www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 1
Looking closely to the development of the world, nothing
other than technology has been found to be more crucial.
Planes, trains, automobiles, internet, television and all the
things are the product of technology. The journey to the
moon, investigating planets like Mars, Jupiter and gaining
the information about the universe we live in, all these
things are done with the help of technology. Needless to say,
technology has broadened the dimension of knowledge of
The modern health system also heavily relies on technology.
X-rays, CT Scan and many other curating measures
use technology. In earlier times, it was very difficult to
communicate. People had to send the messages through
pigeons, horses. The mode of communication is totally
and fast. These are some of the many uses of technology.
For more modernization and development, there should be
more investment in technology.
The development of technology has been possible through
the development of science. Without the development
of science, technology would not have developed. For an
instance, the discovery of Maxwell’s equations has wider
applications in the sector of information technology. The
internet which connects the world would not have been
among us without Maxwell’s equations. Knowing the
mechanisms of engines, diesel and petrol engines have been
developed. Science develops technology and technology
develops the world. There should be more investment in
science so that technology will develop.
Technology is the reflection of human mind brilliance. For
the exponential growth of the world, technology has played
a vital role. For more development and progress, technology
more for more modernization and development.
Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. Dr. Rameshwar Adhikari
Prof. Dr. Deepak Prasad Subedi
Dr. Dinesh Raj Bhuju
Dr. Narayan Prasad Chapagain
Dr. Kate Shaw
Dr. Vinaya Kumar Jha
Dr. Arun Sigdel
Dr. Ranjan Kumar Dahal
Mr. Nischal Shrestha
Assoc. Editor/Managing Director
Mr. Subhash Sharma
Mr. Niraj Sah
Mr. Suman Kandel
Ms. Prakriti Sapkota
Mr. Sujan Dahal
Ms. Radhika Bhandari
Prof. Dr. Laxmi Prasad Mainali
Mr. Shreeram Bohara
Mr. Ranjit Shrestha
Mr. Manoj Kumar Mahato
Devchuli Offset Press
Regd. No. 432/073/074,
District Adminstration Office, Kathmandu
Address: Sankhamul-10, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu
Cell: +977-9841151160, 9823030470
Technology: The Basis of
Exponential Growth of World
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np2
As suggestive to its name, Scientific Mind really
makes our mind scientific. It opens and expands
the horizon of our understanding unlimitedly.
Actually, the useful stuffs it includes act as protein
and vitamins of balanced diet. Finally, I, from the
inner core of my heart, want to thank The Entire
Series of Scientific Mind for it assists me a lot in
Times School, Siraha
There are no latest articles related to earthquake. I
would like to see some more articles on earthquake
as our country is prone to earthquake.
The magazine has many areas of science
included in it. It looks great. Keep it up.
I live in Baitidi. Is it possible to make this magazine
available to our place?
Thank you Scientific Mind for the article related
to Nobel Prize. I knew lots of things reading the
article on Nobel Prize.
The mathematical tricks section of this magazine
is very nice. Continue this section, it has been
The online version of this magazine is also
good. I am outside valley. I have not read the
print version but I am continuous reader of the
magazine through online form.
I have known many things about science reading this
magazine. Thank you Scientific Mind for publishing
very nice science articles.
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np4
Due to technical problem, this issue is a combined issue of two issues. - Editor
Scientific Fun Facts 9
Science Experiment 10
Do You Know? 11
Finding You Through GPS 13
Science Quiz 14
Geophysics Behind the Formation of
Chronological Developments of Modern
Physics (Quantum Mechanics) 21
Ten Equations that Changed the World 24
Medical/Engineering Quiz 32
Collatz Conjecture: An Unsolved Problem
in Mathematics 34
Scientific Instrument: Hydrometer
A for Astronomy 36
Mathematical Tricks 39
Essay: Sanitation 40
Reader's Questions 41
Math Test 42
Wordsearch Puzzle 43
Ten Questions for You 44
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 5
The presence of glasses in our everyday
environment is so common that we rarely
notice their existence. Our current casual attitude
toward the family of materials known as glasses
has not always existed. Early Egyptians considered
glasses as precious materials, as evidenced by the
glass beads found in the tombs and golden death
masks of ancient Pharaohs (Egyptian kings ).
What is “GLASS”? For an average layman, the
word ‘Glass’ signifies only that transparent
material (made from silica with the addition of a
few alkali oxides) which is placed in windows. But
scientifically it has a very wide meaning.
Now it is widely believed that nearly all liquids will
form glasses (i.e. amorphous solids) if cooled to a
sufficiently low temperature at a rate sufficiently
rapid that detectable crystallization is avoided.
In other word glass means an amorphous solid
which exhibits a glass transition. Glass transition
Temperature (Tg), below we have Glass and above
of it we have liquid.
Atoms are far apart, with negligible interaction,
forms gas which on cooling, at a particular
condition (atoms are closer with a little interaction)
forms liquid, which on further cooling comes to
If liquid is cooled fast, not allowing crystallization,
i.e. quenching from liquid state while preventing
from crystallization forms glass.
The transition is not a thermodynamic phase
transition, only a transition for “practical purpose”.
Like the many unsolved problems in physics,
one is physics behind the glass transition. Still
no theoretical explanation is known for the
phenomena of glass transition. According to Philip
W. Anderson (Nobel Prize for physics 1977), “The
deepest and most interesting unsolved problem
in solid state theory is the theory of the nature of
glass and of glass transition.”
History of Glass
Humans have been producing glasses by melting
of raw materials for thousands of years. Egyptian
glasses date from at least 7000B.C. How did the
first production of artificial glasses occur? One
scenario suggests that the combination of sea
salt (NaCl) and perhaps bones (CaO) present in
the embers of a fire built on the sands (SiO,) at
the edge of a salt water sea (the Mediterranean),
sufficiently reduced the melting point of the
sand to a temperature where crude, low quality
glass could form. At some later time, some other
nomad found these lumps of glass in the sand and
recognized their unusual nature. Eventually, some
genius ofancienttimes realizedthatthe glassfound
in the remains of such fires might be produced
deliberately, and discovered the combination of
materials which lead to the formation of the first
Types of Glass
On the basis of bonding between elements and the
materials used to make it, glass is divided in to two
Table 1: Glass types on the basis of bonding
Types of bond Material
Metallic Zr-Cu, Ni-Nb
Van der waals Ortho terphenyl
Hydrogen bond KHSO4
, ice, aqueous
solution of ionic salts
Bivek Kumar Tiwari
M.Sc. Physics, BHU, India
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np6
Table 2: Glass types on the material used
Elements Si, P, Sa
Ionic compounds KNO3
Aqueous solution H2
Simple organic compounds Geycerol
Polymeric compounds Polystyrene, polycarbonate
Metallic alloys Pd80
, AuSi, Pd4
Procedure of Making Glass
For the making instruments and other ordinary
glass, a furnace, blow pipes are required. Glass is
melted and shapes were given with help of blow
pipes. But in the case of scientific research the
process changes. For this different technique are
used such as quenching, thermal Evaporation,
flash Evaporation, Sputtering, and Glow
Discharge Decomposition Technique. Then the
prepared sample is a glass or not is conform by
structural characterization (XRD, TEM, SEM) and
thermal characterization (DSC) and then the rest
of theoretical or experimental calculation will be
Use of Glass
The use of glass in daily life in windows and other
decoration is obvious instead of this glass is
also used in semiconductor, diffraction grating,
Making of glass. Image: open4business.com.ua
holography, fiber optics, telecommunication,
optical sensor, optical data storage (like RAM,
ROM), wave guide, photo resists etc.
A glass house. Image: cbdevelopers.com
1. Dissertation report on “pre-exponential
factor of thermally activated non-isothermal
crystallization” submitted by Bivek Kumar
Tiwari at solid state department, Banaras
Hindu University (BHU).
2. Mehta N. “Application of chalcogenide glass in
electronics and optoelectronics: A review” J SCI
RES VOL 65 OCTOBER 2006
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 7
The Defiled City: Kathmandu
Nepal, being one of the developing countries
has the images of natural history, serenity,
greenery and pristine mountains. However, the
thick cloud of pollution that threatens to suffocate
Nepal’s capital city provides a contrast to this
reputation. There are several environmental crises
converging here, but none of them are as dire as
air quality recently.
As a known fact, the quality of air in Kathmandu is
degrading day-by-day. This pollution is compared
to that in some of the most polluted cities like New
Delhi and Beijing. There are several recent studies
which show that the city’s air pollution level is
very high. According to the report published by
Numbeo.com, the capital city of Nepal is ranked
fifth in Pollution Index 2017 mid-year. This means
the pollution index is 96.57. For the ranking,
Numbeo said it included relevant data from the
World Health Organization and other institutions.
Air pollution levels in Kathmandu have reached
nine times the limits set by the World Health
Being an inhabitant of Kathmandu valley, when
I gaze at the morning sky, all I see is the dark
colored fog and clouds of dust. It is very obvious
that an individual’s day starts with suffocating
dust, excruciating noise and nasty smell. Due to
rapid rise in the inferior quality vehicles on the
traffic congested roads, unregulated location of
industries, road expansion activities and various
other environment unfriendly activities, pollution
has worsened. This might result in a day when
Kathmandu will undoubtedly be called the World’s
most polluted city.
In Asia, urban air pollution in many cities rivals
the levels that existed during the first decades
of the 20th century in Europe and North America
and account for a large proportion of global
health burden in relation to air pollution. Literally,
Kathmandu has been tagged as "Dustmandu" or
"Maskmandu". But what is the use of just tagging
the name instead of doing something to eradicate
pollution? Has anyone thought that one small
pandemic could cause a huge loss?
