Unit B5 & 6: Cell Biology (DNA Replication )  Authored by Michelle Choma © <ul><li>Students who have fully met the prescri...
This is it!! Short one Eh!? <ul><li>Describe the purpose of DNA replication. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the site of DNA re...
Introduction <ul><li>Recall the structural composition and functions of DNA.  See B4  </li></ul>
DNA Replication <ul><li>Purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>Before a cell divides, it needs to double the number of chromosomes (c...
Location : <ul><li>Nucleus, mitochondrion (and plant chloroplasts); requires 2 enzymes  helic ase  and DNA  polymer ase . ...
Products : <ul><li>2 DNA molecules; 1 identical to original. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as  semiconservative replicat...
 
3 basic steps: <ul><li>1.) Unzipping   </li></ul><ul><li>2 strands of DNA unwind AND unzip the H-bonds between N-base pair...
Next step <ul><li>2.) Complementary base pairing </li></ul><ul><li>New nucleotides present in the nucleus (T, C, A, G) bon...
 
 
And lastly…. <ul><li>3.) Joining of adjacent nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent nucleotides join/form a bond with the ...
 
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA/genome from two different organisms are spliced together ...
 
Uses:….there are lots! <ul><li>Production of hormones (insulin, growth hormone), human proteins (interferon, antibodies) a...
Some more <ul><li>Transgenic animals, or genectically altered organisms (GMO’s) to increase productivity, produce pharmace...
What do this fish and
This ice cream have in common?
mmmmm……smooth ice cream <ul><li>“ Anti-freeze” gene from arctic pout are inserted into a yeast which then generates the an...
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DNA replication

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DNA replication

  1. 1. Unit B5 & 6: Cell Biology (DNA Replication ) Authored by Michelle Choma © <ul><li>Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcomes (PLO’s) are able to: </li></ul><ul><li>B5. Describe DNA replication. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the three steps in the semi-conservative replication of DNA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ unzipping” (DNA helic ase ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complementary base pairing (DNA polymer ase ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joining of adjacent nucleotides (DNA polymer ase ) </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. This is it!! Short one Eh!? <ul><li>Describe the purpose of DNA replication. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the site of DNA replication within the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>B6. Describe recombinant DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Define recombinant DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a minimum of three uses for recombinant DNA. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Recall the structural composition and functions of DNA. See B4 </li></ul>
  4. 4. DNA Replication <ul><li>Purpose : </li></ul><ul><li>Before a cell divides, it needs to double the number of chromosomes (containing genes/traits, codons/protein codes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. the DNA is duplicated for each new daughter cell. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Location : <ul><li>Nucleus, mitochondrion (and plant chloroplasts); requires 2 enzymes helic ase and DNA polymer ase . </li></ul>Helicase DNA Polymerase
  6. 6. Products : <ul><li>2 DNA molecules; 1 identical to original. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as semiconservative replication , which produces two “half-old and half-new” DNA strands. </li></ul>
  7. 8. 3 basic steps: <ul><li>1.) Unzipping </li></ul><ul><li>2 strands of DNA unwind AND unzip the H-bonds between N-base pairs using helic ase . </li></ul>
  8. 9. Next step <ul><li>2.) Complementary base pairing </li></ul><ul><li>New nucleotides present in the nucleus (T, C, A, G) bond with the complementary pairs on the parental strand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. A-T, G-C, T-A, and C-G using DNA polymer ase </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. And lastly…. <ul><li>3.) Joining of adjacent nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent nucleotides join/form a bond with the help of DNA polymer ase (“proof-reader”) to form new sugar-phosphate backbones resulting in 2 identical DNA molecules. This is referred to as semi-conservative . </li></ul>
  10. 14. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA/genome from two different organisms are spliced together to obtain a desired trait/characteristic or perform a specific function; the manipulation of a genome from two or more sources, such as bacteria, plants or animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Bacteria nucleic acid containing a human hormone gene and producing biotechnology products, i.e. insulin, growth hormone. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. Uses:….there are lots! <ul><li>Production of hormones (insulin, growth hormone), human proteins (interferon, antibodies) and vaccines from bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of pest-resistant, frost-resistant, disease-resistant, altered oil content and ripening etc. in crops. Plants can also be engineered to produce human hormones, proteins, and antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of DNA probes for paternity/maternity, body ID at crime scenes, evolutionary relationships etc. </li></ul>
  12. 17. Some more <ul><li>Transgenic animals, or genectically altered organisms (GMO’s) to increase productivity, produce pharmaceuticals, produce organs, research in cancer/tumour cells etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic bacteria used for vaccines, biofilter airborne pollutants, synthesize hormones, enzymes for making cheese, clean oil spills, extract precious metals in mining. </li></ul><ul><li>In medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of genetically inherited disorders, e.g. cystic fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>To give an organism a metabolic capability it did not possess before. </li></ul><ul><li>To create more copies of a specific gene so it can be studied. </li></ul>
  13. 18. What do this fish and
  14. 19. This ice cream have in common?
  15. 20. mmmmm……smooth ice cream <ul><li>“ Anti-freeze” gene from arctic pout are inserted into a yeast which then generates the anti-freeze protein </li></ul><ul><li>This protein is added to ice cream to make it smoother (smaller ice crystals) </li></ul><ul><li>Hmmmm…. Is this a good idea? What do you think? </li></ul>

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