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Ritsuko Nakajima - Open Access and J-STAGE


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The adoption of national, regional and institutional policies to promote free access to scientific knowledge have contributed significantly to boosting the growth of open access. In this context, the gold route represents one of the most important paths for the universalization of open access to scientific literature and the solutions employed complement the advances of open access globally with the contribution of the commercial publishers that started to gradually adopt open access solutions, the emergence of open access megajournals and open access repositories of articles published in restricted access journals. In recent years we have also seen the easing of use licenses that contribute to the increase of the number of open access publications, mainly in line with the principles and practices of open science.

Although the increase of open access publications is noticeable, the distribution of these titles among countries is not homogeneous; two contexts stand out. On the one hand, there are countries with an important tradition in commercial publishing, especially in the USA, UK, the Netherlands and Germany, and whose advance toward open access depends on business models that ensure the financial returns to large publishers; and on the other, there are mainly the emerging economies, whose journals do not draw much commercial interest, being mostly published in open access. Between these two environments, there are also national initiatives in developed countries that publish journals outside the commercial circuit of the large publishers.

In this scenario, Latin America is known to be one of the most advanced regions of the world to use the open access publishing model as a strategy to increase the visibility of the scientific output in the countries of the region. This protagonism is largely driven by national and regional initiatives, underlining the pioneering SciELO, which, through its decentralized model, promoted and developed a network of national collections of open access journals, focusing on each countries’ conditions and priorities. In most of these countries the collections reflect the implementation of public policies supporting research infrastructure and its communication, with emphasis on nationally published journals.

Through similar solutions, other countries have also highlighted the importance of nationally published journals for their national research systems, and have been making efforts to develop national open access journals collections (France, Serbia, and Japan, among others) as one of the essential components of their strategies of active participation in the global flow of scientific output and scholarly communication.

In view of the above, this panel will analyze the main characteristics of the most relevant national solutions, advances already achieved, barriers and challenges toward…

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Ritsuko Nakajima - Open Access and J-STAGE