Here is the data published from WHO taken from
the Numbeo site:
Air pollution data from World Health Organization
Pollution Level: High
Pollution in Kathmandu, Nepal
Air Pollution 87.50 Very High
Drinking Water Pollution and 73.55 High
Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal 83.33 Very High
Dirty and Untidy 83.14 Very High
Noise and Light Pollution 53.60 Moderate
Water Pollution 82.63 Very High
Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City 81.53 Very High
Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in 82.26 Very High
Purity and Cleanliness in Kathmandu, Nepal
Air quality 12.50 Very Low
Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility 26.45 Low
Garbage Disposal Satisfaction 16.67 Very Low
Clean and Tidy 17.44 Very Low
Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights 46.64 Moderate
Water Quality 16.53 Very Low
Comfortable to Spend Time in the City 19.26 Very Low
Quality of Green and Parks 18.53 Very Low
Pollution Index: 95.87
Pollution Exp Scale: 174.06
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np8
The key air pollutants in Kathmandu are dust
particles and smoke. Moreover, the road widening
works, which have been in progress for the past
seven year, heaps of garbage accumulated
everywhere in the city, dust from construction,
exhaust fumes from old and poorly maintained
vehicles, and smoke caused by coal-burning kilns
have degraded Kathmandu. Traffic congestion
has become terrible in recent days due to various
construction projects of roads. 67 percent of
particulate matter is supplied byvehicular emission
in Kathmandu valley let alone the pollution caused
by industries, vehicles and so on. All these factors
are ruining the quality of air. Pollution level is higher
in early hours of the day. So the health of people
going for morning walks is now a big question.
Many people including housewives of those who
go for morning walks are found suffering from
different ailments. Even though people could be
seen wearing masks, it not enough to prevent one
from the bad effect of air pollution. It obviously
causes a lot of problems in the respiratory system
and health of population directly or indirectly.
According to health experts, the fine particles in
the smoke emitted byvehicles have toxic chemicals
which go deep inside the body increasing the risk
of multiple health issues including asthma, strokes,
cancer and even might kill anyone.
It has now become the peak time for all of us
to open a new discourse and say a big "NO" to
pollution. In order to eradicate pollution, the
Government of Nepal can take necessary steps
and improvise various policies in environmental
hazards including air pollution. Firstly, there
could also be increase in tax for private vehicles
and subsidy could be given for public vehicles.
Furthermore, action of terminating the license
for any new industrial establishment within
Kathmandu Valley and the industries already in
operation should be duly monitored to update the
status of gaseous and particulate emissions from
those industries. Urbanization must purposefully
reverse by decentralizing facilities to every part
of Nepal. Fuel-based vehicles could be replaced
by environment-friendly safa tempos, sajha buses
and trolley buses. People can also be encouraged
to use electronic vehicles and bicycles. Formulating
clear policies on electric motor cycles and bi-cycles
could also be a better option.
Annual registration fee on vehicles based on
age, size and efficiency should be progressive.
Prevailing practices of burning tires and creating
fireplace in open areas should not be allowed;
instead strict measures should be taken. Recently,
the Government of Nepal banned around 2,500
old vehicles in the capital in a bid to curb the high
levels of air pollution in the city. This ban on all
vehicles older than 20 years will surely address the
city’s air quality and ease congestion to a certain
level leading towards a cleaner future and smarter
Secondly, Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC)
needs to do more and come up with more
strategies, including installation of dustbins around
the city to collect disposable and non-disposable
products to preserve, clean, and safeguard the air
quality of Kathmandu. KMC also needs to strictly
implement the government decision of keeping
a plastic dustbin inside the vehicles to restrict
passengers from throwing garbage out of vehicles
onto the streets.
Thirdly, burning of plastics, waste should be
discouraged and plantation should be encouraged
to a great extent. Each single step towards a clean
city will certainly lead to settlements curtained by
fog and mist instead of dark colored clouds and
fog; peaceful and managed streets instead of
noisy traffics; cool breeze and fresh smell instead
of dust-filled air and nasty smell and overall a
serene peaceful city.
Above all, each single individual shouldwork hand-
in-hand and must reflect on the social factors like
awareness, responsiveness, moral duties and
management towards eradicating pollution in the
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 9
Scientific Fun Facts
• Female sharks have thicker skins than males.
• The ocean is 8 Empire State Buildings deep.
• Pompeii's plumbing was ahead of its time.
The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79
destroyed many second stories, pipes left
behind reveal traces of fecal matter, and the
occasional upstairs toilet still remains in the
• Madagascar hissing cockroach got its name
because these roaches hiss to challenge other
cockroaches to fight and when trying to attract
• Gravity on the moon is a sixth of what it is on
Earth. Someone who weighs 150 pounds (68
kg) on this planet moves the scales at only 25
pounds (11 kg) on the moon. That’s why you'd
weigh way less on the moon.
• Bathroom etiquette is ancient.
• Camels don't actually store water in their
• Salamanders can extend their tongues a long
• In Sept. 13, 1922, the mercury soared to
136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) in
El Azizia, Libya. Scientists say this is the
hottest temperature ever recorded on the
planet, though higher temperatures might
have occurred in places where there are no
• The human body is full of friendly bacteria,
with organisms on our skin and in our guts
helping keep our bodies humming.
• Each rubber molecule is made of 65,000
• Breast milk alone can have up to 700 species
of bacteria, according to a study released in
• The male platypus has a venomous spur on its
hind foot capable of dispensing a poison that
can kill a medium-sized dog.
MPA : Master of Public Administration
TDM : Time Division Multiplexing
TIA : Telecommunications Industry Alliance
ICANN : Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers
BSCCE : Bachelor of Science in Computer
and Communications Engineering
NCERT : The National Council of Educational
Research and Training
CERN : European Organization for Nuclear
Research or (Centre Européen de
ICTP : International Center for Theoretical
ACP : Assistant Commissioner of Police
PSC : Public Service Commission
FIFA : The Fédération Internationale de
GST : Goods and Services Tax
MPEG : Moving Picture Experts Group
BCCI : Board of Control for Cricket in India
SAT : Scholastic Aptitude Test
• Prosopagnosia is a disorder in which people
struggle to recognize faces.
• Scallops have as many as 100 simple eyes.
They're frequently blue.
• The male platypus has a venomous spur on its
hind foot capable of dispensing a poison that
can kill a medium-sized dog.
• Mantis shrimp can use their armored claws to
strike at speeds of 74 feet per second (23
m/s), delivering blows with 200 pounds (91
kg) of force behind them.
• Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at
standard room temperature and pressure.
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np10
Science Experiment: Rainbow in a Glass
By applying the physical concept of Densityyou can
make a rainbow in glass at your home.
You will need:
1. 5 glasses
4. Different colored food coloring
6. Epic patience and a steady hand -
this will take some practice!
4. Food color and glitters.
5. Flash light.
What to Do?
Line up the glasses and put 3 tablespoons
of water into the first four glasses. Add
one tablespoon of sugar to glass one, two
to glass two, three to glass three, four to
glass four. Stir thoroughly to dissolve the
sugar. Now add a different color food
coloring to each glass. Pour 1/4 of glass
four into glass five. That was the easy bit.
This is the tricky bit. You must pour the next layer
(glass three) so gently that it doesn't mix with the
first layer. You can put a teaspoon just above the
first layer and pour the mixture gently over the
back of the spoon to minimize splash. The more
slowly you do this, the better the results. When you
have filled the glass to about the same width as
the last layer, repeat with glass two, and then with
glass one. If you have done this right you should
get something like rainbow.
The different amounts of sugar in water create
different densities of water. As you are layering
them with the heaviest at the bottom, the different
layers will 'sit' on top of each other. Eventually,
due to particle dynamics, the layers will mix. The
greater the difference in density, the longer the
effect lasts. Unlike water and oil, however, once
you mix the layers, they will not settle back.
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 11
Quotes Do You Know?
• Life would be tragic if it weren't funny.
– Stephen Hawking
• I slept and dreamt that life was joy. I awoke
and saw that life was service. I acted and
behold, service was joy.
– Rabindranath Tagore
• Hope is a waking dream.
• Moreover, since the sun remains stationary,
whatever appears as a motion of the sun is
really due rather to the motion of the earth.
– Nicolaus Copernicus
• Human behavior flows from three main
sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.
• In questions of science, the authority of a
thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of
a single individual.
– Galileo Galilei
• Optimism is the one quality more associated
with success and happiness than any other.
– Brian Tracy
• What you get by achieving your goals is not as
important as what you become by achieving
– Henry David Thoreau
• Failure will never overtake me if my
determination to succeed is strong enough.
– A.P.J Abdul Kalam
• Life is no brief candle to me. It is a sort of
splendid torch which I have got a hold of for
the moment, and I want to make it burn as
brightly as possible before handing it on to
– George Bernard Shaw
When a woman gets pregnant, she's not only
growing a baby — she's growing a support
system for that fetus. As a result, pregnant
women have about 50 percent more blood by
week 20 of pregnancy than they did before
King Richard the Lionheart's heart is still
around. After the English monarch died in
1199, his heart was removed and preserved
— though today it's basically just a pile of
The dinosaur with the longest neck for its
body size is Mamenchisaurus hochuanensis, a
sauropod dino that lived in what is now China.
Seahorses don't have stomachs, just intestines
for the absorption of nutrients from food. Food
passes through their digestive system rapidly,
so they eat plankton and small crustaceans
Amprophophallus titanium blooms with clusters
of flowers that can reach 10 feet (3 m) in
height. But these petals smell so much like
rotting flesh that the plant is known as the
Carnivorous, bog-dwelling plants called
bladderworts can snap their traps shut in less
than a millisecond, 100 times faster than a
Cutting onions releases a gas which causes a
stinging sensation when it comes into contact
with your eyes. Your body produces tears to
dilute the irritant and remove it from your
There is enough DNA in an average person’s
body to stretch from the sun to Pluto and back
— 17 times.
The average human body carries ten times
more bacterial cells than human cells.
The average human body carries ten times
more bacterial cells than human cells.
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 13
Finding You through GPS
B.E in Geomatics Engineering, KU
What in case you are unknown about the path
and have no idea where you are standing right
now. In this case GPS (Global Positioning System), a
worldwide radio-navigation system can assist you in
finding you position.
What is GPS?
A formation of 24 satellites in space in the form of
constellation orbiting around the Earth forms a Global
Positioning System. Initially the system had main focus
on providing the positional services to the U.S. military
department in order to maintain an extraordinary
defense but later on the service was made available
to all the civil users across the world. But talking
about the efficiency of services the users get it is less
efficient than the services the U.S. Department of
Defense (DOD) access.
