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Tanja Niemann - Partnerships in Support of Open Access to HSS Scholarly Journals


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The adoption of national, regional and institutional policies to promote free access to scientific knowledge have contributed significantly to boosting the growth of open access. In this context, the gold route represents one of the most important paths for the universalization of open access to scientific literature and the solutions employed complement the advances of open access globally with the contribution of the commercial publishers that started to gradually adopt open access solutions, the emergence of open access megajournals and open access repositories of articles published in restricted access journals. In recent years we have also seen the easing of use licenses that contribute to the increase of the number of open access publications, mainly in line with the principles and practices of open science.

Although the increase of open access publications is noticeable, the distribution of these titles among countries is not homogeneous; two contexts stand out. On the one hand, there are countries with an important tradition in commercial publishing, especially in the USA, UK, the Netherlands and Germany, and whose advance toward open access depends on business models that ensure the financial returns to large publishers; and on the other, there are mainly the emerging economies, whose journals do not draw much commercial interest, being mostly published in open access. Between these two environments, there are also national initiatives in developed countries that publish journals outside the commercial circuit of the large publishers.

In this scenario, Latin America is known to be one of the most advanced regions of the world to use the open access publishing model as a strategy to increase the visibility of the scientific output in the countries of the region. This protagonism is largely driven by national and regional initiatives, underlining the pioneering SciELO, which, through its decentralized model, promoted and developed a network of national collections of open access journals, focusing on each countries’ conditions and priorities. In most of these countries the collections reflect the implementation of public policies supporting research infrastructure and its communication, with emphasis on nationally published journals.

Through similar solutions, other countries have also highlighted the importance of nationally published journals for their national research systems, and have been making efforts to develop national open access journals collections (France, Serbia, and Japan, among others) as one of the essential components of their strategies of active participation in the global flow of scientific output and scholarly communication.

In view of the above, this panel will analyze the main characteristics of the most relevant national solutions, advances already achieved, barriers and challenges toward…

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Tanja Niemann - Partnerships in Support of Open Access to HSS Scholarly Journals

  1. 1. Open Access - Routes towards universalization: Partnerships in Support of Open Access to HSS Scholarly Journals SciELO 20 Years, São Paulo Tanja Niemann Executive Director Érudit Consortium, Canada
  2. 2. platform providing access to over 150 Canadian scholarly journals in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Non commercial consortium: UofMontreal, ULaval, UQAM Founded in 1998 with 5 journals of UofMontreal Press About Érudit
  3. 3. Érudit is funded by -the partner universities (18%), -grants (45%) -and publishing services and subscription/OA partnership revenues (37%).
  4. 4. Since 2017, Érudit & PKP are considered as a Major Scientific Initiative by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (research infrastructure funding until 2022). Érudit & PKP have launched to strengthen the Canadian infrastructure in support for journal publishing
  5. 5. Together, Érudit and PKP provide services to a critical mass of Canadian HSS scholarly journals ~250 active scholarly journals using OJS across the country 150 scholarly journals on the Érudit platform
  6. 6. Problems Larivière V, Haustein S, Mongeon P., (2015).The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127502
  7. 7. More Problems
  8. 8. More and More Problems Commercial publishers are acquiring key infrastructure components – “In 2016, PKP’s income was $1.18 M, the total revenue for HathiTrust was $3.2 M, and the 2016 DuraSpace revenue was about $1.78M….the Financial Times reported that Elsevier paid $115 M to acquire bepress.” ment.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  9. 9. Solutions? 2.5% proposal by David W. Lewis: Commitment: Every academic library should commit to contribute 2.5% of its total budget to support the common infrastructure needed to create the open scholarly commons mmitment.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  10. 10. In Canada …. We do not have a national roadmap for OpenScience; Decentralized administration, with few, government led national coordination; Actions are assumed by the community; Stakeholders develop strategies and partnerships.
  11. 11. … We Have: Canadian Tri-Agency Policy (12 month) “Grant recipients can publish in a journal that offers immediate open access or that offers open access on its website within 12 months.”
  12. 12. … And We Also Have: PKP’s Open Journal Systems: provides free, open source software and services for professional journal publishing. Erudit: provides journals with a robust aggregation platform for Canadian content, publishing services, international visibility and discoverability. Academic libraries provide OJS hosting and related publishing services.
  13. 13. Partnerships for OA
  14. 14. Partnerships with 1- Infrastructure providers ( 2- Academic Libraries (Canadian Research Knowledge Network, and international) 3- Funding agencies 4- Universities
  15. 15. « The partnership model is an initiative that combines the collective provision of open access infrastructure services with market-like mechanisms for efficient resource management. » Crow, Raym, “Sustainability of Open Access Services, Phase 3: The Collective Provision of Open Access Resources”, Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition. 2013
  16. 16. Partnerships with Libraries Establish an OA support fund for journals already in open access (and thus previously not able to access royalties from libraries); Reallocate the subscription funds of commercialized journals to support their publishing activities during the open access transitioning process; Lower the moving-wall from 24 to 12 months in 2017, in accordance with tri-council agencies policy on open access; Open an ongoing discussion to further develop the model and find ways to sustainably convert the scholarly journals collection into OA while still providing them with royalties.
  17. 17. 1- A funding model tailored to the economic reality 2 - 100% of the Partnership revenues redistributed to journals 3- A cooperative, open, and transparent model.
  18. 18. OA Is Not Enough
  19. 19. “[A]t least 28% of the scholarly literature is OA (19M in total) and that this proportion is growing, driven particularly by growth in Gold and Hybrid. The most recent year analyzed (2015) also has the highest percentage of OA (45%).” Piwowar H, Priem J, Larivière V, Alperin JP, Matthias L, Norlander B, Farley A, West J, Haustein S. (2018) The state of OA: a large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles. PeerJ 6:e4375
  20. 20. “70% of UK OA articles are published in hybrid journals, yet subscription expenditure has continued to grow”. “Average APC increased in cost by 16% from 2013 to 2016.” Earney, L. (2018). National licence negotiations advancing the open access transition – a view from the UK. Insights, 31, 11. DOI:
  21. 21. Routes towards universalization of OA: L’union fait la force! Unity Makes Strength! A união faz a força! Thank you!