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Stephanie Faulkner - Moving Beyond Citation Indexes – Measuring Societal Impact through Clinical, Policy and Patent Citations


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More than an umbrella term, open science is moving towards broadening and integrating the open access movement to scholarly literature on other fronts, such as open scientific data, open scientific tools, open notebook science, open education, and citizen science.

This “movement of movements” transforms the scenario and the dynamics of science collaboration, communication and dissemination, expanding its ability to respond to contemporary new and complex issues, while posing new challenges. On the one hand, new possibilities arise for the generation of social, economic and environmental benefits, as well as innovation, associated to increased reach, speed and quality of production and circulation of scientific knowledge, its results and possible uses. On the other hand, new institutional and technological requirements are imposed on the adoption of open research policies, strategies, and practices (regulations, capacities, infrastructures, and tools), and the costs derived therefrom. A new economics of open science is being developed, together with new business models, with repercussions on the present and future of scientific journals and their relationship with other scientific publication and publicization systems emerging from this framework, as well as with the monitoring, evaluation and research financing apparatuses.

At the same time, it is about facing the challenge of bridging the gap between science (and its various forms of data availability) and policy. Today there is an abyss in this interface that should be narrowing so that, increasingly, political decisions, particularly those that affect social and environmental issues more directly are based on quality and plural science. To strengthen this relationship, efforts are needed to reconcile languages and times that allow virtuous dialogue between these two fields.

In the end, it is also important to recognize the different implications of this changing scenario regarding more and less developed countries, placing new opportunities and barriers for their science, technology and innovation systems and their respective repositioning in the global scenario.

Open science, science communication and the challenges of sustainable development; open publications and innovation; the new economy (politics) of open science and its infrastructures of scholarly communication: costs and benefits (academic, social, and economic); political and institutional requirements; business models emerging from open scientific publications; opportunities and challenges for developing countries.

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Stephanie Faulkner - Moving Beyond Citation Indexes – Measuring Societal Impact through Clinical, Policy and Patent Citations

