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Pierre Mounier - Open access publishing in Europe: The state of the Union


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The adoption of national, regional and institutional policies to promote free access to scientific knowledge have contributed significantly to boosting the growth of open access. In this context, the gold route represents one of the most important paths for the universalization of open access to scientific literature and the solutions employed complement the advances of open access globally with the contribution of the commercial publishers that started to gradually adopt open access solutions, the emergence of open access megajournals and open access repositories of articles published in restricted access journals. In recent years we have also seen the easing of use licenses that contribute to the increase of the number of open access publications, mainly in line with the principles and practices of open science.

Although the increase of open access publications is noticeable, the distribution of these titles among countries is not homogeneous; two contexts stand out. On the one hand, there are countries with an important tradition in commercial publishing, especially in the USA, UK, the Netherlands and Germany, and whose advance toward open access depends on business models that ensure the financial returns to large publishers; and on the other, there are mainly the emerging economies, whose journals do not draw much commercial interest, being mostly published in open access. Between these two environments, there are also national initiatives in developed countries that publish journals outside the commercial circuit of the large publishers.

In this scenario, Latin America is known to be one of the most advanced regions of the world to use the open access publishing model as a strategy to increase the visibility of the scientific output in the countries of the region. This protagonism is largely driven by national and regional initiatives, underlining the pioneering SciELO, which, through its decentralized model, promoted and developed a network of national collections of open access journals, focusing on each countries’ conditions and priorities. In most of these countries the collections reflect the implementation of public policies supporting research infrastructure and its communication, with emphasis on nationally published journals.

Through similar solutions, other countries have also highlighted the importance of nationally published journals for their national research systems, and have been making efforts to develop national open access journals collections (France, Serbia, and Japan, among others) as one of the essential components of their strategies of active participation in the global flow of scientific output and scholarly communication.

In view of the above, this panel will analyze the main characteristics of the most relevant national solutions, advances already achieved, barriers and challenges toward…

Published in: Science
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Pierre Mounier - Open access publishing in Europe: The state of the Union

  1. 1. Open access publishing in Europe The state of the Union Pierre Mounier EHESS OpenEdition OPERAS
  2. 2. Topic Latin America Europe Countries 33 28 Languages 5(2) 24 Big 5 0 3 Elsevier (NL), Springer (DE), T&F (UK) Number of OA journals (DOAJ) 2272 4704 Number of researchers (UNESCO, Eurostat) 300 000 1.88M
  3. 3. Two methods of presentation Alphabetical order • Austria • Belgium • Czech Republic • Denmark • Estonia • Finland • France • Germany • Etc. By types of driving forces : • Market • Community • State Some examples
  4. 4. • National infrastructures : – Repository : HAL – OA publishing : OpenEdition, MathDoc, Persée • Network infrastructure : RENATER • Computing infrastructure : IN2P3 • Network of university presses • Important private sector totally opposed to OA
  5. 5. • Repositories at university level • Publishing platforms at university level : OJS, OMP • IT national infrastructure : CINECA • OA working group at CRUI (National Conference of University Rectors) • Market of small/medium size companies to provide editorial services to universities
  6. 6. • Repositories at university level • Strong network of university presses hosted by university libraries : OA • Strong market of private publishers medium to large size with a long family history : De Gruyter, C. H. Beck, Springer. Progressively adopting OA • Federal country : no national platform
  7. 7. • Dominated by big commercial companies • Network of OA repositories coordinated by a national infrastructure : JISC • Boom of “cool kids” New University Presses, Scholarly-led publishers, start-ups driven by innovation : OLH, OBP, UCL Press, F1000, Ubiquity, etc.
  8. 8. Common features • National policies : – Germany : 2016 Open Access in Deutschland Die Strategie des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung – Italy : 2013 Disposizioni urgenti per la tutela, la valorizzazione e il rilancio dei beni e delle attivita' culturali e del turismo. – France : 2018 Plan pour la Science Ouverte • Few mandates yet from funding agencies : “academic freedom” (FWF in Austria is an exception) • Almost no control (and sometimes no monitoring) over APC/BPC fees
  9. 9. The role of the European Commission • 2012 : EC recommendation to member states • 2014 : OA mandatory in Horizon2020 funding program • 2015 Moedas’ “vision” : open innovation, open science, open to the world • 2016 Amsterdam call for action on Open Science • 2018 Open Research Europe platform (ORE) • 2018 “Plan S” • European Open Science Cloud
  10. 10. EU open access in practice : OpenAIRE
  11. 11. EU open access in practice : Zenodo
  12. 12. An emerging issue : funding the “Open Access infrastructures” • DOAJ • DOAB • Sherpa/Romeo • Oapen • SCOSS
  13. 13. Europe : a (quick) SWOT analysis Strenght Diversity Weakness Diversity Opportunity Adapt to the needs of the scientific communities and societies Threat Be dominated by a global one-size-fits-all silver bullet “solution”
  14. 14. OPERAS : the European spirit
  15. 15. PARTNERS OPERAS OPERAS is led by OpenEdition (France) Partners36 Countries Projects2 H2020 Consortium Core Members 27
  16. 16. MAIN MISSIONOPERASCLUSTER OF CONTENTS journals, books, blogs. IMPACT TRUST PUBLICENGAGEMENT Label Label Label Label Label Label Label Integration of the long tail into Open Science To provide a pan- European infrastructure for open scholarly communication CONSORTIUM OF PLAYERS publication platforms and publishers. SCALABILITY OF QUALITY 28
  17. 17. OPERAS : a distributed publishing platform
  18. 18. HIRMEOS: OPERAS method in practice • Upgrade 5 open access books publishing platforms to 5 added value services : – Identification service : DOI, ORCID, Fundref – Entities recognition service : persons, places, periods – Certification Service : connection with DOAB – Open Annotation Service : – Metrics : Open Access metrics, alternative metrics
  19. 19. HIRMEOS.EU
  20. 20. The Jussieu call : the European road to ”universalization”
  21. 21.
  22. 22. To join :
  23. 23. Thank you! @piotrr70