For centuries, navigators and explorers have searched
for a system that would enable them to locate
their position on the globe to reach their intended
destinations. On June 26, 1993, however, the answer
became as simple as the question when the U.S. Air
Force launched the 24th
Navstar satellite into the orbit,
completing a network of 24 satellites known as GPS.
Therefore with a GPS receiver on your hand you can
instantly know your location on the planet with the
information of your latitude, longitude, and even the
How GPS works?
Talking about the working principle of GPS, basically
two mathematical concepts are behind the scene.
The first is called trilateration, which literally means
positioning from three distances. The second concept
is the relationship between distance traveled, rate
(speed) of travel and amount of time spent traveling,
or: Distance = Speed (Rate) × Time
Trilateration focuses on finding your position on
the Earth by knowing the location of orbiting GPS
satellites and the distance from those satellites to
your location on the earth. Actually, there is no way
of calculating the distance physically through tape or
any instrument. Therefore, a question can be raised so
how is Trilateration possible since we can’t physically
measure the distance? So this confusion can be made
clear through the second concept which relates the
distance with the speed or rate of the radio-signal
that the satellite transmits and the time.
Distance, Rate and Time
In GPS, the rate indicates the speed of the signal,
which is equal to the speed of light (nearly 3 × 108
Similarly time is determined by how long it takes for
a signal to travel from the GPS satellite to a ground
Therefore, with both the rate and the time being
known to us we can mathematically calculate the
Hence, once we have the distance from at least 3
satellites, we can determine a three dimensional
position on the surface of the earth.
Why at least 3 satellites?
The reason behind the requirement of at laast three
satellite for the determination of 3 dimensional
position is a plain mathematical procedure. In order
to find out three variable (latitude, longitude, altitude)
we have to solve three equations which requires
accurate time instead you have to solve four equation
to get the accurate positional information.
Variability in Satellite Number
With one satellite, you can only calculate your position
on a sphere, where the radius of this sphere is the
pseudorange to the satellite.
With two satellites, you get two such spheres, one for
each satellite. You position must be on the intersection
between both spheres, which is a circle. Still no
With three satellites, you finally get only two possible
positions, by inter-secting the circle with the third
sphere. Still this is no accurate solution.
The true fix comes with the fourth one. By this we have
enough measurements to reduce the pseudo range
errors of other three satellites and get the accurate
1) h t t p s : //w i k i . o p e n s t re e t m a p . o rg /w i k i /
2) h t t p s : // w w w. e e t i m e s . c o m /d o c u m e n t.
3) h t t p : // m a s h a b l e . c o m / 2 0 1 2 / 1 1 / 1 6 /
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np14
Let's test our knowledge on Science. After attempting the questions below, check answers in
1. The working of a rockets based on the principle of?
2. Celsius and Fahrenheit show the same temperature at?
3. Special Theory of Relative was proposed in?
4. "Optical Phenomenon" in the fringe pattern of CD is?
5. Persons sitting in an artificial satellite of the earth have?
6. Hasdo Valley in Chhattisgarh is famous for?
7. Exchange particle in Quark-Quark Interaction is?
8. Black hole is an object to be found in?
9. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is mainly a mixture of?
10. Fraction of volume of ice seen outside when immersed in water?
11. The disease “bronchitis” is associated with?
12. Which color indicates Highest Temperature?
13. The pollutants which move downward with percolating groundwater are called?
14. Light Year is?
15. The device used for detecting even feeble current is?
16. IRADIAN is?
17. Most of the light rays inside a tube-light is in the form of?
18. Anemometer is an instrument used for measuring?
19. The Ozone layer lies in the?
20. Which is the alkaloid that contains in cola drinks?
formerly the world's largest
radio telescope. Its official
name is the Five-hundred-
meter Aperture Spherical
Telescope (FAST). Its monster
dish measures 500 meters
(1,640 feet) across. Today,
Chinese scientists switched it
on beginning a multi-year
testing phase. FAST is just
another example of China’s
push into space exploration.
FAST is twice as sensitive as
Arecibo and can survey 5-10
times faster than the previous
record holding telescope.
Better instruments mean better
observations. FAST can see
fainter planets, fainter pulsars
and fainter galaxies.Image: NAIC - Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 15
Belonging to Brassica family, cabbage is a
leafy vegetable with round or oval in shape. It
consists of soft, light green or whitish inner leaves
covered with harder and dark green outer leaves.
Cabbage is widely used throughout the world
and can be prepared in a number of ways. Most
commonly, it is included as either a cooked or raw
part of many salads.
Cabbage is beneficial in curing various health
ailments and has many benefits. Some of them are
1. Cabbage is an abundant
source of vitamin C. It is
actually richer in vitamin
C than oranges, which
are considered the
“best” source of that
vital nutrient. Vitamin C
reduces free radicals
in your body that
are the fundamental
causes of premature
aging. It also helps in
repairing the wear and
tear of the body through
the course of life. Therefore,
cabbage is very helpful in treating ulcers, certain
cancers, depression, and boosting the immune
system, and defending against cold and cough.
It can also speed up the healing process for
wounds and damaged tissues, regulate the proper
functioning of the nervous system, and reduce the
effects and presence of Alzheimer’s disease and
other degenerative neural diseases.
2. Cabbage is very rich in fiber , which is the main
health benefit of roughage. This helps the body
retain water and it maintains the bulkiness of the
food as it moves through the bowels. Thus, it is a
good remedy for constipation and other problems
related to digestion.
3. Cabbage helps fight infections in wounds and
reduces the frequency and severity of ulcers.
4. Cabbage also prevents Cancer.
One of the most celebrated health benefits of
cabbage is its powerful antioxidant quality. This
means that cabbage and other similar vegetables
scavenge free radicals from the body, which can
be detrimental to overall health and are major
contributors to cancer and heart diseases.
5. Cabbage works as an anti-
So, consuming cabbage
can reduce the effects
of many types of
i n f l a m m a t i o n ,
joint pain, fever ,
and various skin
improves vision. It is
a rich source of beta-
carotene, so many
people, particularly as
they get older, turn to cabbage for its ability
to prevent macular degeneration and promote
good eye health and delay cataract formation.
7. Cabbage promotes weight loss. Since cabbage
is packed with many beneficial vitamins , minerals,
and other nutrients, it is a healthy dietary option
for people to eat and is quite filling since it has high
levels of fiber, which add bulk to the bowels. It is
also low in calories, amounting to only 33 calories
in a cup of cooked cabbage.
8. Cabbage also improves brain health. The
presence of vitamin K and anthocyanins within
cabbage can give a strong boost to mental
function and concentration.
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np16
Kidney stones, commonly known as renal stones
in medical science, imply presence of stones
anywhere in urinary tract. Urinary Tract starts from
kidney and ends at urethra. It comprises of two
kidneys (Right and left), a ureter arising from each
kidney, one urinary bladder, and finally urethra.
As urethra forms part of passage through which
semen travels during ejaculation in male, it is
also known as Genito-urinary system. Stones can
be present anywhere in this system, commonly
found in kidney, ureter and bladder where
they’re technically termed as Nephrolithiasis,
Ureterolithiasis, Cystolithiasis/Vesical Calculus
respectively (lith- meaning stone). Calculus
(pleural: calculi) is another term commonly used
Types of Renal Stones
Oxalate stones: It is the commonestvariety of renal
stones.These stones primarily comprise of calcium
deposits. They are usually irregular,spiculated,
mulberry shaped. The tiny spicules can cause
damage to surrounding blood vessels (capillaries
mainly) and cause slight bleeding. The stones
are therefore mostly brown in color owing to
their mineral composition and also staining with
pigments of blood. By virtue of spicules, it causes
pain even in early stages and hence when detected
are usually small. These are usually found in acidic
urine as oxalates are insoluble in acidic ph.
Dr. Anand Deo
MBBS, Kathmandu University
Phosphate stones: These contain calcium,
magnesium and ammonium deposits and hence
commonly called triple stones. They are smooth
surfaced, white in color and can grow considerably
in size before causing symptoms. They are
commonly found in infected, alkaline urine.
Bacterial enzymes are probably necessary for
formation of ammonium deposits. Also phosphates
are insoluble in alkaline ph.
Other varieties are Uric acid stones, Urate stones,
Xanthine stones, Cystine stones.
Prevalence of Renal Stones in Nepal
A study conducted by A. Pandeyaet.al in 2008-
2010 on 99 cases of renal stones, 61 were males
(61.6%) and 38 were females (38.4%). This is in
accordance with the study results published by
Stapleton FB. Larger muscle mass and complex
Various types of renal stones and their approximate
frequency of occurrence
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 17
Source: A. Pandeya et. al 2008-2010
structure of genito-urinary tract in males may be
responsible for pre-ponderance of stone formers
among males; higher the muscle mass, more the
metabolic waste and hence higher the likelihood
of stone formation. Majority of the cases (52.5% of
the total cases) were of age group of 21-40 years
followed by 25.2% in age group of 41-60 years.
This result is supported by study of Asplinet. al.
The least number of stone formers were present
beyond their 60s. The composition of most of the
stones analyzed were oxalate (98.9%) followed
by uric acid (62.6%) as an organic constituents
while as an inorganic constituents, stones were
composed of calcium (95.9%), phosphate (85.8%),
ammonium (46.4%) and very few number of stones
were composed of carbonate (5.0%).
Cause of Renal Stones
Decreased water intake, hot weather, dehydration,
consuming water with higher level of calcium and
other minerals causes relative excess of solute in
urine. These super saturate to form small deposits
(microliths) especially in areas where the lining
cells(epithelium) in urinary tract are damaged.
Over time, the deposits increase in size and form
stones. Citrate level in urine keeps calcium and
other minerals in soluble state in urine. Decrease
in citrate level favors supersaturation of urine
and predisposes to stone formation. Sodium
contained in common salt can increase the risk
of stone formation, probably by increasing the
urinary excretion of calcium. Vitamin A deficiency
causes poor healing of damaged epithelium and
increases chance of stone formation. Oxalate is
oxidized product of Vitamin C and hence excess of
Typical hand gesture in renal
Pain from loin to groin
this vitamin may predispose one to renal stones.