  1. 1. | www.plumanalytics.com1 Moving Beyond Citation Indexes – Measuring Societal Impact through Clinical, Policy and Patent Citations 26 September 2018 Stephanie Faulkner | Product Manager | +1.732.216.5104
  2. 2. | www.plumanalytics.com2 Who is Plum Analytics? • Founded to Tell the Story of Research • Developed comprehensive metrics across 5 categories (Citations, Usage, Captures, Mentions, Social Media) • Timeline: − 2012: Company founded − 2014: Merged with EBSCO − 2017: Joined Elsevier • 250 worldwide customers, including: − University of Southern California − University of Pittsburgh − Universidad del Rosario − University of Western Australia − University of Helsinki, Finland − Chalmers University, Sweden − Nanyang Technical Institute, Singapore − UNICEF, Italy − CSIRO, Australia − University of Sydney, Australia
  3. 3. | www.plumanalytics.com3 Metrics Drive Decisions
  4. 4. | www.plumanalytics.com4
  5. 5. | www.plumanalytics.com5
  6. 6. | www.plumanalytics.com6
  7. 7. | www.plumanalytics.com7 Comprehensive Metrics Give You an Edge
  8. 8. | www.plumanalytics.com8 What are your institution’s / country’s strengths vs. your peers What research areas are getting funding? How can we demonstrate ROI (Return On Investment) of research money? Who are rising stars amongst early career researchers? Use metrics to tell the story of research Research Metrics Can Be Used to Identify…
  9. 9. | www.plumanalytics.com9 • Funders and governments increasingly require real world or societal proof – consider the 2014 Research Excellence Framework exercise conducted in the UK. • 6,975 impact case studies were submitted categorized by a variety of impact types including: − Political − Health − Technological − Economic − Legal − Cultural − Societal − Environmental • Almost 25% of all the cases submitted were labeled Societal Impact Societal Impact – Why does it matter? 9
  10. 10. | www.plumanalytics.com10 • Measuring societal impact is not always easy as it can take a long time for this type of impact to be reflected and measurable. • Sources vary and the accessibility to them also varies. • There is no standard measure across research areas. Societal Impact - Challenges 10
  11. 11. | www.plumanalytics.com11 Measuring Societal Impact – PlumX Metrics
  12. 12. | www.plumanalytics.com12 • We represent societal/economic impact in our Citations area in three ways: − Clinical Citations − Policy Citations − Patent Citations • Displayed separate from traditional citation indexes, but included in our overall citation count Our approach 12
  13. 13. | www.plumanalytics.com13 Policy and Clinical Citations • Demonstrates: − Public engagement with research − Impact on government policy and cultural life − Societal impact in general • Can drive policy makers and legislators to a particular course of action. • They can also be actual statements of policy by public policy making institutions.
  14. 14. | www.plumanalytics.com14 Policy Citations Policy from different types of organizations: • Non-profits • Governmental agencies • NGOs • Think tanks Policy documents can be: • Guidelines • White Papers • Monographs • Pamphlets • Articles • Books • and more
  15. 15. | www.plumanalytics.com15 Societal Impact – Policy Citations
  16. 16. | www.plumanalytics.com16 Policy Citations in PlumX
  17. 17. | www.plumanalytics.com17 Policy Citations in PlumX
  18. 18. | www.plumanalytics.com18 “…clinical medicine draws heavily on basic science, but not vice versa. The result is that basic medicine is cited three to five times more than clinical medicine, and this is reflected in journal impact factors.” Clinical Research & Citations
  19. 19. | www.plumanalytics.com19 Clinical Citations Come From… Clinical Alerting Services Clinical Guidelines Systematic Reviews Clinical Trials
  20. 20. | www.plumanalytics.com20 Clinical Citation Sources: Practice Guidelines • Based on PubMed / Medline − “Guideline” is a classification by PubMed − Any time an article is cited by a “Guideline” this will be counted as a clinical citation − PlumX will calculate this as a type of “clinical citation count” for a given article Note we will also have a separate “citation index” count for citations across all of PubMed. • Based on NICE, UK (Clinical Guidelines) • And many more Guidelines to follow…
  21. 21. | www.plumanalytics.com21 Clinical Citations: Practice Guidelines
  22. 22. | www.plumanalytics.com22 Societal Impact – Clinical Citations
  23. 23. | www.plumanalytics.com23 Clinical Citation Sources: DynaMed Plus Topics • Clinical reference tool • Designed for point-of-care • Content: Extensive network of clinical experts − Review 500 journals and 120 guideline organizations − select the best and most appropriate evidence − confirm the clinical applicability of content − peer-review topics
  24. 24. | www.plumanalytics.com24 Societal Impact – Clinical Citations
  25. 25. | www.plumanalytics.com25 DynaMed Plus Topics
  26. 26. | www.plumanalytics.com26 Patent Citations
  27. 27. | www.plumanalytics.com27 Patent Citations • A patent citation is any document cited by a patent applicant, a third-party, or a patent office examiner because it's relevant to a patent application. • Gain an understanding of how much research is being used in the creation of products by seeing the total number of outputs that received patents. • Provide information about the economic impact of research.
  28. 28. | www.plumanalytics.com28 Patent Citations • Citation of scholarly output in patents indicates a connection between academia and industry. • Patents citation contains valuable data and if analyzed well, may sometimes reveal concealed mysteries of the information flow between countries, laboratories, companies, and universities. Sharma, P., & Tripathi, R.C. (2017). Patent citation: A technique for measuring the knowledge flow of information and innovation. World Patent Information, 51, 31-42. doi: 10.1016/j.wpi.2017.11.002
  29. 29. | www.plumanalytics.com29 Societal Impact – HERL at University of Pittsburgh
  30. 30. | www.plumanalytics.com30 Societal Impact – Patent Citations
  31. 31. | www.plumanalytics.com31 Societal Impact – Patent Citations
  32. 32. | www.plumanalytics.com32 Summary • It’s exciting to see the real-life impact that research can take – whether impacting law, medical care or the invention of new technologies. • Clinical research is an area underserved by traditional citation metrics, yet is important to the day- to-day welfare of people around the world. Being able to measure the impact of clinical research can encourage more clinicians to innovate and find cures for diseases. • PlumX will continue to add new clinical, policy and patent sources and innovate around additional measures to help further demonstrate societal impact.
  33. 33. | www.plumanalytics.com33 Questions?
  34. 34. Thank You +1.732.216.5104 Stephanie Faulkner Find out more information at: