitpur 1. Hydrogen 2. Motherboard 3. Uniform Resource Locator 4. Heating effect of current 5. C programming 6. Hertz 7. Bacillus 8. Saraswati 9. Transpiration 10. Due to less reactivity of metals Special Discount for Schools/Colleges

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