Increased blood calcium level causes increased
level of calcium in urine and hence favors stone
formation. High protein diet, high oxalate diet also
predisposes to stone formation. Various disease
cause increased level ofvariety of minerals in blood
(eg. Blood calcium level increases due to increased
bone resorption in primary hyperparathyroidism)
and predisposes to formation of respective stones
in urinary tract. Acidic urine favors formation of
oxalate and uric acid stones while alkaline urine
favors formation of phosphate stones.
Many of us have small deposits of these minerals
in our urinary tract. Only a fraction of individuals
experience discomfort due to renal stones though.
Symptoms due to stones depend primarily on size,
location and shape of stone. A small stone in kidney
may not cause any symptom but the same stone if
dislodged into ureter can cause severe symptoms
because ureter is narrowtubular structure. Oxalate
stones cause symptoms even when small because
of its irregular shape. A phosphate stone usually
attains large size before causing symptoms.
Table 1: Prevalance of stones amongdifferent age groups
Age group Males (%) Females (%) Total (%)
Up to 20 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0) 15 (15.1)
21-40 28 (53.8) 24 (46.1) 52 (52.5)
41-60 16 (64.0) 9 (36.0) 25 (25.2)
More than 61 1 (20.0) 4 (80.0) 5 (5.0)
Table 2: Chemical composition of stones and their percentage
Organic constituents Inorganic constituents
Oxalate Uric acid Calcium Phosphate Ammonium Carbonate
Males 61 61 40 58 56 29 3
Females 38 37 22 37 29 17 2
Total (%) 99 98 (98.9) 62 (62.6) 95 (95.9) 85 (85.8) 46 (46.4) 5 (5.0)
The most common symptom is pain abdomen,
especially in flanks and lower abdomen. Some
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np18
excruciating pain starting from flanks and going
down towards groin. One may feel nauseated or
may even vomit due to severe pain. There may
be burning sensation while passing urine, unable
to pass urine freely. Some may pass blood mixed
urine. Infected urine may cause headache, fever,
lower backache. Some may feel urge to pass urine
This urge is due to local irritation caused by stones
and infected urine. Sometimes these stones may
partially or completely obstruct the flow or urine
down its tract resulting in accumulation of urine
in areas before the site of stone(hydronephrosis :
accumulation of water/urine in kidney causing it
to swell up; hyderoureter : accumulation of water/
urine in ureter causing it to swell up). In such cases
people experience a great deal of distress. The
accumulated urine may get infected and pus may
develop in these structures (pyonephrosis ; pyo-
referring to pus). This situation may progress and
cause dame to kidney.
The common modalities of investigation
are X-ray (commonly called X-ray
KUB; kidney ureter bladder),
Ultrasound abdomen, Biochemical
and microbiological analysis of urine.
Depending on severitythere maybe need
ofassessingthe capacityofkidneyto filter
blood and form urine (Renal function
tests). Advanced imaging techniques like
CT scan may be occasionally necessary.
Most of the renal stones are radiopaque
thereby meaning it appears on plain
x-ray. Non-radio opaque stones can be
found on abdominal ultrasound.
Most important home remedy for
asymptomatic cases and as preventive
measure is drinking enough of clean
water. There are several foods that
have been implicated to facilitate stone
formation while another list of food that
facilitates stone dissolution. Normal-
Calcium, Low-Sodium, and Low Animal-
Protein Diets are recommended for
Other treatment options depend upon
Diet and Kidney Stones. Image: Osteoconnections, UHN Osteoporis
the symptomatology and findings on investigation.
Pain relieving medications, antibiotics for infected
urine are commonly prescribed. Various non-
invasive techniques like fragmenting the stones
into smaller pieces (lithotripsy) to facilitate their
spontaneous expulsion in urine are available.
Larger stones may require surgical intervention
varying from endoscopic procedures, minimally
invasive to extensive surgeries.
1. Assessment of kidney stone and prevalence of
its chemical compositions by A. Pandeya, R.
Prajapati, P. Panta, and A. Regmi. (Nepal Med
College Journal 2010; 12(3): 190-192).
2. Stapleton FB. (Childhood stones.
EndocrinolMetabolClin North America 2002; 31:
3. Asplinet. al (Nephrolithiasis. In: Brenner BM,
ed. Brenner and Rector’s the kidney. 5th ed.
Philadelphia: Saunders, 1996)
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 19
Geophysics behind the formation of Himalaya
Jiyalal Prasad Kuswaha
Patan Multiple Campus
Geophysics is a part of Science, used to study
about the Earth with the help of physical
principles and it is also defined as the intersection
of Geology, Mathematics and Physics. It deals with
the physical phenomena occurring internally and
externally about the Earth; such as earthquakes,
Magnetic field, heat flow, Volcanos and force of
Geodynamics of formation of Himalaya has been
studied with the help of Plate tectonic theory.
Geodynamics is the study about the movement
and deformation of the earth’s lithospheric plates
and is caused by various forces from inside or
outside of the Earth . Plate tectonic theory is the
most important theory of Geomorphology. In 1912
a German metrologist & Geologist Alfered Wegner
proponed a hypothesis called displacement
hypothesis also known as “continental drift
theory”. According to his vast study and research,
he suggested that all the continents were together
at late Paleozoic era and the whole landmass was
named as ‘Pangaea’ (Pangaea means the whole
Earth). Pangaea was surrounded by a single ocean
called Panthalassa. Plate tectonic theory describes
that how did Pangaea break into different plates.
It was a biggest scientific theory in that time.
The Apparent fit of Continents & Fossils Correlation
The earth lithosphere is not continuous, is broken
parts are known as plates. Plates are divided into
two parts i.e. oceanic plate & Continental plate.
Oceanic plates are denser than other. All plates
are in motion. They are interacting to each other.
Some of them are separating from each other
(diverging plates) but some are colliding to each
other (conversing plates). Alfered Wegener couldn’t
explain the cause of continental drift.
In 1960’s Harry Hass & Diet proposed an idea of
sea floor expanding theory using convection cell
known as ‘sea floor spreading theory’. Convection
cell is responsible for continental drift theory. Due
to large amount of heat inside the lower mental
forms cell like structure called convection cell. Thus
two convection cells diverges upward as rising
limbs at ridge. The crust and the divergent limbs
of convections cell separates the plate from each
other and on other hand as descending limbs of
convection limbs meets so that the crust can form
Schematic diagram of Convection cell
They argued that sea floor spreading is a process
that occurs at MOR, where new oceanic crust
is formed through the volcanic activity is then
gradually moves away from the ridge sea floor
spreading helps to explain continental drift in plate
In late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, Pangaea
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had started to break into two parts i.e. Laurasiya
and Gondwanaland. Gondwanaland consisted of
Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australiya, India and
South America started to move in the southern
hemisphere but Laurasiya (North America ,
Greenland, Europe and Asia) had started to move
in the Northern hemisphere about 140 million years
ago during mid-Mesozoic.
The formation of Himalaya is the result of
convergent plate boundary i.e. continental-
continental collision. Millions of years ago, these
mountain peak didn’t exist. The Asian continent
was mostly intact, but India was an Island floating
off the coast of Australia. Around 220 million years
ago, around the time that “Pangea” was breaking
Schematic diagram of Indian landmass moving towards
India started to move northwards. The schematic
diagram of movement of Indian land mass
towards Tibetan plate is shown in fig. 3. It travelled
some 6000 km before it finally collided with Asia
landmass was softer than Indian landmass. So,
the part of Indian landmass was denser and more
firmly attached to the seabed, which is why Asia’s
softer soil was pushed up rather than the other
Continent-Continent collision between Indian plate &
Thus, Indian landmass merged into Tibetan plate
results the Himalayan formation. It has world
fastest uplift rate about 10 mm/a at Nanga parwat.
It has world’s maximum relief (> 600 m Indus
valley). It has world largest high plateau (Tibet>
1. William Lowrie-Fundamentals of Geophysics
2. Bilham, R. (2004).Earthquakes in India and the
Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history. Ann.
Geophy, p.47, 839-858.
3. Ader, T, Avouc, J.P., Liu-Zeg, Lyon-Caen, H.,
Bollinger, L., Galetzka, J., et al. Convergence
rate across the Nepal Himalaya and
interseismic coupling on the Main Himalayan
fault: implication for seismic hazard p. 117,
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 21
At the end of nineteenth century, the physics
consisted essentially of Classical Mechanics
(Newtonian Mechanics), Maxwell’s theory of
Electromagnetism (a unified theory of Electricity,
Magnetism and Optics) and Thermodynamics.
Classical Mechanics was used to predict the
dynamics of material bodies and Maxwell’s theory
of electromagnetism provided proper framework
to study of radiation. As for the interactions
between matter and radiation, i.e., particles and
waves, they were explained by the Lorentz force
or by thermodynamics. The overwhelming success
of classical physics (classical mechanics, classical
theory of electromagnetism and thermodynamics)
made people believe that the ultimate description
of nature had been achieved. It seemed that all
known physical phenomena could be explained
within the framework of the theories of particles
However, at the beginning of the twentieth
century, classical physics, which had been quite
unassailable, was seriously challenged by the
relativistic mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.
These two fields were independent to a large
extent and they challenged classical mechanics
on different points. Classical laws cease to be
valid for material bodies travelling at very high
speeds, comparable to that of light (relativistic
domain). They are also failed in providing proper
explanation for newly discovered phenomena on
an atomic or subatomic scale (quantum domain).
The failure of classical physics to explain several
microscopic phenomena; such as blackbody
radiation, photoelectric effect, atomic stability
Chronological Developments of Modern
Physics (Quantum Mechanics)
Ratna K. Bade
Faculty Member (Physics)
Golden Gate Int'l College
and atomic spectroscopy, had cleared the way for
seeking new ideas outside its purview.
In 1900, Max Planck introduced the concept of
the quantum of energy. In his efforts to explain
the phenomenon of blackbody, he succeeded in
reproducing the experimental results only after
postulating that the energy exchange between
radiation and its surroundings takes place in
discrete or quantized amounts. He argued that
the energy exchange between an electromagnetic
waves of frequency n and matter occurs only in
integer multiples of hn , called the energy of a
quantum, where is a fundamental constant called
Planck’s constant. Planck’s idea gave an accurate
explanation of blackbody radiation, prompted
new thinking and triggered an avalanche of new
discoveries that yielded solutions to the most
outstanding problems of the time.