  1. 1. Open Access and J-STAGE September 27, 2018 Japan Science and Technology Agency Ritsuko Nakajima
  2. 2. Agenda 1. The situation surrounding Japanese journals 2. J-STAGE and Open Access 3. Future Plan of J-STAGE 1
  3. 3. 2 Some figures of Japanese academia 660000 researchers (FTE)(Academia+Industry) (*) 782 Universities 2026 Academic societies registered with Science Council of Japan 77340 Papers/year (Avg. 2014-2016 in WoS)(*) 3000-5000(est.) Scholarly journals published from Japan (*) “Japanese Science and Technology Indicators 2018”, NISTEP RESEARCH MATERIAL, No.274, National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Tokyo. DOI:
  4. 4. 3 Problems of academic journals in Japan • Weaker presence of Japanese journals compared to the research output from Japan. • Researchers tend to submit their excellent research results to international journals. • Academic societies have a tendency to subdivide by research field and set up new societies and thus undeveloped operation systems which lead to outsourcing of publishing journals to overseas commercial publishers. Source: Gakkaimeikan Date: As of May 10, 2018 Number: 2,022 societies 1-499, 50% 500-999, 20% 1000- 4999, 22% 5000- 9999, 3% 10000-, 2% No data, 3% Membership of Japanese Academic societies
  5. 5. 4 Japanese version of “Serials crisis” Rapid price increase of commercial journals in the late 1990s. To mediate the impact of the “serials crisis” • Shared scholarly information among university libraries by building catalogs and using ILL. • Journal big deal -> These measures don't lead to a fundamental solution. Source: Report on the Improvement of the Journal Environment at Universities and the Strategy for Strengthening the Dissemination of Japanese Journals (MEXT, 2014) The next measures should be: • Reassess journal big deal • Promote Open Access 0 100 200 300 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Purchasing cost of e-journals($mil) Source: Science Information Infrastructure Statistics of Colleges and Universities, (MEXT, 2018)
  6. 6. Policies and Discussions on OA/OS The 4th Science and Technology Basic Plan (August 2011)  Promotion of open access CSTI:Council for Science, Technology and Innovation Promoting Open Science in Japan -Opening up a new era for the advancement of science- (March 2015) Science Council of Japan  Committee on Open Science (January 2015- ) The 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan (January 2016)  Promotion of open science 5
  7. 7. 6 Promoting Open Access •Funding Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) established the category of subsidies to support nurturing of open access journals in FY2013. •Journal Platform J-STAGE operated by JST contributes to promoting scholarly information distribution. •Institutional Repositories National Institute of Informatics (NII) provides Japanese Institutional Repositories Online (JAIRO) in addition to supporting universities in Japan to introduce and operate institutional repositories(IR). The number of IR is 685 (as of Sep. 2018).
  8. 8. Policies of institutions  24 universities and one research institution have endorsed an open access policy. (as of September 2018) Universities/Research institutions  Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) endorses a general policy of promotion of open access to publications for research results funded by public grants (March 2017)  Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) The application guidelines state: Having secured the necessary IP rights, contractors are requested to cooperate in ensuring open access to research accomplishments as far as possible.  Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) • Open Access policy (2013) • Open Science policy (2017) Funders 7
  9. 9. JST Policy on Open Access to Research Publications and Research Data Management (April 1, 2017) • JST Policy on Open Access to Research Publications and Research Data Management I. Open Access to Research Publications → required to be made publicly available in principle. II. Handling Research Data - Development of Data Management Plan → required to develop a data management plan defining how to manage research data. - Preservation, Management, and Access to Research Data → recommended that underlying data should be made openly available. • Implementation Guidelines: JST Policy on Open Access to Research Publications and Research Data Management JST Policy on Open Science 8
  10. 10. Agenda 1. The situation surrounding Japanese journals 2. J-STAGE and Open Access 3. Future Plan of J-STAGE 9
  11. 11. J-STAGE  Launched in 1999  Disseminate journals mainly in science and technology fields, along with humanities and social sciences  Promote open access  Provide academic societies with functions to create, publish and operate their journal data Online Journal Platform for Japanese Academic Societies 10  Contents (as of Aug.30, 2018) Titles : 2,678 Articles : 4,669,838 (including Proceedings) published by 1,406 Academic Societies  About 90% of journals are free to read
  12. 12. 11 Platform of publishing electronic journals for Japanese societies (Developed and Operated by JST) Publishers Readers  Upload articles  (Publishers/authors) Hold copyright of articles  Control operating policy Example: - Open access or not - Back issues Publish Open access  Access and read articles  Utilize functions of J-STAGE Example: 1. Advanced article search 2. My J-STAGE - Bookmark favorite articles/journals - Receive alert mails Roles of Publishers / JST /Readers
  13. 13. 12 Usage statistics English, 448, 17% English/Japanese, 986, 37% Japanese, 1021, 38% Others, 229, 8% Language (as of Sep.2018) 877 822 786 747 688 571 0 500 1,000 Life Sci. Engineering Medical and Health Sci. Interdisciplinary Sci. Humanities and Social Sci. Basic Sci. Journal Subject Area (as of Feb.2018) Japan, 75.2% USA, 10.5% China, 5.1% Germany, 3.5% Others, 5.7% Downloads by country (Apr.2017-Mar.2018) 525 Journals with no subject area information were excluded.
  14. 14. Accessibility 13 Free, 2285, 85% Partially free, 66, 3% Subscription- based, 333, 12% Number of Journals (as of Sep.2018) Despite the high accessibility, only a small number of journals claim to be open access, therefore few journals specify OA licenses.
  15. 15. Pilot Phase Purpose 14 Journal Consultation for Open Access From 2017-  To improve journal quality on J-STAGE 2017:2 societies 2018:4 societies 2019 Continue with a larger number of societies or Discontinue Program Evaluation Theme: Reliable Open Access Journal Theme: Reliable Open Access Journal, CC License, Establish new Data Journal, etc.
  16. 16. 15 Journal Consultation for Open Access Consultation steps: Overview, an introduction to OA and the requirements of OA The present situational analysis of academic societies and their journals - financial review etc. Improvements and tasks (pathways) to be OA in terms of - Finance: OA models, and setting APC - Strategic issues: membership issues - Policy matters: editorial ethics around APCs and waivers - licensing: Creative Commons, authors, and copyright etc. The two societies concluded that the situation is yet premature to transition to OA and continue to consider.
  17. 17. 16 Guide to Open Access publishing The document set consists of descriptions and templates. Description Template The template can be used by publishers to show necessary information to authors/readers.
  18. 18. Agenda 1. The situation surrounding Japanese journals 2. J-STAGE and Open Access 3. Future Plan of J-STAGE 17
  19. 19. 18 J-STAGE Data Data Manuscript Dataset • Develop a repository to publish data related to articles on J-STAGE in order to encourage publishing evidence data. • Authors publish data by themselves(1) or through journal publisher with articles(2). • DOI registration and linking of articles and data are supported(3) by Japan Link Center. • JST supports academic societies in developing data policies. (2) Authors submit articles with datasets and publishers upload them. (1) Authors upload data apart from articles. DOI registration, linking of articles and data Either can be chosen Academic Societies • Receive articles • Peer review • Edit • Publish
  20. 20. • Full-text articles as a source of data utilization -- 2,584 Journals, 450 million articles • Metadata and abstracts are fully machine-readable (published in XML). • However, only 10% of full-text articles are published in XML and insufficient for text data mining. 19 Efforts to increase machine-readable articles  Current status of and challenges for the utilization of data on J-STAGE  To increase machine-readable articles: Manuscript (Word, TeX, etc.) Full-text ( in PDF) • Providing a support tool for preparing XML articles is being planned. Full-text (in XML) Academic Societies J-STAGE machine-readable and suitable for text data miningCurrently, XML data preparation is difficult without outsourcing. Support tool for preparing XML articles (Planning) machine-unreadable and not suitable for text data mining X
  21. 21. (2)Submit to a journal (in case) 2020 J-STAGE Pre-print server • Develop a pre-print server for Japanese/English papers in multiple research fields. • An author uploads a paper to the pre-print server(1) and may submit to a journal(2) in case. • The pre-print article is published with a DOI registered by the Japan Link Center(3). • The article can be submitted to a journal from the pre-print server(4) which will be published on J-STAGE. • The article published by a J-STAGE journal shall be liked to the DOI of the pre-print article(5). Pre-print server (Open Access) (for Japanese/English papers) (1) Upload a manuscript (5)Publish Domestic/Overseas researchers (4)Submit (3) DOI (3) Publish a pre-print Read Link Peer review Peer review
  22. 22. 21 J-STAGE will mark its 20th anniversary in October 2019! To celebrate this memorable year, we are planning the following Mid-term Strategy - Providing improved service by matching services to the aims and situations of all J-STAGE journals. - Expanding our service range in research workflow adapting to the Open Science era. “J-STAGE Preprints” “J-STAGE Data “ Anniversary Symposium - Sharing knowledge and expertise in scholarly publishing, research workflow, Open Science, etc. J-STAGE, Now Next Stage 20 th ANIV
  23. 23. Thank you for your kind attention. Obrigado pela sua atenção. Gracias por su amable atención. ご静聴ありがとうございました。 22