In 1905, Einstein provided a powerful consolidation
to Planck’s quantum concept. Einstein recognized
that Planck’s idea of the quantization of the
electromagnetic waves must be valid for light as
well. Generalizing the Planck’s hypothesis, he
posited that light itself is made of discrete bits
of energy or tiny particles, called photons, each
possessing the an energy hn. The introduction of
the photon concept enabled Einstein to give an
elegantly accurate explanation to the photoelectric
effect, which had been waiting for a solution ever
since its first experimental observation by Hertz in
In 1913, Neils Bohr introduced the model of the
hydrogen atom by combining Rutherford’s atomic
model (1911), Planck’s quantum concept and
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np22
Einstein’s photons. He argued that atoms can
be found only in discrete states of energy and
interaction of the atoms with radiation, i.e., the
emission or absorption of radiation by atoms takes
place only in discrete amounts of hn because it
results from transitions of the atom between its
various discrete energy states. His work provided
a satisfactory explanation to several outstanding
problems such as atomic stability and atomic
In 1923, Compton made an important discovery
that gave the most conclusive confirmation for the
corpuscular aspect of light. By scattering X-rays
with electrons, he confirmed thatthe X-rayphotons
behave like particles with momenta hn/c , where
c is the velocity of light or photons in vacuum.
In 1924, de Broglie introduced an idea of
waves associated with electrons. The classical
mechanics could not reconcile this new concept.
He postulated that not only does radiation exhibit
particle-like behavior but, conversely, material
particles themselves display wave-like behavior.
This concept was confirmed experimentally in
1927 by Davisson and Germer. They showed that
interference patterns is a property of waves,
can be obtained with material particles such as
By 1925 Heisenberg and Schrodinger developed
and skillfully welded the various experimental
findings as well as Bohr’s postulates into a refined
theory. In addition to providing an accurate
reproduction of the existing experimental data, this
theory turned out to possess astonishingly reliable
predictions which enabled it to explore and unravel
many uncharted areas of the microphysical world.
This new theory put an end to twenty five years
(1900-1925) of patchwork which was dominated by
the ideas of Planck and Bhor, which later known as
Old Quantum Theory.
The matrix mechanics and wave mechanics
were two independent formulations of Quantum
Mechanics. The matrix mechanics was developed
by Heisenberg (1925) to describe atomic structure
starting from the observed spectral lines. Inspired
by Plank’s quantization of waves and Bohr’s model
of the hydrogen atom, Heisenberg propounded his
theory on the notion that the only allowed values of
energy exchange between microphysical systems
are those that are discrete quanta. Expressing
the dynamical quantities such as energy, position,
momentum and angular momentum in terms of
matrices, he obtained an eigenvalue problem
that describes the energy spectrum and the state
vectors of the system. Matrix mechanics was very
successful in accounting for the discrete quanta of
light emitted and absorbed by atoms. The wave
mechanics is formulated by Schrodinger (1926). It
is a generalization of the de Broglie postulate. This
describes the dynamics of microscopic matter by
means of a wave equation, called the Schrodinger
equation. The solutions of Schrodinger differential
equation yield the energy spectrum and the wave
function of the system under consideration.
In 1927, Max Born proposed his probabilistic
interpretation of wave mechanics. He took the
square moduli of the wave functions that are
solutions to the Schrödinger equation and the
interpreted them as probability densities.
Dirac suggested a more general formulation of
Quantum Mechanics which deals with abstract
objects such as kets, bras and operators. The
representation of Dirac’s formalism in a continuous
basis (the position or momentum representation)
gives back Schrödinger’s wave mechanics. As
for the Heisenberg’s matrix formulation, it can
be obtained by representing Dirac’s formalism in
a discrete basis. In this context, the approaches
of Schrödinger and Heisenberg represent,
respectively, the wave formulation and the matrix
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 23
formulation of the general theory of quantum
mechanics. Combining special theory of relativity
with quantum mechanics, Dirac derived in 1928 an
equation which describes the motion of electrons.
This equation is known as Dirac’s equation,
predicted the existence of an antiparticle, called
positron, which has similar properties with the
electron, but of opposite charge. The positron was
discovered in 1932, four years after its prediction by
In a nutshell, Quantum Mechanics is the theory
that describes the dynamics of matter at the
microscopic scale. It is vital for understanding
the Physics of Solids, Lasers, Semiconductor and
Superconductor Devices, Plasma, etc. In brief,
Quantum Mechanics is the foundations of all
Modern Physics, Solid State Physics, Nuclear
& Particle Physics, Optics, Thermodynamics,
Statistical Physics, Medical Physics, Bio-Physics,
etc. It is also considered to be the foundations of
Chemistry and Biology.
1. Zettilli, Nouredine (2009), Quantum Mechanics:
Concepts and Applications, John Wiley and Sons
Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, UK.
2. Aruldhas, G. (2009), Quantum Mechanics, PHI
Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.
3. Bade, Ratna K. & Jha, Gopal (2011), A Refresher
Course in Quantum Mechanics, Laxmi Pustak
Bhandar, Maitighar, Kathamndu, Nepal
4. Agrawal, B. K. & Hari Prakash (1997), Quantum
Mechanics, PHI Learning Private Limited, New
5. Ghatak, Ajay & Lokanthan, S. (2004), Quantum
Mechanics: Theory and Applications, Fifth
Edition, Macmillan India Limited.
6. Peleg, Youv et. al. (2011), Quantum Mechanics
(Schaum's Outlines), Second Edition, The
If you spin a ball when you drop it, it will fly through the air
as it falls. This is called the Magnus effect, and it makes
playing tennis and soccer a whole lot easier. Cricket
bowlers and baseball pitchers also use the Magnus effect
in their sport.
You can make balls fly.
Scientists predict that there are over 3 billion base pairs
of DNA in human genes and over 25,000 genes in the
human genome. An entire copy of that genome exists in
each of the 10 trillion cells in the human body. If all of that
DNA were lined up, it would cover the distance between
Earth and the sun 100 times.
We have a lot of DNA in our body.
Image: Vitstudio/Shutterstock Image: Vyas Abhishek/Shutterstock
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np24
Ten Equations that Changed the World
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np26
There are other many equations which have played crucial role for the development of science and
the world. Some of the majors are Euler’s Equation, Boltzmann Equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Lorentz
Equation, Arrhenius Equation, Black-Scholes Equation, Ideal Gas Equation, Wave Equation, etc.
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 27
The earth is deteriorating. If we do not find another
planet that can host human life with abundance
of water in its lithosphere and oxygen in the
atmosphere, it means that the run of humanity and
other biological life is at its last moment. However,
Matthew McConaughey and his team are going
on a mission to set foot on a new hospitable planet.
Well, it’s a part of synopsis of the movie Interstellar.
But, we can’t ignore the fact that one day a similar
situation cannot come. More than that, we have
huge telescopes set up in the space that have
been providing infinite data about the position
and orientation of planets on distant star systems.
These planets that lie beyond our solar system are
Starting from 1990s, over 3000 exoplanets have
been found. The first ever detected exoplanet was
51 Pegasi b which has the spin duration of only 4.4
days. This type of exoplanet is classified as a Hot-
Jupiter, which means that it is a hot gaseous planet
that can be as big as Jupiter or larger. This kind
of large planet was detected by using Doppler
shift method. In this method, a high resolution
spectroscopy is used. The motion of the planet
around its star induces small motions in the waves
of the star, and the spectral shift can be detected.
We know that the stars are apparently motionless
like the Sun is and thus the revolution of the planet
deters the waves of the star, which is physically
described by Doppler Effect. However, the plane
of the motion in the star-planet should be in huge
inclination in respect to the observer, i.e. detecting
telescope. If the plane is in zero inclination,
there would be no apparent to and fro motion
between the system and the observer, which
means that there would be no Doppler effect.
And alternatively, if the inclination is 90 degrees,
the Doppler Effect is the largest as the planet falls
between the star and the observer. This method
B.E. Mechanical Engineering
was helpful in finding few hundred of exoplanets
along with their masses but it had limitations since
the wobble of the star is only few milliarc seconds
which is quiet difficult to detect.
In 2009, NASA set up Keppler Space Observatory
and then new form of exoplanet detection, known
as Transit Method, has begun. The number of
exoplanets discovered has sky rocketed since
then. Most importantly, the detection of small
sized planets has been possible using this method.
In this method, the star system must be in same
plane of the observer. This method looks for the
slight shadowing of the star as the planet moves
in between the observer and the star. The depth
of the eclipse that the planet leaves on the star is
measured with the stability photometry; the depth
of the eclipse gives the relative size of the planet
in relation to its star. Furthermore, when the planet
lies just behind the star, infrared waves can be
compared to detect the temperature of the planet.
This is done by calculating the difference between
the temperature when the planet is in front of the
star and that when the planet is behind the star.
The most important factor to be in mind in this
method is the fact that the star systems are at
random inclination, so repeated tests needs to be
done in order to confirm the eclipse.
Fig: Exoplanet population and their observed method
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np28
There are two other methods too – Direct imaging
and Micro-lensing, but these methods are quiet
difficult as they have many limitations. Well,
there are limitations on previous two methods
too. The planet should be facing the earth for it
to be detected which is not always the case. But,
hopefully, thousands of them do and we can
discover more in the sky.
Characterisation and Biomarkers
We have our planets now, but what about their
properties? Size and mass do not provide sufficient
characteristics of a life hosting planet. Fortunately,
we will find our way through detailed observation.
Two different spectrums are read using critical
the star and the observer, the electromagnetic
spectrum is read, and secondly, the spectrum
of the star only is read. The difference of the
spectrum gives the spectrum of the exoplanet. The
spectrums provide the physical features like the
elemental composition of the exoplanet. Chemical
components like Hydrogen, Helium and other
heavier elements can be traced. Still, this method
provides the spectrum of large gaseous planets
Furthermore, mass from Doppler method and size
from transit method can be used to find the density
of the planet. By comparing the density of water,
rock and other materials from the Earth, the rough
composition of the materials in the exoplanets can
be predicted. This means that, we can also predict
if the planet consists of terrestrial water. In the last
few years, such planets with possible water and
layer of ozone have been found. The nearest such
planet is just 40 light-years away from the Earth.
Again, Earth like planet has not been found, but
we can say that we are getting closer than ever.
Through various simulations, it has been possible
to mark the habitable zone in each star system.
The simplest example of habitable zone is the
Earth in the solar system. The Mars is too far to
get enough radiation from the Sun and the Venus
is too near that no atmosphere can sustain.
In addition, the planet needs to have enough
volcanic activities in its core to support biosphere,
which small planets like Mars do not have. The
Keppler space-observatory has been successful
in finding more than 300 exoplanets in habitable
zone, and The Chandra X-Ray space-observatory
claims that there are millions of exoplanets yet to
The number of exoplanets discovered is increasing,
and we have never been so sure of existence of
another habitable planet. But, we have to have
more data from these exoplanets. It would be only
a matter of time when we would have found some
alien life. Till then, more information needs to be
Fig: Exoplanets found by Keppler on habitable zone
Fig: Relative size of planets found by Kepler
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 29
You probably have heard of bitcoin. It has been
making lot of buzz lately. One bitcoin was traded
for nearly $20,000 at some point last December.
But what exactly is bitcoin? Let’s take a closer look
at bitcoin, its technology, and some other aspects.
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin basically is a digital money. Users of bitcoin
can use it to do just anything that can be done with
conventional currencies, like buying and selling
goods, sending money to people, organization, or
extend credit. However, bitcoin is entirely virtual,
there are no physical coins. Units of currency called
bitcoin (BTC) are used to store and transfer values
among participants in the bitcoin network. Unlike
traditional currencies, bitcoin is not controlled
by governments, but by a clever cryptographic
Where did Bitcoin come from?
In 2008, a computer programmer under the alias
of Satoshi Nakamoto published a paper titled
“Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” 
In this paper, Satoshi outlined the design of bitcoin
combining several prior inventions. Based on his
(or her or their) paper, Satoshi released a software
the following year that could be used to exchange
bitcoin. Satoshi Nakamoto vanished from the
public in 2011, leaving behind the development of
the software and the bitcoin network to a volunteer
open-source community. The identity of Satoshi
Nakamoto is still unknown.
How does Bitcoin work?
Nakamoto wanted people to exchange money
electronically securely without the involvement of
a third party like a bank or a company like Visa
or PayPal. He designed bitcoin to be run by a
decentralized network of computers around the
world that keep track of all of bitcoin transactions,
just like Wikipedia is maintained by a decentralized
network of writers and editors.
Just the way you need a web browser to access
internet, you need a bitcoin application to join
the bitcoin network. A “bitcoin wallet” is the most
common user interface to the network. Once you
Bitcoin is still in infancy compared to the fiat currencies, but the technology it employs is considered ingenious and
revolutionary. Image: Reuters/Dado Ruvic
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np30
download and install a bitcoin wallet (there are
many bitcoin wallets, just like there are many web
browsers), it connects over the internet to the
decentralized bitcoin network. It also generates a
pair of unique keys. One key is called the private
key. This is stored in your wallet. The private key
gives you ownership and control over your bitcoin
funds. The other is called the public key. Like an
email address, you’ll need to share your public key
with others to make a bitcoin transaction. You can
post it anywhere without risking the security ofyour
account. It is practically impossible for anyone to
crack your private key from your public key.
A public key looks something like this:
(Warning! Do not make any bitcoin transaction to
this bitcoin address. It will be lost forever.) Stores
that accept bitcoin share their public keys with
This is where things can get a little confusing.
When you make a transaction, say 0.01 BTC to
your friend, your bitcoin wallet sends a value equal
to the 0.01 BTC signed by your private key to the
bitcoin network with your friend’s public key. The
bitcoin network performs a check in the public
transaction log stored in the network to verify that
you actually have 0.01 BTC to spend. Your friend’s
public address will always be listening to the
network for a transaction in that address.
When you make the transaction, it is forwarded to
other clients in the bitcoin network. These clients
go through their copy of the public ledger and try
to validate that you have 0.01 BTC to spend. At the
same time some clients called “miners” are racing
to solve a complex cryptographic mathematical
puzzle using their computational power. A miner
succeeds every ten minutes, on average, and is
able to validate the transactions of the past ten
minutes. When your transaction gets validated by a
miner, it gets included in the block (think of a block
as a page of a ledger). And once this updated
transaction log reaches your wallet, you will know
that your transaction has been successful.
are constantly updating is called the blockchain. A
blockchain is a chain of blocks. The blockchain is
the public ledger of the bitcoin network.
How secure is Bitcoin?
A bitcoin transaction cannot be forged or
modified. It also does not reveal the private
information, like identities and personal details of
the parties involved in the transaction. So even if
your transaction is broadcast over public channel,
like unsecured WiFi, your security will not be
Bitcoin is very much like digital cash or gold. And
the key to unlock this cash is the private key in
your bitcoin wallet. If you lose it, misplace it, have
it stolen, or give a wrong amount to a person, it’s
like dropping some cash on the road − there’s no
On the bright side, bitcoin being a decentralized
network, the responsibility and control of the
security is solely on the users. You can backup
your bitcoin wallet containing your keys. You can
also store it in multiple copies, or even print out
for hard-copy backup. Now, can you backup your
cash, gold or your bank account?
Bitcoin’s decentralization model puts a lot of power
in the hands of users. And with that power comes
a great responsibility of maintaining secrecy of the
As long as your keys are secure, your bitcoin
fund is secure.
How to obtain Bitcoin?
The best way to get bitcoin, for beginners, is to
find someone who has bitcoin and buy directly
from him or her. If you don’t know anyone who has
bitcoin, you can use the classified service such as
https://localbitcoins.com to find sellers near your
location. Or you could sell your service or product
for bitcoin. But the easiest way to buy bitcoin is
through standard exchanges that offer the service
of exchanging bitcoin with local currency.
But bitcoins also have to be “mined” in the first
place. Bitcoin clients called miners compete to
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 31
update the next “block” of the public transaction
log by solving a complex cryptographic puzzle.
The winning miner gets rewarded with 12.5
bitcoins. After every 210,000 blocks, the reward
will be halved.
As per Nakamoto’s white paper, only 21 million
bitcoins can ever be mined. As of this writing, there
are 16,990,413 bitcoins in circulation.
the current trend, the 21 million bitcoins will be fully
mined by the year 2140.
Warning! Nepal Rastriya Bank has officially declared
bitcoin illegal in Nepal. So, anyone trading bitcoin
will be punished as per law.
Who controls Bitcoin?
No one. Or the entire bitcoin community which
includes developers, miners, users, and traders.
In Nakamoto’s paper, there’s a loophole though:
if more than half of the computing power of the
bitcoin network falls in the hands of a single
entity, things could change. They could then help
forge transactions by removing them from the
But this is very unlikely to happen for two reasons.
The Bitcoin Transaction Lifecycle. Step-by-step illustration of how the bitcoin Rob sends reaches to his friend Laura.
Image: Patricia Estevão
Firstly, if someone amassed 51% of the total
computational power, it would attract significant
attention. Secondly, there is no incentive in
attacking the network. Let’s say if someone
actually amassed 51% of the total computational
power of the entire network, would they risk losing
all to attack the network when they could mine
bitcoin with that power and earn a lot more? They
would risk losing all their bitcoins. The trust in the
bitcoin code and the mutually beneficial incentives
is the key to bitcoin's success.
Only time will tell if bitcoin will succeed in
becoming the currency of everyday use. But the
the blockchain technology it employs is here to
 Nakamoto S. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer
Electronic Cash System. 2008. Available from:
 Antonopoulos AM. Mastering Bitcoin:
Programming the Open Blockchain. 2nd ed.
O’Reilly. Sebastopol (CA). 2017.
 Bitcoin Block Reward Halving Countdown.
Available from: http://www.bitcoinblockhalf.
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np32
Medical/Engineering Entrance Questions and Answers
1. The dimension of the stress is
2. Temperature correspond to 1eV energy is
a) 7.6 x 102
K b) 7.7 x 103
c) 7.1 x 10-2
K d) 7.2 x 103
3. The time period of pendulum on a satellite
orbiting around the earth is
a) 1/π b) 0
c) π d) ∞
4. A chock coil should have
a) High resistance and low resistance
b) High resistance and high inductance
c) Low resistance and high inductance
d) Low resistance and low inductance
5. The speed of an electron having a
wavelength of 10-10
a) 7.25x 106
b) 5.25x 106
c) 6.26x 106
d) 4.24x 106
6. The telluric helix was given by
a) De chan courtis b) Newlands
c) L. meyer d) Mendeleeff
7. Platinum asbestos is used in
a) Haber’s process
b) Ostward’s process
c) Contact process
d) Kipp’s apparatus
8. Dead burnt plaster is
O b) MgSO4
O d) CaSO4
9. Formic acid and acetic acid can be
a) Litmus b) NaHCO3
c) Caustic soda d) Ammonical AgNO3
10. Boiling and melting point of the following
hydride follow the order:
11. A transport protein is:
a) Collagen b) Immunoglobulin
c) Haemoglobin d) None
12. The deadliest mushroom is:
a) Agaricus b) Amanita
c) Peuritus d) Volvariella
13. Bacterial DNA is identified as:
a) DNA only
b) DNA without histone
c) DNA with histone
d) DNA & RNA
14. Cross between 2 flowers of same species is
a) Allogamy b) Xenogamy
c) Geitonogamy d) Autogamy
15. Which of the following is not macronutrient?
a) Glucose b) Proteins
c) Vitamin B12
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 33
1. b 2. b 3. d 4. c
5. a 6. a 7. c 8. d
9. d 10. b 11. c 12. b
13. b 14. c 15. c 16. b
17. b 18. b 19. c 20. b
21. a 22. d
16. Gibberellins was first of all obtained from:
a) Algae b) Fungus
c) Bacteria d) Virus
17. The movement of leaf in mimosa is:
a) Epinastic b) Seismonastic
c) Hyponastic d) Thigmotropism
18. Sleeping sickness is caused by bite of:
a) Sandfly b) Tse-Tse fly
c) Mosquito d) Housefly
19. Water vascular system is characteristics of:
20. Connecting link between Krebs & Glycolysis:
a) Pyruvic acid
b) Acetylcoenzyme A
c) Oxaloacetic acid
21. 35 meiotic division leads to the formation of
how many seeds:
a) 28 b) 35
c) 36 d) 70
22. Deamination of protein takes place in:
a) Kidney b) Large gut
c) Pancrease d) Liver
Call For Articles
Scientific Mind Magazine requests
the science enthusiasts to send
their articles related to science and
mathematics. Best articles will be
published in the coming issues.
Articles can be sent at
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np34
Collatz Conjecture: An Unsolved
Problems in Mathematics!
Have you ever wondered “Math is complete or
not?” If you have thought Math is complete
then in some cases you may be wrong. Wrong in
the sense that there are still some problems in
Mathematics, which are still remains to be solved
or we can say still they are unsolved. Yeah you are
getting it right. So what are the problems they are
still remains to be solved?
A few of them are as follows:
1. The Riemann’s Hypothesis
2. The P vs. NP problem
3. The Navier-Stokes Equation
4. The Hodge Conjecture
5. Yang-Mills Theory and Mass Gap Hypothesis
To solve these problems you need a good
Mathematical background. In 2000 “The Clay
Mathematics Institute” situated in Peterborough,
USA announced $1 million prize to the person who
would solve any one of these problems.
We are not going to talk about any of these
problems. But there is a problem in Mathematics
which can be understood by any sixth grade
student and still remains to be solved. The problem
is named as “Collatz Conjecture” or sometimes
known as the “3n+1” problem.
This Conjecture is named upon German
Mathematician Lothar Collatz (July 6, 1910- Sep
26, 1990). It states that every whole number either
even or odd eventually goes down to 1. For this we
have to consider the following operation on any
positive Integer n;
1. If the chosen number is even, divide it by two.
i.e. If the chosen number is ‘n’ we get ‘n/2’
2. If the chosen number is odd, triple it and add 1
i.e. if the chosen odd number is ‘n’ we get, ‘3n+1’.
In Arithmetic notation we define a function f as
; if n is even
if n is even3n + 1;
The sequence of number involved is known
as Hailstone sequence or Hailstone numbers
(because the value usually goes up and down
like hailstone in cloud.) or as wondrous number.
Mathematicians tried this function for the number
up to 260 and that still got back to 1.
Now the question may arise what is the problem on
this function, we will talk about it on the last. First
let’s see some illustrative examples:
Take number 12.
12 is even. Divide it by 2.
= 6 (even)
= 3 (odd)
(3 × 3) + 1 = 10 (even)
= 5 (Odd)
(5 × 3) + 1 = 16 (even)
= 8 (even)
= 4 (even)
= 2 (even)
Here again if you think 1 is odd, then we can do it
again for 1
(1 × 3) + 1 = 4 (even)
= 2 (even)
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 35
Back to 1 again, so the cycle
4 ⇒ 2 ⇒ 1
This cycle keeps repeating after we got to 1.
Now take a number less than 12, take 9 (smaller
9 ⇒ 28 ⇒ 14 ⇒ 7 ⇒ 7
13 ⇐ 26 ⇐ 52 ⇐ 17 ⇐ 34
40 ⇒ 20 ⇒ 10 ⇒ 5 ⇒ 16
1 ⇐ 2 ⇐ 4 ⇐ 8
Back to 1 again, Here we can see that 12 greater
than 9 took more step to become 1. But also if we
take 8 there will be more less steps.
Taking example of those numbers which will take
more steps to descend to 1:
1. Between 1 and 100:
• 27 takes 111 steps to become 1; it climbs up to
9,232 before descending to 1.
• 54 and 55 both take 112 steps to descend to 1;
both of them also climb up to 9,232.
• 97 take 118 steps to descend to 1.
2. Between 1 and 1000:
• 703 takes 170 steps to descend to 1 it climbs up
• 937 takes 173 steps to descend to 1 it also climbs
up to 250,504.
• 871 takes 178 steps to descend to 1 it climbs up
3. Between 1,000 and 10,000; 6,171 takes 261 steps
to descend to 1 after reaching the maximum of
4. Between 10,000 and 100,000 ; 77,031 it take 350
steps to descend to 1 after reaching the peak
5. Between 100,000 and 1 million; 837,799 takes
6. Between 1 million and 10 million; 8,400,511 takes
7. Between 10 billion and 100 billion; 75,128,138,247
takes 1,228 steps.
Actually, the problem in this Conjecture is that there
is no certain rule that, the larger number will take
more steps or smaller number will take fewer steps
to become 1. For example the number 909 take 15
steps to descend to 1 where as the number 7 take
16 steps. There are so many other examples like
this. Also we cannot find any pattern of numbers
descending to 1.
So it’s up to you!
Note: The Collatz conjecture is not on the list of The
Millennium Problems, but there is certain prize for
this whoever solves this!
1. The millennium problems, Delvin K. (2002), Clay
institute, Peterborough, USA.
The average person walks the equivalent of five times around the world in a lifetime.
The average moderately active person takes around 7,500 step/day. If you maintain that
daily average and live until 80 years of age, you’ll have walked about 216,262,500 steps in
your lifetime. Doing the math; the average person with the average stride living until 80 will
walk a distance of around 110,000 miles — which is the equivalent of walking about 5 times
around the Earth, right on the equator.
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np36
• Even though Mercury is the closest planet
to the Sun, Venus is hotter than Mercury
because Venus has atmosphere.
• Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, on March 18, 1965,
became the first person to ever walk in outer
• 49 years ago, American space hero Buzz
Aldrin became the first man to pee on the
A for Astronomy
• Betelguese is a red supergiant located 642.5 light years away in Orion Constellation. It is about 10
million years old, and is expected to end is life in a supernova explosion.
• NASA announced the discovery of seven alien planets in TRAPPIST system on 22 Feb, 2017 in
TRAPPIST 1 star some 39 light years away. But it normally takes us 817,000 years to reach there.
If Betelgeuse exploded, transitioning from the
red supergiant stage to supernova, it would light
our sky continuously for two months. It could
happen anytime — within a couple of thousand
years, tomorrow or even now.
Betelgeuse lies some 430 light-years from
Earth, yet it’s already one of the brightest stars
in Earth’s sky. The reason is that Betelgeuse is
a supergiant star — the largest type of star in
the Universe. Betelgeuse has a luminosity about
10,000 times greater than that of the Sun and its
radius is calculated to be about 370 times that of the
sun. If it were positioned at the center of our sun, its radius would extend out past the orbit of Mars. Because
it’s near the end of its lifetime, Betelgeuse is likely to explode into a supernova.
Artist's rendition of a supernova explosion.
Betelgeuse − a supergiant star that could go supernova anytime. Or has it already?
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 37
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to
determine information about an object through
the analysis of its light properties. Spectrometry is
the study of interactions between light and matter,
and the reactions and measurements of radiation
intensity and wavelength. Therefore, spectrometer
is the chief instrument used in spectrometric
Spectrometers were developed in early studies of
physics, astronomy and chemistry. Spectrometers
are of two types : Optical Spectrometers and
Mass Spectrometers. Optical spectrometers work
in the principle of Optical dispersion. It shows
the intensity of light is a function of wavelength
or frequency where the deflection is produced
either by refraction in a prism or by diffraction
in a diffraction grating. Mass spectrometer is
an analytical instrument that is used to identify
the amount and type of chemicals present in a
sample. These are of two types: Time-of-flight
spectrometer and Magnetic spectrometer.
A spectrometer does something similar to what a
prism does: light goes in, and gets split up into a
spectrum. If you shine white light through a prism,
a rainbow comes out the other side. Emission
is the ability of a substance to give off light,
when it interacts with heat whereas Absorption
is the opposite of emission, where energy, light
or radiation is absorbed by the electrons of
a particular matter. Since the emission and
absorption lines are unique for every element,
using a spectrometer can help scientists determine
the composition of whatever they are studying.
Spectrometry also allows us to measure the
velocities of celestial bodies, as well as distances
on cosmological scales (to galaxies). Spectrometry
has huge application in most of the field of science.
It is one of the most important scientific instrument
Fig: A diagram of mass spectrometer. Image: Openstax
Only one type of mammal has wings
Those mammals would be bats. While flying
squirrels can jump from trees and glide, they can’t
truly fly like bats can.
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np38
Falcon Heavy is the most powerful rocket designed
and manufactured by American space company
SpaceX. It conducted Falcon Heavy’s maiden
launch on February 6, 2018 at 3:45 p.m. from
the Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket carried
a Tesla Roadster belonging to SpaceX CEO Elon
Musk as a dummy payload. It was designed to
carry humans into space farther than ever before
especially to Mars. It is partially reusable super
heavy-lift launch vehicle.
It has capacity to launch 64 tonnes of payloads to
low earth orbit which is greater in mass than a 737
jetliner loaded with passenger crew, luggage and
fuel. Its two boosters successful landed on ground
while third booster destroyed and felt at sea. It was
built in around $90 million.
Falcon Heavy, with its great lifting capability
and low cost, could prove a handy vehicle for
of possibilities that are only in the drawing board
phase," says Jack Burns, an astrophysics professor
at the University of Colorado and recent member
of the NASA transition team. "This could include
a mission to orbit Pluto which requires a more
massive spacecraft than New Horizons, missions
to the moons of Saturn, [and] sample return from
Mars, [which] requires multiple launch.”
"We want a new space race," Elon Musk said at a
press conference after the Falcon Heavy Launch.
"Space races are exciting."
He's going to get one. SpaceX might be king of
the hill right now, with the most cost-effective
rockets on the market, but you better believe other
companies have the front runner in their crosshairs.
The two reuseable side boosters of the Falcon Heavy
landed in perfect harmony on the launch pad.
Elon Musk's Tesla Roadseter that was used as a payload in
the Falcon Heavy test launch
Image: Elon Musk's Instagram
A dummy called Starman in SpaceX's spacesuit in Musk's
Image: Screengrab from SpaceX youtube
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 39
1. Multiply a 3-digit number by 111:
Example: 111 × 234
Step 1: 111 × 234 = 4 Write down the 4.
Step 2: 111 × 234 = 74 3 + 4 = 7
Step 3: 111 × 234 = 974 2 + 3 + 4 = 9
Step 4: 111 × 234 = 5974 2 + 3 = 5
Step 5: 111 × 234 = Write down the 2. 25,974
2. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 715:
Take the multiple of 7, divide it by 7, then multiply
Write that result as a 3-digit number (padding with
0s if necessary), and then write it again to the left.
Example: 42 × 715= ??
42 ÷ 7 = 6
6 × 5 = 30
Math Fun Table
= 1 + 3
= 1 + 3 + 5
= 1 + 3 + 5 + 7
= 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9
= 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11
= 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13
= 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15
= 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17
and so on and on and on and on!
3. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 429:
Divide the other number by 7 and multiply by 3
Example: 56 × 429 = ??
56 ÷ 7 = 8
8 × 3 = 24.
4. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 572:
Divide the other number by 7 and multiply by 4.
Example: 572 × 14 = ??
14÷7 = 2
2×4 = 8
5. Multiply a multiple of 7 by 858:
Divide the other number by 7 and multiply by 6.
Example: 21 × 858 = ??
21÷ 7 = 3
3 × 6 = 18
6. Multiplying by 9:
Multiply the other number by 10, then subtract it
9n = 10n – n
9 × 23 = 230 – 23 = 207
19 × 42 = 20 × 42 – 42 = 840 – 42 = 738
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np40
Sanitation Kamlesh Sah
Global College of Management
For the next issue, we request our readers
to send an essay in the topic
in not more than 500 words before
May 2018 A.D.
The essay can be send in the email address
The best essay will be published in the
Jan.-Feb. 2018 issue and next three issues of the
magazine will be provided.
The world’s population is increasing day by day
and the increasing crowd of the people result
in the increasing pollution and environmental
degradation as well. Sanitation refers to the
hygienic management of all those sectors that
are responsible for the environmental pollution.
Environmental pollution is indeed a burning issue
due to which sanitation has become an urgent
need for the whole world.
Pollution and environmental degradation are the
issues for the whole world but they’re comparatively
more problematic in the developing countries like
Nepal. Unsystematic development tasks are being
carried out that result in unmanaged disposal of
garbage, wastages coming out from factories,
households, etc. These things are very harmful for
human life. The perfect example can be seen in
Kathmandu valley. The pollution in the Kathmandu
valley has increased so much that maintaining
just personal hygiene is insufficient for good
health of the people. Construction works have
increased air pollution so much that there is no
place where anyone can go safely without a face
mask. Respiratory problems have been increasing
rapidly. Kathmandu seems like “Dustmandu”.
Water pollution is a very common thing that can
be seen in the valley. The pollution of Bagmati
river is not hidden from anyone. These things have
affected the climate there, fertility of soil, etc.
Similar problem can be seen in Janakpurdham, a
at all due to the development tasks that are being
carried out haphazardly. Such polluted places are
the best suited places for insects to breed. And,
insects do have high egg-laying capacity at such
places. Thus, mosquitoes have disturbed the life of
the people living there. Janakpurdham can also be
called as “Mosquitoesdham”.
The maintenance of sanitation is so difficult to find
even in the developed places like Kathmandu
and Janakpurdham then we can easily imagine
its maintenance in the rural areas. People of
the rural areas are illiterate and ignorant. So,
they’re unable to adopt the policies of sanitation.
They do not know about proper disposal of
garbage, household wastage, animal feces, etc.
Media campaigns can be raised to make people
aware about the importance and the methods
of sanitation. Thus, people will be able to make
systematic disposal of household wastage, animal
feces, etc. Personal sanitation is must at first and
then is environmental sanitation. In order o ensure
a healthy life, one must have food sanitation as
well. It’s very easy to pollute the environment
but very difficult to control pollution and adopt
sanitation. Everyone should consider such problems
as their common one and go ahead with the
objective of improvimg the situation unitedly. For
example, “Bagmati Sarsaphai Abhiyan” is an
initiative of maintain sanitation in the community.
If all the people understand the urgency of
sanitation, they’ll surely be able to maintain it. If
this is possible then the problems of urban areas
like Kathmandu valley, Janakpurdham and many
rural areas will improve.
Everyone knows about these all. If they’re given to
write an essay on the topic “Sanitation”, then they’ll
write pages and pages but in real life, there’s no
any contribution of such people in environmental
sanitation. The things that people lack are lack of
time, wisdom, selfishness. People should remember
that their earnings do not give them good returns
unless they’ve maintained a good sanitation for
their health. If people know and try to remove
these weaknesses and work as one unitedly, such
respiratory problems and other harmful effects
would be prevented through sanitation
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 41
1. Why do cats always land on their feet?
Cats have an innate ability known as their
Due to their very flexible backbones and
highly tuned sense of balance, they can twist
their bodies to right themselves.
Their balance system, located in the inner
ear, determines up from down and they
rotate their upper body to make sure they
will land the right way up – the lower body
Cats also benefit from light bone structure
and thick fur, which decrease their terminal
– Mala Adhikari
2. If a tree falls in the forest and no one hears it,
does it make a sound?
THIS is a philosophical question which asks
whether something exists if there is no one
there to perceive it.
It is really questioning existence and whether
a sound exists because it is made or because
it is perceived?
– Gopal Basnet
3. What's at the bottom of a black hole?
It's a question that it haven’t the tools to
answer till now. Einstein's general relativity
says that when a black hole is created by a
dying, collapsing massive star, it continues
caving in until it forms an infinitely small,
infinitely dense point called a singularity. But
on such scales quantum physics probably
has something to say too. Except that
general relativity and quantum physics have
never been the happiest of bedfellows – for
decades they have withstood all attempts to
unify them. However, a recent idea – called
M-Theory – may one day explain the unseen
centre of one of the universe's most extreme
– Sudhir Devkota
4. Is time travel possible?
Time travellers already walk among us.
Thanksto Einstein'stheoryofspecial relativity,
astronauts orbiting on the International
Space Station experience time ticking more
slowly. At that speed the effect is minuscule,
but ramp up the velocity and the effect
means that one day humans might travel
thousands of years into the future. Nature
seems to be less fond of people going the
other way and returning to the past, however
Scientific Mind requests the readers to
send their questions related to science and
mathematics. The answers will be given by
consulting with the exports of the relevant
subject. Questions can be send
some physicists have concocted an elaborate
blueprint for a way to do it using wormholes
and spaceships. It could even be used to
hand yourself a present on Christmas Day,
or answer some of the many questions that
surround the universe's great unknowns.
– Shrijana Kathet
5. Where do we put all the carbon?
For the past couple of hundred years, we've
been filling the atmosphere with carbon
dioxide – unleashing it by burning fossil
fuels that once locked away carbon below
the Earth's surface. Now we have to put all
that carbon back, or risk the consequences
of a warming climate. But how do we do it?
One idea is to bury it in old oil and gas fields.
Another is to hide it away at the bottom of the
sea. But we don't know how long it will stay
there, or what the risks might be. Meanwhile,
we have to protect natural, long-lasting
stores of carbon, such as forests and peat
bogs, and start making energy in a way that
doesn't belch out even more.
– Sabin Thapa
6. How do we get more energy from the sun?
Dwindling supplies of fossil fuels mean we're
in need of a new way to power our planet.
Our nearest star offers more than one
possible solution. We're already harnessing
the sun's energy to produce solar power.
Another idea is to use the energy in sunlight
to split water into its component parts:
oxygen, and hydrogen, which could provide
a clean fuel for cars of the future. Scientists
are also working on an energy solution that
depends on recreating the processes going
on inside stars themselves – they're building
a nuclear fusion machine. The hope is that
these solutions can meet our energy needs.
– Namrata Pradhan
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np42
1. Conservation of momentum
2. 40 3. 1905
4. Interference 5. Zero weight
6. Coal mines 7. Gluon
8. in the sky
9. Propane and butane
10. 10.5% 11. Lungs
12. Dull red 13. Leachates
14. the distance traveled by light in one
15. Galvanoscope 16. 57.3 degree
17. Ultra-violet light 18. Wind speed
19. Stratosphere 20. Caffeine
Answer:1.32. 22 3. A:58 B:864. 6 5. 98 6. 11 7. 6
1. Which number replaces the question mark? 5. Which number replaces the question mark?
2. Which number replaces the question mark?
4. Which number replaces the question mark?
3. Which number is the odd one out in each oval?
6. Which number replaces the question mark?
7. Which number replaces the question mark?
1826 1222 ?16
www.scientificmind.com.np Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 43
Find each reptile in the puzzle below and circle the name of each reptile as you find it. Words may be forward,
backward, diagonal, vertical or horizontal.
1. Kamal Shahi
Tikapur - 6 , Kailali
2. Manjil Gautam
Galkot English Boarding School
3. Krishna Sah
Goldengate Int'l College, Kathmandu
Scientific Mind: January-May 2018 www.scientificmind.com.np44
Ten Questions For You
Sendanswersof "Puzzle"and"Ten QuestionsForYou"of
this issue in the address: email@example.com.
Three lucky winners will get free subscription of the
magazine for next three issues. Please send the answers
of May, 2018.
1. The acronym ________ means billion of operations
2. What are the machines used to check the progress of
unborn babies still in the mother’s womb?
3. A technology to provide high speed internet access
over telephone wiring:
4. The part of a computer that shows visual information
on a screen.
5. Which device is used to study the way and object
behaves when the air flows over it?
6. The process of killing diseases producing micro
organism in food items by heat.
7. A type glass that is highly resistant to heat.
8. Tuberculosis is caused by it.
9. Which country in the world has maximum number of
10. The fear of being out of mobile phone contact is known
Answers From July-October 2017 Issue
1. Yubina Sahani
2. Bindu Sharma
Liverpool Higher Secondary School, Kathmandu
3. Suraj Subedi
Himalayan College of Engineering, Lalitpur
1. Hydrogen 2. Motherboard
3. Uniform Resource Locator 4. Heating effect of current
5. C programming 6. Hertz
7. Bacillus 8. Saraswati
10. Due to less reactivity of metals
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